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the French on the capture of Oporto.--Conduct of the British gov-
ernment.-Battle of Ciudad Real.--Battle of Medellin :--Its conse-

Recapitulation.-Speech of Napoleon to the Senate.-- Preparations
of France.-Gloomy prospects of the allies.—Hopes of Lord Wel-
lington-His policy-Moves his head-quarters to Vizeu.-Soult en-
ters Andalusia-Forces the mountain passes and enters Seville.
Cadiz saved by the Duke del Albuquerque.—Deposition of the Su-
preme Junta, and appointment of a Council of Regency:- The
French in Andalusia annoyed by Guerillas.- Description of the Isla

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State of public feeling in England. - The French armies reinforced.
- Movements of Lord Wellington.-Massena prepares to invade
Portugal.--Strength and character of the hostile armies.--Position of
Lord Wellington in Lower Beiria.--Siege of Ciudad Rodrigo :
Its gallant defence, and surrender.-Massena enters Portugal.--His
proclamation.-Almeida invested by the French.--Combat on the
Coa.-Proclamation of Lord Wellington --Movement of the British
army--Siege and surrender of Almeida.--Massena violates the terms
of capitulation.—Boasting of the French bulletins.-Fears in Eng-
land. --Firmness of Lord Wellington.--Massena advances into Por-
tugal.--Description of the country north of the Mondego.--The
British halt at Busaco, and prepare for battle.--Distribution of the
armies.--Battle of Busaco.-Consequences of the victory of the
British.--Massena turns the British position.--The British retire on
Lisbon, and enter the lines of Torres Vedras.--Massena goes into
position.--Description and observations.--Retrospect of the cam-
paign.-Coimbra taken.--Massena retires on Santarem.—Is follow-
ed by Lord Wellington.-State of Lisbon.--Observations.







1808. Oct.] On the liberation of Portugal, by the Convention of Cintra, it was determined by the British government to despatch an expedition to the north of Spain. Preparations for this purpose were immediately set on foot by Sir Hew Dalrymple, and continued by Sir Harry Burrard, without any considerable progress being made in the equipment of the army for active service.

It was not till the sixth of October that Sir John Moore received official information of his being appointed to command the troops destined for this service. The despatch stated, that the officer commanding the forces of his Majesty in Portugal, was directed to detach a corps of twenty thousand infantry, with two regiments of German light cavalry, and a suitable body of artillery, to be placed under his orders, and that this force would be joined by a

8 APPOINTMENT OF SIR JOHN MOORE : [1808. corps of above ten thousand men, then assembling at Falmouth, under command of Sir David Baird.

Sir John Moore was directed to proceed, with the troops under his more immediate command, without any, avoidable delay; and was instructed to fix on some place of rendezvous for the whole army, either in Gallicia or on the borders of Leon. The specific plan of operations to be subsequently adopted, he was to concert with the commanders of the Spanish armies.

Sir John Moore had no sooner assumed the command, than he found he had considerable difficulties to overcome. Few effective preparations had been made for the equipment of the troops by his predecessors in command. Magazines were to be formed, and means of transport to be provided, in an impoverished and exhausted country. The approach of the rainy season rendered it, above all things, desirable, that the army should, as soon as possible, set forward on its march; yet all the complicated preliminaries, necessary for this purpose, were still to be accomplished. These formidable difficulties were overcome by the energy of Sir John Moore ; and, in less than a fortnight from the period of his assuming the command, the greater part of the army was on its march to the frontier.

It formed part of the instructions of Government, that the cavalry should proceed by land; but a discretionary power was vested in the commander, to move the infantry by sea or land, as he might judge most advisable. Sir John Moore preferred the latter, because, at that season of the year, a coasting voyage was uncertain and precarious, and because he was informed that, at Corunna, there were scarcely means of equipment for the force under Sir David Baird, already destined for that port.

Considerable difficulties occurred in ascertaining the state of the roads; and, deceived by erroneous information on that point, Sir John Moore determin


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