Abbildungen der Seite
PDF
EPUB

PERGOLESI, Giovanni Battista, one of his productions. In Rome, his Olimpiade the most distinguished musicians, whose was represented anew, with the greatest proper name was Giambattista Jesi, was magnificence, and its beauties were enborn at Pergola (hence his name, Pergo- thusiastically applauded. According to lesi), in the March, according to some in the universal opinion of the Italians, no 1707, according to others in 1704. In one ever excelled him in musical expres1717, he entered the Conservatorio dei po- sion. Some call him the Dominichino, veri di Gesù Cristo at Naples, then under others even the Raphael, of music ; but the direction of Gaetano Grecco. This he is censured for repetitions, an abrupt great master initiated his pupil in all the style, and transpositions which injure the secrets of the art. At the age of fourteen text. Pergolesi inclines more to the soft years, Pergolesi had distinguished himself than to the powerful ; even his Stabat, by various compositions, in which melody according to the judgment of modern muwas sacrificed to artifices of counterpoint; sicians, is somewhat weak. His manner but no sooner had he left the Conserva- is tinged with melancholy, originating, torio, and studied the vocal compositions perhaps, from his feeble state of health. of Vinci and Hasse, than he changed his Porto Rico, or PUERTO Rico, an island manner entirely. In his first opera, how- belonging to Spain, one of the Great Anever, only some ariette were well receiv- tilles (of which group it is the smallest ed;

but prince Stigliano judged favorably and most easterly), lies between lat. 17° of Pergolesi's talents, and procured him 50 and 18° 32' N., and between lon. 65° employment (1730—34) at the Teatro 43 and 67° 10 W., baving the Atlantic on nuovo. During this time, he also com- the north and the Caribbean sea on the posed La serva Padrona, for the theatre south. It is separated from Hayti, on San-Bartolomeo. But his genius was not the west, by a channel twenty-five leagues satisfied with ordinary subjects: he seized broad. One hundred and ten miles in an opportunity to make himself known at length, by thirty-six in breadth. PopulaRome by a more important composition, tion, 130,000, of which 25,000 are slaves. and wrote, in 1735, his Olimpiade, for the Until 1815, Porto Rico was an expense to theatre Tordinone. Yet this opera, though Spain; but since that time foreigners have of great merit, did not please much. been allowed to settle there; and it is now Pergolesi now returned to Naples, and in a very flourishing condition. It has a composed his Dirit and Laudate, the suc- fine climate, a fertile soil, and produces cess of which afforded a compensation coffee, sugar, tobacco, cotton, fruits. The for the former coldness of the public. exports of the year 1830 were estimated His health declined, and his friends in- ạt $2,500,000 ; imports at $2,000,000. The duced him to go to Torre del Greco, at sugar crop of 1831 was estimated at 45,000 the foot of mount Vesuvius, which is con- hogsheads, that of coffee at 125,000 quinsidered salutary for pulmonary patients. tals, Porto Rico, which was called by Here he composed his far-famed Stabat the natives (Arrowauks) Boriqua, was disMater dolorosa, his cantate Orfeo, and the covered by Columbus in 1493, and is said Salve, Regina, his last work. He died in to bave contained at that time 600,000 in1739, at Puzzuoli, when his fame had habitants, who were soon exterminated by just begun to spread over Europe. The the Spaniards. theatres and the churches resounded with

CONTENTS.

en.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

go).

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

64

66

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

66

Pago. Percussion Locks
141 Perseus

29

Pen

3 Percy (Thomas)

15 Persia

30

Penal Law (see Criminal Perdiccas.

History of Persia .

31
Law)

“Pere Lachaise (see Lachaise) Persian Language, Litera-
Penance.
“Peregrinus Proteus

ture, and Ancient Reli-

Penates

4 Perennial

gion

35

Pencil
“Perfectibility

« Persian Æra (see Epoch) 39
Lead Pencils (see Plumba- Peri

16

Gulf
« Pericardium

Wheel (see Hydrau-
Pencil of Rays.
“Pericarpium

lics, vol. vi. p. 506)

Pendant.

"Pericles.

6 Persimon.

or Pennant

“Périer (Casimir)

18 Persius

Pendulum

“Perigee (see Apogee)

19 Personification

40

Penclope (see Ulysses) 5 Perihelion ..

“ Perspective
Penguin (see Pinguin) “ Perillus (see Phalaris) “ Perspiration

42
Penitentiaries (see Prisons). “Perimeter ..

1 Perth

43
Penn (William).
« Period.

" Perturbations

Pennalism ..

