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on the cottage plan, is intended for working women and girls, both free patients and those who are able to pay something toward their maintenance and treatment.

What is needed most of all at the present time is a realization of the urgency and enormous extent of the struggle upon which official and private agencies are entering. The impressive words of Dr. George F. Keene before the Cincinnati Conference of Charities and Correction in 1889 need frequent reiteration: “Consumption is a disease which has claimed more victims than all the wars and all the plagues and scourges of the human race. Even in the few short years since Koch's discovery, over 2,000,000 persons on this continent have succumbed to the fatal infection. In the last two decades in Cincinnati out of a total mortality of 119,089 there have been 17,353 deaths from this dread disease. The appual tribute of the United States to this scourge is over 100,000 of its inhabitants. Each year the world yields up 1,095,000; each day 3,000; each minute two of its people as a sacrifice to this plague. Of the 70,000,000 individuals now peopling these United States, 10,000,000 must inevitably die of this disease if the present ratio is kept up."

Dr. S. A. Knopf, author of a useful work on “The Prophylaxis and Cure of Consumption," addressing a recent meeting in the interests of the Stony Wolde Sanitarium, said:

“ To expect that the state or city alone shall cope with the tuberculosis problem is unreasonable. The one state sanitarium, which we hope to have in our Empire State ere long, even could it accommodate a thousand patients, would only be like a drop of relief in an ocean of woe.' I fervently hope that the state will never have a sanitarium of that size, and I know that those who counsel our state authorities in this matter will never permit so large an aggregation of consumptives in one place. What is needed is multiple sanitaria and special hospitals of moderate size, located near the large centres of population. Our own state and city will have to have several of these, and private philanthropy will create more. There must be institutions which receive men, women and children suffering from tuberculosis, not only for the very poor classes, but also for people of moderate

There are many people among consumptives who are too proud to enter an entirely free institution; they are willing and able to pay something, and do not wish to feel that they are objects of charity. The sanitaria situated at a greater distance from the city should receive, as far as practicable, the incipient and more hopeful

The special hospitals situated in the outskirts of the city should be for the purpose of isolation as much as for treatment." A more complete program for immediate action to check the scourge



would include: (1) improved housing; (2) isolation of advanced cases to prevent infection; (3) treatment of incipient cases under favorable climatic and other conditions; (4) propaganda concerning the proper methods of preventing infection; (5) general inculcation of the facts that consumption is contagious and curable; (6) charitable assistance when necessary to enable those who are afflicted to cease work temporarily and remove to a place where there is a chance of speedy recovery; (7) scientific investigation of the sources of infection, and determination of the precise extent to which isolation is advisable.

IV. COLONIES AND COLONIAL GOVERMENT. Philippines.—The report of the second Philippine Commission, recently transmitted to Congress, contains the latest accessible information on the social and political conditions of the island. The document is especially important because of the discussion of the relation between Church and State which it contains. The commission suggests, as a solution of the question, that the property uow owned by the Augustinian, Dominican, Franciscan and Recolletan Orders be purchased either voluntarily or condemned by the American Government and leased to the present tenants with the ultimate intention of sale to the latter. This recommendation is based upon the thought that a permanent retention and occupation of their lands by the orders named would be considered as a revival, with American sanction, of all the old abuses charged against the friars. The total number of Roman Catholics in the island as shown by the church registry for 1898, was 6,559,998. There were 967 parishes. During the revolutions of 1896 and 1898 all the Dominicans, Augustinians, Recolletans and Franciscans acting as parish priests were obliged to leave their parishes and take refuge in Manila. Of the 1,124 priests iu these orders in the island in 1896 but 472 remain at the present time. The Jesuits, Capuchins, Benedictines and Paulists have not aroused hostility because they have confined themselves to missionary and teaching work.

