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against the visit of President Loubet to the King of Italy May 6; the British, under Colonel Younghusband, captured a strong position near Karo Pass from the Thibetans May 6; France recalled her Ambassador to the Vatican May 21; General Count Bobrikoff, Russian Governor-General of Finland, assassinated at Helsingfors June 10; the steamer Norge was lost off the Scottish coast and 646 persons perished June 28; Porfirio Diaz was elected President of Mexico, and Ramon Corral Vice-President July 11; the Russian Minister of the Interior, M. Plehve, was assassinated at St. Petersburg July 28; the British, under Colonel Younghusband, entered Lassa unopposed, the Dalai Lama having fled to a monastry, August 7; Russia protested against the Anglo-Thibetan treaty September 20; King Peter of Servia was crowned at Belgrade September 21; the Contraband Commission, sitting at St. Petersburg, declared coal, cotton and Iron contraband of war September 22; Don Jose Pardo was proclaimed President of Peru September 23; J. Pierpont Morgan presented the stolen Ascoli Cope to the Italian Government November 3; Canadian elections gave the Liberals a majority exceeding 70 November 4; the French Chamber ratified the Anglo-French treaty, including the cession of the French shore of Newfoundland, November 12; the King and Queen of Portugal visited England November 12-20; the firsi assembling of representatives of the Russian Zemstvos took place at St. Petersburg November 19; General Andre, French Minister of War, resigned November 21; Prince Sviatopolkmirsky, Russian Minister of the Interior of War, presented to the Czar the petition of the Zemstvos, asking for a share in the national Government, November 24.
THE RUSSIAN-JAPANESE WAR.
Japan, logically alarmed at the virtual occupation of Manchuria by Russia after the Boxer rebellion, and incensed by Russian possession of Port Arthur, grew restless and aggressive in 1903. An extension of Russian influence to Korea was threatened, and there were numerous indications that Japanese progress and expansion were imperilled by Russia's policy of permanent control of Manchuria. Russia's Trans-Siberia Rallroad system had been extended to Port Arthur, and naturally Russian occupation of that stronghold, Japan's rich prize of its war with China, outraged Japanese national pride. Diplomatic protests by Japan were answered by a growl from the Russian bear, and the strain between the two nations rapidly grew more tense. Japan was ready for the struggle, and Russia was not, and hence Japan began the war to force Russia back. The storm broke quickly and with fury, On February 6, 1904, Russia having made an unsatisfactory reply to Japan's demands, the Mikado's Minister at St. Petersburgh, Count Kurino, was summarily recalled, and on the same day Baron Rosen, the Russian Minister, was recalled by his Government.
Forty-eight hours after the severing of diplomatic relations Japan struck her first hard blow, attracting the fascinating attention of the civilized world by the roar of her guns against the Russian naval force at Port Arthur. Admiral Togo, with the main fleet of Japan, found the enemy unprepared when he took the Russians completely by surprise, making the initial attack at night. The next day the Japanese made a second attack, the first having been made by torpedo-boats. In the two engagements the Port Arthur squadron of the Russians was so badly damaged that it was made practically inefficient. On the same day, February 9, a Japanese squadron with torpedo-boats forced the Russian cruisers Variag and Korietz out of the harbor of Chemulpo, Korea, compelled the Russian vessels to fight, and sunk them, with more than 500 killed and wounded. Thus Japan immediately settled the question of naval supremacy and was ready to capture Port Arthur, expel the Russian troops from Manchuria, incidentally seizing the railway at Harbin, thus cutting off Vladivostok, Russia's Important garrisoned northern port on the Pacific Coast.
The Czar proclaimed war with Japan on February 10, and the United States, on February 11, declared neutrality, Japan also having formally declared war the day previous. Secretary Hay made proposals, which resulted in the belligerent Powers agreeing to confine war operations to Manchuria and to respect other Chinese territory. Russia protested against Japan's hostile actions in advance of a declaration of war as being "treacherous," but civilization in general seemingly supported Japan's conduct.