8 Periodicals

21 Peru

Pennant (Thomas).
“Periosteum (see Bone) 22 Perugia (province)

46
Pennsylvania (state)
“Peripatetic Philosophy

(city)
University (see Peripetia

23

Lake (see Thrasy.
Philadelphia) 11 Periphery (see Circle)

mene)
Penn Township,

Peripneumony (see Pneumo- Perugino
Penny (see Sterling Money). “ ny)

“ Peruke (see Wig)
Post (see Posts) “ Peripteral Temple (see Archi- Peruvian Bark (see Bark, Pe-
Pennyroyal ..

tecture, p. 311).

ruvian)
Penobscot (river)

“ Peristyle (sce Architecture, p. Pervigilia
Bay
341)

« Pestalozzi (John Henry)
Pensacola
“ Perizonius (James)
« Pesth, or Pest.

48
Pensioner.
12 Perjury

« Pestilence (see Plague, and

Pentaglot (see Pentapla) “ Perkin Warbeck (see War. Spasmodic Cholera)

Pentameler

beck)

24 Pesium, or Pesto (see Pæs.

Pentapla, Pentaglot .. " Perkins (doctor Elisha)

tum)
Pentaieuch (sce Hebrew Lan- Permutations (see Combina- Petal.
guage, and Moses).

tions)

" Petalite
Pentecost.
« Pernambuco

“ Petard

Pentelic Marble (see Mar- Peron (François).

25 Petecchiæ (see Plague)

ble) ..

" Pérouse, La (sec Laperouse) “Peler ! (emperor of Russia). 49

Penthesilea (see Amazons) “ Perpendicular :

II (emperor of Russia). 55

Pentheus
“ Perpetual Motion

III (emperor of Rus-
Penumbra (see Eclipse) “ Perpetuity

sia)
Peon
“ Perpignan.

St., Church of (see

Peony (see Pæony)

“Perrault (family of)

Rome).

Pepe (see Naples and Sicily, Perron, Anquetil du (see An-

(the apostle)
Revolution of).

13
quetil du Perron, and Zen- the Hermit

56
Peplumn (see Panathenæum). davesta)

26 Peterborough (the earl of)

Pepper ..

“ Perry, Oliver (see Appendix

-, Bishop of (see

Pepperell (sir William)

to this vol.)

Marsh, Her

Peppermint ( see Mint).

(see Pear)

bert)

Pepys (Samuel)

« Persecution of Christians " Peterero.

Pera..

14 Persephone (see Proserpine). 28 Peters (Hugh)

Perceval (Spencer)

" Persepolis

(Richard)

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

66

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

66

66

of)

C

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Peter's, St. (river) 57 Philip II (king of France) : 78 Physics (see Natural Phi-
Petersburg (town in Virginia)
IV of France (see losophy)

115
St. (capital of

France),

“Physiocratic or Agricultural
Russia)

VI of France (see System ..
Peter's Pence

59
France)
“ Physiognomy

116
Peterwardein

the Bold (see Burgun-

Physiography (see Mineralo-
Péthion, or Pétion de Ville-

dians)
gy, vol. viii. p. 509)

117
neuve (Jerome)

the Good (see Burgun- Physiology
Potion (president of Hayti).. 60

119
dians)

“ Phytology
Petition ..

King

Pia Mater
of Right
61 Philippi

79 Piano..
Рctitio Principii.

Philippics

“ Piano-Forte
Petit Jury (see Jury)

Philippines

« Piarists.
Petit Treason (see Treason). “ Philippones

« Piaster
Petrarca (Francesco) “Philips (Ambrose)

6 Piazza
Petrel

63
(John)

Piazzi (Giuseppe)
Petrifactions (see Organic

Philistines.

80 Pib-Corn, or Hornpipe
Remains)

64 Philo (a Jewish author) " Picard (Louis Benoit)
Petrobrusians (see Sects)

of Biblos .

“ Picards (see Adamites)
Petroleum (see Bitumen)

of Byzantium

« Picardy,
Petronius (Titus)..
16. Philocletes
« Piccini (Niccolò)

121
Petty (see Lansdowne) “ Philology

81 Piccolomini (family of this
Petty Bag

Phonology

84 name).
Peutinger Table

“ Philology (History of ) 93 Picbegru (Charles)
Pewter.
16 Philomela

99 Pichincha (the Battle of) 123
Peyronnet (Pierre Dénis) “ Philopoemen

“Pichler, or Pickler (family
Peyrouse, La (see Lapérouse) 66 Philosopher's Stone (see Al-
Pfeffel (Christian Frederic).. chemy)

100 Pick-Axe.
(Gottlieb Conrad) “ Philosophy, Intellectual (see Pickens (Andrew)
Pfyfer (Louis)

Appendix, end Pickering (Timothy)
Phædon.

of
this

vol- Pickets.
Phædra

ume)

" Pickle-Herring (see Harle-
Phædrus.