The Taft Commission, in its hearings on the land question, has received information from all classes; from the members of the orders concerned, as well as from their opponents. There is apparently no disagreement as to the facts regarding the powers formerly exercised by the members of these orders while acting as parish priests. The parish priest was inspector of primary schools, president of the boards of health and charities, inspector of taxation, president of the census enumeration of the parish, president of the prison board, member of the provincial board of public works, adviser of the municipal council, examiner in the public schools of the first and second grades, censor of the plays or comedies presented in the parish, besides exercising numerous other important local powers. It should be remembered, however, that the local parish priests were the only educated persons as a rule in the local communities and these powers therefore devolved upon them naturally. The civil and military officials in the Philippines were recalled at frequent intervals (of four years or less), whereas the members of the orders named had practically a permanent tenure of office within the island. The latter, therefore, formed a strong, compact and well-organized political body against which the opposition of the civil and military authorities would have proved futile.

The land owned by the orders named is approximately 403,000 acres. The opposition to the friars is considered by the Philippine Commission to be based not only upon the alleged excesses of the priests but also upon their land holdings. The recent revolution against Spain was not a religious question but an agrarian one. The Philippine people love the Catholic Church. The solemnity and grandeur of its ceremonies appeal most strongly to their religious inotives. ... The feeling against the friars is solely political. The people would gladly receive as ministers of the Roman Catholic religion any but those who are to them the embodiment of all in the Spanish rule that was hateful. If the friars return to their parishes, though under the same police protection which the American Government is bound to extend to any other Spanish subjects commorant in these islands, the people will regard it as the act of that government.”

Next to the religious question, the most important matter dealt with in the commission's report is the question of a civil government to be established by Congress in the islands. Under the military power the public land system, mining claims, the organization of railroad, banking and other corporations and the granting of franchises generally cannot be permanently regulated, yet the development of the islands depends upon the exercise of this important power of regulation. Immense amounts of capital are waiting for investnient in the Philippines. Large numbers of people have gone from America to the islands, and are seeking an opportunity to develop the insular resources. The necessity for a supreme military government has almost entirely passed away, and the commission believes that the pacification of the islands could now be obtained much more rapidly through the agency of a civil government, assisted by a strong police force and a number of native troops under American officers. The establishment of municipal government is going forward in different parts of the islands where pacification has progressed sufficiently.

In regard to the much discussed question of drunkenness among the American soldiers, and to the alleged phenomenal increase of saloons since the American occupation of Manila, the commission offers the following facts:

Since February 1, 1900, there has been a steady reduction in the number of saloons. It is difficult to obtaiu information on the exact number of saloons previous to American occupation. It is claimed that there were only fourteen bars but nearly 4,000 shops where


native wines were sold. Practically, all drug stores and groceries sold wines aud liquors, no municipal license being required. With the American occupation licenses were issued, and while the number of nominal bars has therefore increased to 108, the number of native wine shops has been reduced to 408. The commission believes that the native wines are extremely dangerous, especially to foreigners. The number of retail liquor establishments iu Manila is shown by these figures to be less than in any large American city. The new civil service regulations provide for a general examination for the higher branch of the civil service, in which a certain number of studies are required and a certain number optional. The required studies are those which are usually considered necessary for a liberal education.

Among the most important measures passed by the Philippine Commission have been the appropriation of two million dollars (Mexican) for highways, a civil service law, a law establishing a bureau of statistics; an appropriation of one million dollars (American) for the improvement of the Port of Manila, laws for the establishment of courts and local governments in various parts of the islands, regulating the system of public accounts and taxing exports in Mexican money.

Cuba.—The Constitutional Convention has completed the final draft of the constitution, which is now being engrossed. The question of the relations of Cuba to the United States which is being considered by a committee of the convention is the crucial point and has wisely been separated from the main body of the constitution. The American claims have grown from the time when in April, 1898, the original resolution was passed, stating that “the United States renounces all claim to sovereignty over Cuba,” until at the present time the American Government is credited with negotiating for a series of naval and coaling stations, supervision of the public debt of Cuba and the power to intervene in the foreign relations of the island. The new constitution contains provisions, the wisdom of which may well be doubted, notably a provision for universal suffrage. The conditions of the population which were noted in the last number of the ANNALS certainly point to a high suffrage qualification. It is also regrettable that the possibility of a military leader securing control has been increased by the provision which renders eligible the celebrated General Gomez.

Porto Rico.—The Porto Rican Legislative Assembly has adjourned after passing thirty-six bills. Twenty-four measures were passed on the last day. Of the one hundred and two bills which were introduced in the Lower House only fourteen were enacted into law; while of the

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