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CANADA.

No. 4.

COMPARATIVE TABLE, showing the Export Trade from Chicago, U.S., to Great Britain and British
Provinces, in British American Vessels, for the year ending 31st December 1857.

American
British

Number of Vessels.

England and Wales

Ireland

Scotland

Lower Ports

83

101

WHENCE.

Countries of Europe

Tonnage.

26,522
24,103

(APPENDIX A, No. 2.)

THE extent of trade diverted to the sea ports in the United States in 1856 was 6,183,433 against 594,755 tons to sea ports in Canada.

In that year 4,022,617 tons were transported on the Erie (boat) canal, against 976,656 tons on the Welland (ship) canal, of which 625,132 tons were to and from United States ports, against 351,524 tons to and from Canadian ports, leaving only 243,231 tons from Lake Ontario to make up the 594,755 tons passing up and down the St. Lawrence to the sea board through Canada.

The traffic on the New York Central Railways, leading to and from the Lakes was about two millions of tons. No return of the Grand Trunk railway is at hand to contrast the number of tons

between Prescott and Montreal.

Grand Total

During the same year out of 634,536 tons transported on the St. Lawrence (steamboat) canals only 39,681, tons passed to and from the United States, near 400,000 tons consisted of wood, timber, earth, and minerals, leaving some 200,000 tons of merchandise, and the productions of agriculture, to and from the sea ports of Montreal and Quebec.

The comparative value of traffic on the New York canals was $218,326,362. The value through the canals in Canada is not given in the Trade and Navigation Return.

The return of toll on the New York canals was $2,748,212; on the Canadian canal $304,888, $266,420 for the Welland, and $77,720 for the St. Lawrence.-(Canal Commissioners Report, State N. Y., 1858, pages 14 and 231, and Trade and Navigation Returns 1856, page 218.)

Government Emigration Office,
Quebec, 23 June 1858.

(APPENDIX A, No. 3.)

COMPARATIVE STATEMENT of the Number of Emigrants arrived at Quebec from the year 1844 to 1850,

both inclusive.

£197,911 5s. 6d. sterling.
£183,309 Os. 44d.

Value of Cargoes.

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7,698 8,833 9,163

9,993

14,208
2,174
160

21,049
1,645

2,234

217

20,142 25,375

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1845. 1846. 1847. 1848. 1849. 1850.

Remarks.

Tonnage United States measurement.
Tonnage British measurement.

31,857
896

20,142 25,375 32,753

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Letters from the Secretary of State referred to the Committee on Commerce, May 3, 1852, page 35, gives the number of emigrants arriving at New York in 1851 at 331,276.

W. E. GRIFFITH,

Clerk to Committee.

(APPENDIX A, No. 4.)

REPORT of Mr. MCALPINE, State Engineer and Surveyor, February 9, 1854.

In an investigation of the comparative advantages of the several channels of communication between tne interior and the seaboard, charges cannot be relied upon, because they fluctuate on the various routes and on the different articles conveyed; competition reducing them to a minimum, and monopoly raising

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them to a maximum. The cost, however, furnishes a more reliable basis, as the elements on which it CANADA. depends are usually effected alike on the different routes.

The cost may be assumed at about two-thirds of the charges, and are as follows:

TABLE of the Cost of Transport, per ton per mile.

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1. Flour 18. 6d. @ 1s. 9d. bbl., and wheat 74d. bus. by river.

2. From Lake Erie to Quebec, flour 2s., wheat 9d.

3. From Toronto to New York, flour 2s. 5d., wheat 9d.

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W. E. Griffith, Esq.,
Clerk to the Committee on Home and Foreign

Trade, Toronto.

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I have, &c.

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Hon. W. H. MERRITT,

SIR,-In reply to the following series of questions put to me by the Clerk of the Committee on
Home and Foreign Trade, I beg to submit the answers annexed:-

Question. As to what was the lowest price of wheat per ton and barrel of flour between Toronto and
Quebec, by railway and canal for 1857?

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Office of the Board of Trade,
Toronto, 21 June 1858.

Answer. Freights between Toronto and Quebec vary according to the kind of goods carried and the season, as for example, pig iron is frequently taken from Quebec in the dull season at a mere nominal rate, while other merchandise pays from 20s. @ 40s. ton; the average of goods would probable be about 258. @ 27s. 6d.

I have, &c.

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Having no certain knowledge of the railway freights, I cannot quote them, nor do I know the rate of ocean freights from Quebec, Boston, or Portland. Relative to the proportionate value of the trade of the Canadian and New York canals, there being no returns from the former, I am unable to give them, but the Erie canal brought to Buffalo merchandise to the value of $46,627,526, and took produce away, in value $16,956,740, amounting to 120,645 tons going east, and bringing up 76,316 tons of merchandise.

I may remark, that freights this year are about twenty per cent. lower than last year, both in the
States and Canada.