-, Natural, or Phys- quin).
Phaeton

67
ics

Pico.
Phalanx

Peripatetic (see Pico della Mirandola (see
Phalaris.

Peripatetic Phi- Mirandola)
Phalarope.

losophy) 101 Picquet (see Piquet)
Phamenophis (see Memnon) . 68 Philtre

Picromel.
Phanar (sce Fanariots). " Phipps (see Mulgrave) 102 Picrotoxia.

126
Phantasm (see Spectre)
“ Phips (sir William)

" Pictet (Marcus Augustus).
Phantasmagoria (see Lantero) Phlebotomy. .

Pictou
Phantasos (see Morpheus)
« Phlegethon

103 Picts (see Scots)
Phaon (see Sappho)
“ Phlegrean Fields .

Picts' Wall..
Pharaoh (see Egypt) “Phlogisticated Air (see Ni- Pictures, Living
Pharisees.

trogen)

“ Picturesque.
Pharmacolite (see Lime, vol. Phlogiston

Picus
vii. p. 558):

“ Phocas's Column (see Col- Piedmont
Pharmacopoeia

umn).

« Piedmontese Revolution.
Pharmacy, Pharmaceutics " Phocion

Pieno ..
Pharo, a game (see Faro) 69 Phocis

105 Piepowder Court (see
of Messina (see Faro Phoenicia

Courts of England).
of Messina). 70 Phoenix (Greek coin) 107 Pierian.
Pharos

(a bird)

Pierides
Pharsalia
« Phonetic .

Pierre (Jacques Bernardin
Phases
“ Phonology (see Philolo-

Henri de St.)
Pheasant
gy).

St. (island)
Phelloplastics
“ Phorcus, or Phorcys

Pierrot.
Pherecydes
" Phosphorescence

108 Piété, Mont de (see Lom-
Phidias of Athens
71 Phosphorus

109 bard-House)
Philadelphia
72 Photíus ..

110 Pietism
Philadelphists (see the end of Photometer.

111 Pietola.
the article Boehme)
75 Phrat (see Euphrates)

Pietro di Cortona (see Cor
Philæ ..
“ Phrenology

tona).
Philanthropinism (see Schools) Phrygians.

114 Pigafetta (Antonio)
Philemon and Baucis .
« Phryne.

" Pigalle (Jean Baptiste)
of Athens.

" Phryxus (see Argonauts, Pigeon.
Philidor (Andrew).

Athamas, and Helle) 115 Pig Iron (sce Iron, vol. vü.
Philip (king of Macedon) 76 Phtha (see Hieroglyphics,

131
II (king of Spain).
p. 318)

“ Pig of Ballast
III of Spain (see

Phthiotis (see Thessaly). " Pig of Lead
Spain).

78 Phthisis (see Pulmonary Pigments
- IV of Spain (see Consumption)

6 Pigmy (see Pygmy)
Spain).
« Physical Astronomy (see

Pike (a fish)
V of Spain (see

Astronomy)

(a weapon)
Spain).

Geography

Zebulon Montgomery)

66

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

199

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors]

Pilasters (see Architecture,

Pistachia Tree

156 Plessis.

186

vol. i. p. 338).

134 Pistoia

Pleurisy

Pilate (Pontius).

Pistol

Plica Polonica.

Pilaire de Rozier (see Aero- Pistole

Plinth (see Architecture, vol.

nautics).

Pitcairn's Island

i. p. 338)

183

Pilchard

Pitch (see Pine)

Pliny (Caius Plinius Secun-

Piles (see Hemorrhoids)

(in music)

157 dus)

Pilgrimages

« Pitcher Plant (see Nepen-

(Caius Plinius Cæcilius

Pillau.

135

thes).

Secundus)

Pillnitz.

Pitch Ore (see Uranium) « Plotinus

189

Pillory

« Pitch-Pipe

“ Plough Monday

Pillow

136 Pitchstone, Pearlstone, Pum- Plover

Pilot Mountain (see Ararat) ice, and Obsidian .

46 Plum .

Pilpay, or Bilpai.

Pith (see Medulla). 158 Plumbago

190

Pimelite ..

Pitt (Christopher)

Plumber's Solder (see Bis-

Pimento

William (see Chat- muth, vol. ii. p. 116).

