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The first Angel proclaims.

6 Και είδον άλλον

άγγελον σετώμενον έν μεσαρανήματι, , έχoντα ευαγγέλιον αιώνιον, ευαίγελίσαι Tås xalosxolas eri Tässe nyeti wa έθνος και φυλής και

γλώσσας και λαόν 7 niyan iv owñ ur

yány do Chonle Toy Θεόν, και δότε αυτό dokan, oro ñaler ที่ ώρα της κρίσεως αυτό και προσκυνήσαλε τω σοιήσαν. τον έρανών και την γών και την θάλασcar rý anya's idea

CHAP. xiv. ver. 6, 7. 6 And I saw another 6 And I saw another an

angel flying in the gel fly in the midst space between heaven of heaven, having the and earth, having an everlasting Gospel to everlasting Gospel, to preach unto them that preach good tidings to dwell on the earth, those that dwell on and to every nation, the earth, and to every and kindred, and nation, and tribe, and tongue, and people,

language, and people, 7 Saying with a loud 7 Saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and voice ; “ Fear God,

give glory to him, for " and give him glory : the hour of his judge(6 for the hour of his ment is come: and “ judgment is come : worship him that made “and worship him who heaven and earth, and “ created the heaven, the sea, and the foun" and the earth, and

tains of waters.
“ the sea, and the
“ springs of waters.”

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The character of the true, faithful, Christian Church having been exhibited, its history now begins to be generally set forth ; while solemn warnings, and instructions, and encouragements, most useful to the faithful during the times of the beast, are delivered. And first an angel, flying in mid-heaven *, proclaims

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the Gospel, as an everlasting rule of faith and of conduct. It has been the endeavour of the antichristian powers to corrupt, or secrete, this Gospels, which is to lead all nations and languages to the knowledge and worship of the Almighty Creator. So the progress of the Reformation seems here to be prefigured, which, from its first dawnings, ever appealed to the everlasting Gospel as the sole rule of faith, and preached the restoration of Gospel worship in opposition to the reigning impurities and superstitions.

Ver. 7. Judgment.] See note, ch. si. 18.

• Mahomet and his followers have corrupted, the papal hierarchy have secreted it.

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Another angel follows, proclaiming the fall of “Babylon, that great city,” which had intoxicated, seduced, and corrupted the nations with her impure religion. This city, and her fall, will be more particularly represented in chapters xvii. and xviii. It is sufficient in this place to observe, that this is one very formidable horn of the second antichristian beast, the false prophet; the fall of which is here prophetically anticipated, for the comfort and encouragement of the suffering Church, engaged in opposing her. And the progress of the Reformation seems still to be generally described : for, the purer Christians, the Albigenses and Valdenses, in the twelfth century, pronounced the church of Rome to be this very

Babylon; the mother of harlots, and abomina“tions of the earth *.” From this discovery is to be dated the beginning of her fall.

* See Mede's Works, pp. 517.722. &c. Thuan. Hist. lib. vi. cap. 16. Bp. Newton's Dissert. vol. iii. p. 258. 8vo.



The third Angel proclaims.

CHAP. xiv. VER. 9-12.

9 Kai agitos ayıros 1 9 And a tbird angel fol. 9 And the third angel οκολάθησεν αυτοίς, , lowed them, saying

followed them, saying réfar ev Qurñ ula with a loud voice: “If with a loud voice, If λη: Εί τις το θηρίον

any one worship the any man worship the προσκυνεί και την εί

“ beast and his image, beast and his image, κόνα αυτά, και λαμ: “ and receive a mark and receive his mark Κάνει χάραγμα επί

upon his forehead, in his forehead, or iu

τα μελώπε αυτό, ,

or upon his hand ; ý ini hin xrīgas 10“ Even be shall drink 10 αυτά, και αυτός “ of the wine of the

aldlau ix ri cire “ wrath of God, of the τα 9υμε τέ Θεέ,

" imbittered powerful τα κεκερασμένα α « wine, in the cup of κράτε, εν τω πολη “ his anger, and shall pów tās ayns auto

“ be tormented with και βασανισθήσέlαι εν

“ fire and brimstone ουρί και θείω ενώπιον

“ before the holy anτων αγίων αγγέλων και gels, and before the

iyugioy đẹwie. | 11" Lamb. And tlie 11 Και ο καπνός τ8 " smoke of their torβασανισμό αυτών

"ment ascendeth for αναβαίνει εις αιώνας ever and ever: and αιώνων" και έκ έχε they have no rest, σιν ανάπαυσιν ημέ “ day nor night, who

" worship the beast προσκυνελες το 9η

" and his image, and ρίων και την εικόνα

if any one receive αυτέ, και εί τις " the mark of his AzuSave Tò xa- | 12" name. Herein the

ραίμα τα ονόμα “patience of the Saints 12 tos auto. nde

“is, they who keep υπομονή των αγίων

" the commandments ésir ude oi Tupãrles “ of God, and the ta's vlona's

та “ faith of Jesus.” Θεέ, και την πίσιν 'inoš.

10 his hand, The same

shall drink of the wide of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture, into the cup of his indige nation; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone, in the presence of the holy angels, and in the pre

sence of the Lamb: 11 And the smoke of their

tormeut ascendeth up for ever and ever; and they have no rest day nor night who worship the beast and his image, and whosoever

receiveth the mark of 12 his name. Here is

the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the com. mandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.

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σας και νυκτος ο oi

A third angel proclaims just and eternal vengeance upon those who “ worship the beast;" who knowing their duty and their allegiance to God, sacrifice them to their worldly interests. They are threatened with “ the wine of the wrath of God;" the wine, which is at first strong of itself, unmixed (aupałow), has no diluting liquor put to it, to reduce its strength, as was common in the eastern nations


of antiquity. But, secondly, it is nenegeodevov, rendered still stronger by the mixture of powerful, intoxicating ingredients. Compare Isaiah li. 17-23; Psalm 1xxv. 8. “The Hebrew idea of which Saint John ex

presses in Greek, with the utmost precision, though " with a seeming contradiction in terms, nenePRO LLEVON

auguion, merum mixtum; pure vine made yet stronger by a mixture of powerful ingredients. In “the hand of Jehovah, (saith the Psalmist,) there is a

cup, and the wine is turbid; it is full of mixed

liquor, and he poureth out of it, (or rather he “poureth it out of one vessel into another, to mix it

perfectly, according to the reading expressed by the “ ancient versions,) all the ungodly shall wring them “out and drink them.” The expression in the Sep“ tuagint, Psalm lxxv. 8: Wolygiov—018 expezie winges

κερασμαλος, which in the Chaldee is called a cup of " malediction, throws additional light on this pas

sage. Compare also Psalm xi. 6; Ix. : Jer. xxv.

15, 16, &c. : Lam. iv. 21: Ezek. xxiii. 32, &c. : " Hab. ii. 16: Zech. xii. 2: also Hom. Il. xxii. 527;

Odyss. iv. 220*.” Such terms were used to express the anger of God, terrible by temporal punishments, but most terrible by those torments beyond the grave, “ where their worm dieth not, and their fire is not

quenched ;" which ideas are also forcibly expressed in the words now before us ; " the smoke of their “ torment ascendeth for ever and ever.Thus the terror of the greater evil is exhibited, to enable Christians to undergo the less with patient courage described in the twelfth verse.

Bp. Lowth, on Isaiab li.


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