Toronto, 29 June 1858.

SIR,
In reply to your inquiries for sundry statistics connected with the Canadian home and foreign
trade, I herewith enclose the necessary replies in a tabnlar form, with a few remarks in reference to this
important subject.

I would have answered the communication sooner, but having been engaged in preparing a report on
other matters required by the Committee on Public Accounts, I was unable to give immediate attention
to your communication of the 17th inst.

CHAS. ROBINSON, Secretary.

According to the Canal Commissioners Report for the State of New York for 1857, more than 4,000,000 tons of merchandise passed upwards and downwards in 1856, whereas the amount of tonnage, including 715,000 tonnage passenger steamers that passed through the St. Lawrence Canals in the same year was not 1,500,000, or about two-thirds less than the Erie Canal. The trade and navigation returns for this year indicate a decrease of about 65,000 tons.

For further information and the latest statistics I would refer the Hon. Chairman to my letter of 1857, addressed to John B. Robinson, Esq., M.P.P., and the reports on the Toronto and Georgian Bay Ship Canal, recently published.

KIVAS TULLY, Civil Engineer.

CANADA.

STATEMENT of the relative Capacity, Cost of Transportation, &c. by Quebec and New York to LIVERPOOL.

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45 feet; Cornwall, 55 feet.

Toronto, 29 June 1858.

Width.

70 feet.

Dimensions of the Locks.
Depth on Mitre.

Width.

ERIE CANAL enlarged (nearly completed).

Width at Water Line.

Depth.

Freight hence to Montreal:

On a bushel of weat, is
On a barrel of flour

10 feet.

9 feet.

Hon. W. H. Merritt, M.P.P.,

Toronto.

Dimensions of the Locks,
Depth on Mitre.

7 feet.

On a barrel of flour as above, viz.:

Toronto to Oswego

Oswego to New York Canal and Hudson River

by the Erie Canal and New York
by Oswego

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110 feet.

19 feet.

Capacity of enlarged Canal, 7,000,000 tons.

The cost of transportation, according to the estimates of the latest Reports, are :—
By Canal

- 8 mills

River
Lake

5
3

99

11/

The ocean freight is estimated at
The estimated cost of one ton of merchandise from Chicago to Liverpool,
via the Lakes and River St. Lawrence, according to the present capa-
city of the Canal, is

Do.

Do.

5 feet.

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See Board of Works Report,

1857.

! Size of Vessels that can pass the Locks.

185+44 +9, or 800 tons burthen.

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Remarks.

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Remarks.

11

10

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8 dollars.

DEAR SIR,

I AM engaged in the purchase and shipment of wheat and flour in Canada.
The rate of freight on a bushel of wheat hence to New York, viâ Oswego, is as follows :-

$0.2

Toronto to Oswego, say 140 miles
Oswego to Albany by Canal, 209 miles, and from Albany to New
York by Hudson River, 150 miles (no reshipment at Albany) - 0-73

-$0.10

0.10 0.28

KIVAS TULLY,

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د.

Toronto, 15 July 1858.

Civil Engineer,

0.38

0.06

0.18

Toll charged on a barrel of flour:

Oswego to Albany is at the rate of 2 mills per 1000 lbs. per mile, or 9 cts, per barrel.

On wheat same rate, or 24 cts, per bushel.

The above rates of freight are current now, and are lower than have ever obtained before, Occasionally a small abatement from these even is made.

I have, &c.

P. BUNDY.

The opinion of W. Kenningham, Esq., a merchant of Chicago and a passenger on the "Dean Richmond," as to the relative prices of freight between Chicago and Montreal, and between Chicago and New York, thence by ocean to Liverpool, was published in the "London Times" on the 3 November 1856, and which give the following result, viz:

The prices of freight from Chicago to New
York are found to be

From Chicago to Montreal

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Per quarter. #0 11 8 076

Showing a gain from the interior of

£0

£0 4 2

And a saving of time through Canada of 11 days.
While there was a loss in prices of ocean freight of 44d. per bushel and 3s. per quarter, although a
gain in time of seven days.

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·

From Quebec to ports on Lake Ontario
From Quebec to ports on Lake Erie

Per bushel.

SIR,
I HAVE to acknowledge your letter, dated the 17th instant, making certain inquiries, by desire of
the Chairman of the Committee on Home and Foreign Trade, relative to the rates of freight inland and
seaward, to and from several Canadian and United States ports, and other matters, in the year 1857;
also respecting the operation on the coast and shipping interest under the treaty of 1854.

The extensive information called for, I regret to say, is not attainable here; I can, therefore, only offer in reply the annexed brief statement of the rates of freight, or rather of the average rates for this port.

PORT OF QUEBEC-FREIGHTS IN 1857.

Up Freight by Steamers.