Pin

ham)..

1 Plum Island

Pinang (see Prince of

(William)

Plunkett (lord)

Wales's Island)

Pittacus of Mitylene (see Plurality.

191

Pinchbeck.

Seven Wise Men)

160 Plus.

Pinckney (Charles Cotes. Pittsburg

Plutarch

worth).

6 Pittsfield.

161 Pluto

(Thomas) 137 Piu

Plutus

192

Pindar, Peter (see Wolcot) 138 Pius II (see Piccolomini) Pluviose (see Calendar, vol.

(a Greek poet).

VI

ii. p. 403)

Pindarees

139 VII (Gregory Barna- Plymouth (town in England)

Pindemonte (cavaliere Ip-

has Chiaramonti) ... 162

(town in Massa.

polito)

VIII (Francis Xaviero

chusetts)...... 193

Pindus

Castiglione).

Colony of (see

Pine

Pizarro (Francisco)

New England)

Pine Apple

144 Pizzicato

163 Pneumatics.

Pinel (Philip)

Place, La (see Laplace). Pneumony

Pingré (Alexandre Gui) 145 Plagiarism (see Plagium)

Po.

194

Pinguin

Plagium.

Pocahontas

Pinion

Plague

Pocock (Edward)

195

Pinite ..

“ Plain-Song

166 Pococke (Richard)

Pink (a plant)

“ Plane, Inclined (see Mechan- Podagra.

(a vessel)

146 ics)

167 Podalirius (see Æsculapius) 196

Pinkerton (John)

Planetarium (see Orrery) Podolia ..

Pinkney (William).

Plane Tree

Poecile

Pinkneya Pubescens,

Planets

“Poelenburg (Cornelius)

Georgia Bark

148 Planimetry

169 Poetics (see Poetry)

Pinnace.

Planisphere.

Poet Laureate ..

rint (see Measures).

Plant

Pinto, Mendez (see Mendez- Plantagenet, Family of (see Poggio Bracciolini

198

Pinto).

Great Britain, History of) 174 Poictiers (see Poitiers). 199

Pinturicchio (Bernardino) Plaintain

Point (in music)

Piombino

Tree

(in geometry)

Piombo (Sebastiano del) Plaster of Paris (see Gyp-

(in engraving)

Pioneers

149 sum)

175 (in manufactures)

Piozzi (Hester Lynch)

Plastic

(among sailors).

Pip

Plata (Rio de la)

176 Blanc

Pipe (in law).

(United Provinces of

Comfort (Old)

(a wine measure)

the).

Pointer.

(a tube)..

Platææ.

178 Point of Sight (see Perspec-

Pipe-Clay (see Clay) 150 Plate Glass (see Glass)

179

tive)

Pipe (smoking)

Platina.

Poison

Piperine

Plato

181 Poitiers

201

Pipowders Court (see Courts, Platoff, or Platow

184 Diana of (see Diana

vol. iii. p. 588)

151 Platonic Love (see Plato) ·

of Poitiers)

Piquet.

Platonists, New (see New Poitou, or Poictou

Piracy

Platonists)

Pola...

Piracy, Literary (see Copy. Plato's Republic (see Plato) “ Polacca, Alla (see Polo-

right, and Literary Prop- Platte, or La Plaite River : naise).

erty)

152 Plattsburg

Poland.

Piræus (see Athens)

Platypus.

Constitution

202

Piranesi.

Plautus (Marcus Accius) 185 History

Pirithous.

Playfair (John)

Polish Language

208

Piron (Alexis)

Plebeians

Polish Literature

209

Pirouette

153 Plebis-scita (see Civil Law) 186 Polar Bear (see Bear) 212

Pisa

“ Pledge, or Pawn .

Expeditions (see

Piscalaqua

154 Pleiades..

North Polar Expe-

Pisidia (see Natolia) 155 Pleonasm.

ditions)

Pisistralus.

Plesiosaurus (see Organic Polarity (see Electricity,

Piso .

156) Remains)

and Magnetism)..

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]

bello ....

66

[ocr errors]

66

[ocr errors]

66

66

66

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

46

46

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors]

Polarization of Light 212 Ponta Delgada (see Mi- Porto Cabello, or Puerto Ca-
Pole (Reginald).
213 chael's, Si.)
244

27
(in magnetism)
Pontchartrain

Rico (see Appendix,
or Polar Star
Ponte-Corvo (town)

end of this vol.)
Perch, or Rod (in sur-

Prince of, (see

Santo (see Madeira)
veying)

Charles XIV). Ports Cinque (see Cinque
Pole-Axe
Pontifex

Ports).
Poles of the Ecliptic
Pontifical

Portsmouth (town in Eng.
Polemburg (see Poelenburg) Pontificalibus (see In Pontifi-

land).
Polenda, or Polenta

calibus).

