« ZurückWeiter »
COMPARATIVE TABLE, showing the Export Trade from Chicago, U.S., to Great Britain and British
Number of Vessels.
England and Wales
Countries of Europe
(APPENDIX A, No. 2.)
THE extent of trade diverted to the sea ports in the United States in 1856 was 6,183,433 against 594,755 tons to sea ports in Canada.
In that year 4,022,617 tons were transported on the Erie (boat) canal, against 976,656 tons on the Welland (ship) canal, of which 625,132 tons were to and from United States ports, against 351,524 tons to and from Canadian ports, leaving only 243,231 tons from Lake Ontario to make up the 594,755 tons passing up and down the St. Lawrence to the sea board through Canada.
The traffic on the New York Central Railways, leading to and from the Lakes was about two millions of tons. No return of the Grand Trunk railway is at hand to contrast the number of tons
between Prescott and Montreal.
During the same year out of 634,536 tons transported on the St. Lawrence (steamboat) canals only 39,681, tons passed to and from the United States, near 400,000 tons consisted of wood, timber, earth, and minerals, leaving some 200,000 tons of merchandise, and the productions of agriculture, to and from the sea ports of Montreal and Quebec.
The comparative value of traffic on the New York canals was $218,326,362. The value through the canals in Canada is not given in the Trade and Navigation Return.
The return of toll on the New York canals was $2,748,212; on the Canadian canal $304,888, $266,420 for the Welland, and $77,720 for the St. Lawrence.-(Canal Commissioners Report, State N. Y., 1858, pages 14 and 231, and Trade and Navigation Returns 1856, page 218.)
Government Emigration Office,
(APPENDIX A, No. 3.)
COMPARATIVE STATEMENT of the Number of Emigrants arrived at Quebec from the year 1844 to 1850,
£197,911 5s. 6d. sterling.
Value of Cargoes.
7,698 8,833 9,163
1845. 1846. 1847. 1848. 1849. 1850.
Tonnage United States measurement.
20,142 25,375 32,753
Letters from the Secretary of State referred to the Committee on Commerce, May 3, 1852, page 35, gives the number of emigrants arriving at New York in 1851 at 331,276.
W. E. GRIFFITH,
Clerk to Committee.
(APPENDIX A, No. 4.)
REPORT of Mr. MCALPINE, State Engineer and Surveyor, February 9, 1854.
In an investigation of the comparative advantages of the several channels of communication between tne interior and the seaboard, charges cannot be relied upon, because they fluctuate on the various routes and on the different articles conveyed; competition reducing them to a minimum, and monopoly raising
them to a maximum. The cost, however, furnishes a more reliable basis, as the elements on which it CANADA. depends are usually effected alike on the different routes.
The cost may be assumed at about two-thirds of the charges, and are as follows:
TABLE of the Cost of Transport, per ton per mile.
1. Flour 18. 6d. @ 1s. 9d. bbl., and wheat 74d. bus. by river.
2. From Lake Erie to Quebec, flour 2s., wheat 9d.
3. From Toronto to New York, flour 2s. 5d., wheat 9d.
W. E. Griffith, Esq.,
I have, &c.
Hon. W. H. MERRITT,
SIR,-In reply to the following series of questions put to me by the Clerk of the Committee on
Question. As to what was the lowest price of wheat per ton and barrel of flour between Toronto and
Office of the Board of Trade,
Answer. Freights between Toronto and Quebec vary according to the kind of goods carried and the season, as for example, pig iron is frequently taken from Quebec in the dull season at a mere nominal rate, while other merchandise pays from 20s. @ 40s. ton; the average of goods would probable be about 258. @ 27s. 6d.
I have, &c.
Having no certain knowledge of the railway freights, I cannot quote them, nor do I know the rate of ocean freights from Quebec, Boston, or Portland. Relative to the proportionate value of the trade of the Canadian and New York canals, there being no returns from the former, I am unable to give them, but the Erie canal brought to Buffalo merchandise to the value of $46,627,526, and took produce away, in value $16,956,740, amounting to 120,645 tons going east, and bringing up 76,316 tons of merchandise.
I may remark, that freights this year are about twenty per cent. lower than last year, both in the
Toronto, 29 June 1858.
I would have answered the communication sooner, but having been engaged in preparing a report on
CHAS. ROBINSON, Secretary.
According to the Canal Commissioners Report for the State of New York for 1857, more than 4,000,000 tons of merchandise passed upwards and downwards in 1856, whereas the amount of tonnage, including 715,000 tonnage passenger steamers that passed through the St. Lawrence Canals in the same year was not 1,500,000, or about two-thirds less than the Erie Canal. The trade and navigation returns for this year indicate a decrease of about 65,000 tons.
For further information and the latest statistics I would refer the Hon. Chairman to my letter of 1857, addressed to John B. Robinson, Esq., M.P.P., and the reports on the Toronto and Georgian Bay Ship Canal, recently published.
KIVAS TULLY, Civil Engineer.
STATEMENT of the relative Capacity, Cost of Transportation, &c. by Quebec and New York to LIVERPOOL.
45 feet; Cornwall, 55 feet.
Toronto, 29 June 1858.
Dimensions of the Locks.
ERIE CANAL enlarged (nearly completed).