From Quebec to Toronto and ports on Lake Ontario
From Quebec to ports on Lake Erie

From ports on Lake Ontario to Quebec
From ports on Lake Erie

99

1 5/1/20 00111 061

With respect to the treaty of 1854, it may be said that Quebec being more distant than other ports from inland navigation intercourse, does not afford a good criterion for judging of its "practical "operation on the coast and shipping interest," and the published returns of "Trade and Navigation "for the year 1857, presented to both Houses of Parliament," have in several instances been found so incorrect, especially the "Tonnage by Inland Navigation between Canada and the United States" (No. 28), as respects this port, that no reliance can be placed upon them. It may, however, be remarked that had the reciprocity under the treaty included "new ships," the port of Quebec, where that branch of Canadian industry is carried on to a great extent, would, it is believed, have largely benefitted by it.

Down Freight by Steamers.

From Quebec to Liverpoool, Timber do. Deals

Do

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Up Freight by Schooners.

Council Room, Quebec Board of Trade,
30 June 1858.

Down Freight by Schooners.

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No. of days.

37 26

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11

per barrel ls. to 1s. 3d.

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JOHN BRUCE,
Secretary.

20s or $4.00 per gross ton.
25s, 5.00

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per barrel 1s. 6d. or $0.30
28. Od. 0.40

1s. to 1s. 6d.

د.

$3.00 per gross ton.
3.50

27s. to 34s.

£4 to 4 5s.

The export of grain and flour from Quebec is so limited in extent, indeed of the latter it is mostly for filling up or poop freight, that the rates occassionally paid cannot be given as a rule. 8s. 6d. to 17s. 6d. per ton.

From Liverpool to Quebec

According to late-
ness of season.

CANADA.

CANADA.

(APPENDIX A, No. 5.)

Comparative length of the Canal.

Erie Canal, connecting Lake Erie viâ Buffalo with the River Hudson, 352 miles.
Welland Canal, connecting Lake Erie with Ontario
St. Lawrence, connecting Lake Ontario with the ocean

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4

do. 1,000,000 ",

Grades of 22 feet per mile, net load 233.5 tons :-
Capacity, 2,113,449 tons. No. of trains, 9,149.
4,574
2,287

3 do. 1,056,724

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No. of trains, 9,149.
4,574
2,287

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2 do. 528,362
Grades of 25 feet per mile, net load 205.7 tons :-
Capacity, 1,881,951 tons. No. of trains, 9,149.
14 do. 940,975
4,574
+ do. 470,488
2,287
Grades of 50 feet per mile, net loads 128.8 tons :-
Capacity, 1,178,392 tons. No. of trains, 9,149.
4,574
2,287

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" 99

99
99

do. 539,196
4 do. 294,598
Grades of 55 feet per mile, net loads 109.1 tons:—
Capacity, 1,089,646 tons. No. of trains, 9,149.
4,574
2,287

do. 544,823
1 do. 272,411

Dimensions.

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Capacity.

The capacity of the Erie Canal, before its enlargement with locks of 90 x 15 x 4 feet, was 4,116,082
When enlarged, it is estimated by J. L. McAlpine, Esquire, at 7 millions of tons.

tons.

The capacity of the Welland Canal may be estimated from the same dimensions at least 12 million tons; the St. Lawrence Canal at double; and when the channel of the St. Lawrence is deepened to 12 feet water, the capacity of the water communications through Canada from Lake Ontario to the ocean will be unlimited.

Railroads.

The following is the cost of transporting coal on roads of various grades, exclusive of drawbacks, or of interest on capital, and the capacity of the road: (Report of the Pennsylvania and Reading Railroad Company, 1856, page 68.)

Level roads, average net load 437.2 tons :

Capacity, 4,000,000 tons.

2nd do. 2,000,000

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28

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280 miles.

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Cost per ton per mile, cents.

69

100 99
75
ΤΟ

170

44

126 miles.

72

-

110 x 17 x 7 feet water.
150 × 26.6 x 10.6
200 x 45.0 x 9.0

Cost per ton per mile, cents.

23

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per ton per mile, 75 cents.
18%
1,10
100 ""

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92 100

1,0%

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Cost per ton per mile, 1 cents.
1,48

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100

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Cost per ton per mile, 13 cents.

50
100 99
100 ""

The grades descend in the direction of the trade, except 1,7 miles in passing the summit between the Schuylkill and Delaware, on which distance there is an extreme grade of 38 feet per mile against

the trade.

The cost of transportation on the Erie Canal is five mills per ton per mile; upon the Central Railroad, nineteen mills per ton per mile; and on the New York and Erie, thirteen mills; the charges for the transportation, including tolls on the Canals in 1853, averaged one cent and one mill per ton per mile. The charges on the Central Railroad averaged four cents and four mills per ton per mile; and on the N. Y. and Erie, two cents and four mills. (Report of Mr. McAlpine, State Engineer and Surveyor of New York, 9th February 1854, page 28).

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