On February 18 the Japanese army begun its move into Korea. occupying Ping Yang
on February 28 without opposition, and when warm weather came the Japanese First Army, under General Kuroki,' was at the Yalu River, which separates Korea from Manchuria, and was ready for operations on a gigantic scale. General Kuropatkin, who had been appointed on February 23 to command the Russlan armies in the East, had only 100,000 men with which to check a Japanese advance from Korea, and three Russian troops were being used to guard the railway, Russla's only method of military communication, His only hope was to retard a Japanese forward movement until he could be rein. forced. His position was extremely trying, transportation methods being entirely inadequate. Even water for the wood burning locomotives of the single-track railway was carried several miles along some divisions.
At the beginning of the war Vice-Admiral Alexeleft commanded the Russian naval forces in the East, but his evident lack of administrative ability led to his being supplanted by Vice-Admiral Makaroft on the day that Kuropatkin was assigned to command the army. Alexelett's only offensive move had been a sortle of the Vladivostok squadron, which sunk some Japanese transports off the west coast of Japan. Alexeleft then moved his headquarters from Port Arthur to Harbin, and his downfall speedily followed, his request to be relieved of his duties being speedily granted.
On April 13 the Russian battle-ship Petropavlovsk was sunk by a Japanese torpedo near Port Arthur, Admiral Makarott and 600 men being drowned. On May 1 the Russians were driven from their position at Kiu-llen-cheng by the Japanese under General Kuroki, and later were driven back still further. On May 7 the Japanese captured Fengwang-cheng, the Russians retreating without giving battle. On May 26, after a battle lasting sixteen hours, the Japanese captured Kinchow and Nanshan Hili by storm. Previous to this the Japanese had bombarded Vladivostok, and had made desperate attempts to "bottle" the Aussian fleet in Port Arthur harbor by sinking merchant vessels. The Japanese had also guaranteed the independence of Korea, had assumed a protectorate over that country, and received in return the assistance of the Korean army. The landing of Japanese troops in the rear of Port Arthur was begun May 5, and the siege of Port Arthur was begun the next day. A Cossack attack upon Anju was repulsed May 10. The Russians destroyed the town and port of Dalny May 11, and torpedoed a Japanese cruiser oft Port Arthur; two more Japanese warships were destroyed at Port Arthur, one by a mine and the other by collision, on May 17. The Russlang almost entirely evacuated Newchwang May 15. They defeated the Japanese north of Fengwang-cheng and before ķinchow, May 18. On May 28 the Japanese defeated 2,000 Cossacks and occupied Al-plen-men. At the end of May the Second Japanese Army, under General Oku, had cut off Port Arthur's communication with General Kuropatkin and made itselt master of the neck of the Liao-tung Peninsular. The Third Jananese Army, under General Nodzu, moved up from Takushan to Siyyen, in touch with Kuroki, by June 8. During May Kuropatkin had strengthened General Stoessel in Port Arthur by 25,000 reinforcements, and General KassuIitch's troops had been ordered along the Yalu River. Kurokl, however, had outgeneralled Kassulltch, crossed the river with three divisions, and repulsed an attack which Kassulltch made without orders at the Alko River, costing the Russians 2,600 killed and wounded, 600 prisoners, 21 field pleces, 1,000 rifles, and 350,000 rounds of ammunition, a blow which was keenly felt. The Japanese losses were 1,000 men The Japanese Third Army operated from May 23 to May 26 against Stoessel's attempt to restore the line of communication between Mukden and Port Arthur, and finally earned a hard-won victory at Nanshan, displaying reckless courage, and losing 4,300 killed and wounded. The Russlans, however, were driven from commanding positions, and, under General Fock, retreated southward, leaving 600 dead and 50 guns behind them.
In June the Russians concentrated a large force at and near Telfssu, on the line of the rallroad to Port Arthur, General Stakelberg commanding, apparently intending to move to Port Arthur's rellet. General Oku, with 50,000 men, fell upon this force near Port Adams on June 14, catching the Russlans in ambush and causing them a loss of 4,300, the Japanese losing 1,163. The Russians fell back upon Kalping. from which position they were driven on July 9. On June 27 General Nodzu effected a junction with General Kuroki, flanked the Russians, and advanced to Sunachen, after two days' fighting. Kuroki pushed toward Motlen Pass, along the valley of the Patao River, and gained important positions at Hanchen and Sidogult.
The first stage of the Japanese advance was completed by the operations of May and June, as just recounted, Four Japanese armies had been landed. Kuroki, having gained the mountain, passes into the Manchurian plains, was advancing toward Llaoyang. Oků was beyond the Fenshuiling Pass, on the road to Haicheng. Nogi had begun to drive Stoessel back into Port Arthur. At this stage Field Marshal Oyama was given supreme command of the Japanese operations, which had heretofore been controlled by the general staff.