245

(town in New
Police
214 Pontificate

Hampshire) . 271
Policinello (see Punchinello) 215 Pontine Marshes

“ Portugal
Policy of Insurance (see In- Ponton, or Pontoon

246

History of
surance)
" Pontoppidan (Eric)

Portuguese Language and
Polignac (abbé)

Pontus (country of Asia Mi- Literature
prince de).

nor).

Portumnus
Polis

216 (in mythology) 247 Poseidon (see Neptune)
Polish History, Language

Euxinus

Posen, or Posnania
and Literature (see Poland)"
Pooh.

Posidonius
Polish Legions.
Poolo.

Posilippo (see Pausilippo)
Politianus (Angelus) 217 Poor, Poora

Position (see Prosody)
Political Economy
Poor's Rate

Posse Comitatus
Institutions
224 Pootra

Posselt (Ernest Louis)
Politics
225 Popayan.

Possessed
Politz (Charles Henry Louis) 227 Pope (Alexander)

“ Post-Captain (see Captain)
Poll-Tax (see Tax)

(head of the Roman Postern
Pollux (see Castor)

church)

249 Posts
(Julius)
“ Popish Plot ..

256 Postulate
Polnitz (Charles Louis)
“ Poplar.

257 Potash
Polo (Giles)

Popocatapet

259 Potato
Marco)
Poppy

Potemkin (Gregory Alexan-
Polonaise
228 Population (Policy of).

drowitsch)
Poltava

Porcelain

261 Pothier (Robert Joseph) 506
Polyænus

Clay (see Clay) 262 Potocki (Polish family).
Polyandria
Porcia

Potomac
Polyarchy
Porcupine

Potosi
Polybius

Pordenone

263 Pot-pourri.
Polycarp
229 Porosity

Potsdam
Polycletus of Sicyon

Porphyry (in mineralogy) 264 Potter, de (see Netherlands,
Polycrates

(a philosopher) 265 in the Appendix at the end
Polydectes (see Perseus) " Porpoise ...

of the work).
Polygamy
Porpora (Nicold)

Potter (John)
Polyglot..
230 Porsenna

(Robert).
Polygnotus of Thasus 231 Porson (Richard)

266 (Paul)
Polyhalite.
Port (wine)

Potter's Clay (see Clay).
Polybedron.

(a harbor)

267 Pottery
Polyhistor

232
(larboard side)

Potwallopers (see Preston). 308
Polyhymnia, or Polymnia

, or Port Hole

Poudre de Succession
Polymignite

Port-au-Prince (see Port Ré- Pougens (Marie Charles Jo-
Polynesia .

publicain)

seph de)
Polynices (see Eteocles, and Port Jackson (see New Poughkeepsie
Thebes)

South Wales, and Poultices (see Cataplasms)
Polyphemus

Sydney)

Pounce
Polypi

Mahon (see Mahon)

Pound
Polypus
233 Républicain.

Poursuivant
Polytechnics
234 Royal
268 Poussin (Nicholas)

S10
Polytechnic School

des Champs

Gaspar)
Polytheism
6. Portage

Powder of Succession (see
Polyxena
235 Portamento di Voce

Poudre de Succession) 311
Pombal (Sebastian Joseph Portcullis

Power (in arithmetic).
Carvalho)
Porte, Ottoman, or Sublime

(in law)
Pomegranate
237 Porte

(in mechanics).
Pomerania
Porter (sir Robert Ker)

Looms
Pomfret (John)

238 (a malt liquor) 269 of a Glass
Pomology

Portici (see Naples, and Her- Powers, Great (of Europe)
Pompadour (Jeanne Antoi- culaneum)

Powhatan.
neite Poisson)
Portico...?

Pownall (Thomas)
Pompeii

“Portiuncula (see Francis- Poyais.
Pompey.
239 cans)

Pozzo di Borgo (count) 312
Pompey's Pillar (see Column) 243 Portland (duke of)

Pozzolana
Pomponius Mela (see Mela)

(town in Maine) Pozzuoli.
Ponce de Leon (Juan)

Stone.

270 Prado (see Madrid)
Pondicherry

Vase

" Pradon (Jean Nicolas).
Pongo (see Ape)
Porto (see Oporto)

Pradt (Dominique Dufour
Poniatowski (family of)

[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

Bello

de).

66

« ZurückWeiter »