Width at Water Line.
Freight hence to Montreal:
On a bushel of weat, is
Hon. W. H. Merritt, M.P.P.,
Dimensions of the Locks,
On a barrel of flour as above, viz.:
Toronto to Oswego
Oswego to New York Canal and Hudson River
by the Erie Canal and New York
Capacity of enlarged Canal, 7,000,000 tons.
The cost of transportation, according to the estimates of the latest Reports, are :—
- 8 mills
The ocean freight is estimated at
See Board of Works Report,
! Size of Vessels that can pass the Locks.
185+44 +9, or 800 tons burthen.
I AM engaged in the purchase and shipment of wheat and flour in Canada.
Toronto to Oswego, say 140 miles
Toronto, 15 July 1858.
Toll charged on a barrel of flour:
Oswego to Albany is at the rate of 2 mills per 1000 lbs. per mile, or 9 cts, per barrel.
On wheat same rate, or 24 cts, per bushel.
The above rates of freight are current now, and are lower than have ever obtained before, Occasionally a small abatement from these even is made.
I have, &c.
The opinion of W. Kenningham, Esq., a merchant of Chicago and a passenger on the "Dean Richmond," as to the relative prices of freight between Chicago and Montreal, and between Chicago and New York, thence by ocean to Liverpool, was published in the "London Times" on the 3 November 1856, and which give the following result, viz:
The prices of freight from Chicago to New
From Chicago to Montreal
Per quarter. #0 11 8 076
Showing a gain from the interior of
£0 4 2
And a saving of time through Canada of 11 days.
From Quebec to ports on Lake Ontario
The extensive information called for, I regret to say, is not attainable here; I can, therefore, only offer in reply the annexed brief statement of the rates of freight, or rather of the average rates for this port.
PORT OF QUEBEC-FREIGHTS IN 1857.
Up Freight by Steamers.
From Quebec to Toronto and ports on Lake Ontario
From ports on Lake Ontario to Quebec
1 5/1/20 00111 061
With respect to the treaty of 1854, it may be said that Quebec being more distant than other ports from inland navigation intercourse, does not afford a good criterion for judging of its "practical "operation on the coast and shipping interest," and the published returns of "Trade and Navigation "for the year 1857, presented to both Houses of Parliament," have in several instances been found so incorrect, especially the "Tonnage by Inland Navigation between Canada and the United States" (No. 28), as respects this port, that no reliance can be placed upon them. It may, however, be remarked that had the reciprocity under the treaty included "new ships," the port of Quebec, where that branch of Canadian industry is carried on to a great extent, would, it is believed, have largely benefitted by it.
Down Freight by Steamers.
From Quebec to Liverpoool, Timber do. Deals
Up Freight by Schooners.
Council Room, Quebec Board of Trade,
Down Freight by Schooners.
No. of days.
per barrel ls. to 1s. 3d.
20s or $4.00 per gross ton.
per barrel 1s. 6d. or $0.30
1s. to 1s. 6d.
$3.00 per gross ton.
27s. to 34s.
£4 to 4 5s.
The export of grain and flour from Quebec is so limited in extent, indeed of the latter it is mostly for filling up or poop freight, that the rates occassionally paid cannot be given as a rule. 8s. 6d. to 17s. 6d. per ton.
From Liverpool to Quebec
According to late-
(APPENDIX A, No. 5.)
Comparative length of the Canal.
Erie Canal, connecting Lake Erie viâ Buffalo with the River Hudson, 352 miles.
do. 1,000,000 ",
Grades of 22 feet per mile, net load 233.5 tons :-
3 do. 1,056,724
No. of trains, 9,149.
2 do. 528,362
The capacity of the Erie Canal, before its enlargement with locks of 90 x 15 x 4 feet, was 4,116,082
The capacity of the Welland Canal may be estimated from the same dimensions at least 12 million tons; the St. Lawrence Canal at double; and when the channel of the St. Lawrence is deepened to 12 feet water, the capacity of the water communications through Canada from Lake Ontario to the ocean will be unlimited.
The following is the cost of transporting coal on roads of various grades, exclusive of drawbacks, or of interest on capital, and the capacity of the road: (Report of the Pennsylvania and Reading Railroad Company, 1856, page 68.)
Level roads, average net load 437.2 tons :
Capacity, 4,000,000 tons.
2nd do. 2,000,000
Cost per ton per mile, cents.
110 x 17 x 7 feet water.
Cost per ton per mile, cents.
per ton per mile, 75 cents.
Cost per ton per mile, 1 cents.
Cost per ton per mile, 13 cents.
The grades descend in the direction of the trade, except 1,7 miles in passing the summit between the Schuylkill and Delaware, on which distance there is an extreme grade of 38 feet per mile against
The cost of transportation on the Erie Canal is five mills per ton per mile; upon the Central Railroad, nineteen mills per ton per mile; and on the New York and Erie, thirteen mills; the charges for the transportation, including tolls on the Canals in 1853, averaged one cent and one mill per ton per mile. The charges on the Central Railroad averaged four cents and four mills per ton per mile; and on the N. Y. and Erie, two cents and four mills. (Report of Mr. McAlpine, State Engineer and Surveyor of New York, 9th February 1854, page 28).