The Russiang now realized the imininent danger of a division of their forces should the enemy move forward to seize the railroad between Liaoyang and Mukden. Kuropatkin therefore ordered General Keller, with 20,000 men and 24 guns, to attack the Japanese at Fenshuillng, which Keller did unsuccessfully on July 17, losing 1.200 men, and then retir. ing to a strong position in the Yantze Pass. On July 23 Oku attacked General Zarubaieff's position before Tashihchiao, compelling the Russians to abandon that place and Yinkow, thus depriving Russia of its last base on the Chinese sea coast, and cutting off Russian supplies by the Peking Rallroad. On July 31, after a two hours' fight with Kuroki at Yantze Pass and Tushulin, in which Lleut.-Gen. Count Keller, of the Russian army, was killed, the Russians retired toward Llaoyang. At the same time Oku and Nodzu, by a combined attack on the Russian right fifteen miles below Haicheng, turned their enemy northward, forcing the abandonment of Halcheng by the Russians on August 2. The Japanese, with a loss of 2,400 men, in a few days had now driven their enemy from the mountains into the Manchu plains, and had compelled a concentration of the Russians along the railroad to Llaoyang, with a Russian front of twenty-five miles between Anping and the railroad at Anshanchan. Rains then prevented further fighting during August. Earlier in the month the Japanese stormed the fortifications of Port Arthur and were repulsed. On August 17 General Stoessel refused a Japanese demand for the surrender of Port Arthur. On August 21 the Japanese began to take the inner forts around Port Arthur, and on August 31 they failed in a second general assault upon the city. On August 10 part of the Russian squadron escaped from Port Arthur, but was dispersed in battle, and on August 14 the Russian Vladivostok squadron was defeated off Tsu Islands, Korean Straits.
The great Japanese attack on the Russians before Liaoyang' was renewed on August 26. The Russian strength was about 148,000 men, with 400 guns guarding the three roads centring upon Llaoyang, and extending in a twelve-mile semi-circle among the low hills. The Japanese nad 200.000 men, with 620 guns. Kuroki's First Army was on the right, Nodzu's in the centre, and Oku's on the left. There was a general advance by the Japanese, soon forcing a Russian retreat, with small 'losses, Kuropatkin 'evacuating Llaoyang on September 3 and falling back upon Mukden. After this notable conflict heavy rains delayed large operations until October 1. On September 4 General Stakelberg's command eluded the Japanese and rejoined Kuropatkin's army, but the Japanese had practically surrounded Kuropatkin's forces by September 5. A Russian sortie at Port Arthur was repulsed September 18, and the Japanese were repulsed at Da Pass, near Mukden. September 20. Two days later the Japanese carried this pass by storm, and on September 24 they captured the forts commanding the water supply at Port Arthur. *** On October 3 Kuropatkin, with 300.000 men and with a force of artillery superior to Oyama's, advanced on the Japanese, inspiring his troops, with a proclamation that Russia was now prepared to drlve the enemy back. For a week the armies struggled along the Sha River in one of the greatest battles of modern history, fighting day and night. The most important Russian achievement was the capture of Lone Tree Hill, a commanding Japanese position, arter repeated charges and heavy losses. This hill was finally carried by a force under Coronel Putiloff in so brilliant a manner that the Russians, in official orders, named it Putiloff Hill. All the Japanese attempts to retake the eminence failed. In the general engagement, which was ir,decisive, except that it checked the Japanese advance, the losses were about even on either side, being estimated at 45.000 in ench army. During the succeeding rail and winter the nuge main commands, close to each other, did little fighting.
Active operations ahout Port Arthur. however, were continued. On November 4 the Japanese captured Wantal 111, perove the city, and on November 17 gained, by assault. important underground chambers. On November 26 a Japanese attack upon Port Arthur was repulsed with enormous loss to the assailants, but on November 30 they captured the Important position of 203-Metre HIII, commanding the city and narpor. From this point, on December 6, they shelled the Russian fleet, sinking the turret-ship Poltava and the battle-ship Perešviet, besides damaging other vessels.
THE FALL OF PORT ARTHUR.
After the occupation of 203-Metre Hill by the Japanese the doom of Port Arthur was evident. The siege guns there prevented a final sortie of the fleet, and the city's condition was most distressing. General Stoessel's last dispatches to St. Petersburgh were sent out by the torpedo-boat Rastoropny on November 13, but her commander destroyed her in Cheloo harbor to prevent his messages from falling into the hands of the Japanese. Hence the world has never learned the contents of these dispatches. Subsequent disclosures, however, and Japanese praise of General Stoessel within the past year, when his Government accused him of cowardice in surrendering his stronghold, indicate that he fulfilled his promise to defend Port Arthur to the last extremity. The capitulation of the city took place on January 2, 1905, after more than six months' resistance. General Stoessel receiving the full honors of war, the Emperor of Japan naving ordered General Nogi to show General Stoessel every courtesy. Stoessel and four other general officers had been seriously wounded, and two had been killed, out or ten. Parole, with permission to retain side arms and return to Russia, was offered to all Russian officers. General Fock and many others refused to accept this and went to Japan as prisoners. Authentic figures place the total of Port Arthur casualties at 15.449 Russians, being 34.33 per cent. of the force engaged, and 45,156 Japanese, 42.8 per cent. of the force engaged.
The surrender of Port Arthur was still exciting the world, when Kuropatkin, on January 25, ordered a general attack on the Japanese left rank, noping to break through or turn the enemy's lert toward Llaoyang. The Russian Second Army, under General Gripenberg, fought desperately for six days and was repulsed with heavy losses. Gripenberg then quarreled with Kuropatkin and resigned, being succeeded by General Kaulbars. Nogi's army from Port Arthur hastened to join Marshal Oyama, and from February 20 to March 15 a series of engagements, known as the battle of Mukden, one of the greatest in modern history,'' occurred. The Russian line extended over a semi-circle more than 120 miles long. with centre resting on the Sha River. General Kaulbars commanded the right and General Linievitch the left. Oyama's four armles faced this huge battle line... The Russians were finally forced into demoralized retreat failing back to Tle Pass, an important, position forty mlles north of Mukden and 300 miles south of Harbin. The Japanese occupied Mukden on March 10, and Tie Pass fell into Oyama's hands on March 16, the Russians rallying 108 mlles peyond that point. General Lintevitch then superseded Kuro. patkin in supreme command of a reallgned army. The Russians had lost 100,000 of their 400,000 men in the Mukden operations, and the Japanese casualties were put 60,000 out .. of 500,000 men engaged.
RUSSIA'S NAVAL FORCE LOST.
Two months later came the crushing blow to Russia's navy. In the Sea of Japan, winning everlasting lame for Admiral Togo, The Russian Baltic lleet, under Admiral Rojestvensky, joined by a squadron under Admiral Nebogatofs, was attacked by Togo ofr Tsu Island. In the eastern channel of Korca Strait, on May, 27. Togo not even having informed nis Government of his pians. Rojestvensky made the disastrous error of putting his crụisers betiyeen his battle-ships and his enemy. Togo signalled to his ships: *The destiny ot our Empire depend upon this action. You are all expected to do your utmost." The baile ragec inrougn me afternoon of May 27 and all day on May 28, and resulted in the annihilation of the Russian reet. Only three vessels of the line escaped--the Oleg.
Aurora and Zhemchug. These, under Admiral Enquist, sailed to Manila, where they were interned, after a refusal by President Roosevelt to permit them to make repairs.
Admiral Rojestvensky was seriously wounded and captured, and Admiral Nebogatoff surrendered with the battle-ships Orel and Emperor Nicholas I., the coast defence ships Admiral Seniavin and General Apraxine, and the destroyer Bedore. The Russian ships sunk included six battle-ships, three armored cruisers, three protected cruisers, a coast defence ship, the repair ship Kamtchatka, and several destroyers. The Japanese lost only three torpedo-boats and had less than 1,000 casualties.
HOW THE WAR ENDED.
After Togo's victory the United States, through President Roosevelt, intervened to end the war. The President, on June 8, addressed the Russian and Japanese governments, urging immediate and direct peace negotiations between the belligerents and proffering his friendly assistance, Both the warring nations accepted the offer, and agreed, on June 12, to appoint plenipotentiaries to discuss the terms of peace. Russla named Sergius Witte and Baron Rosen, while Japan chose Baron Komura and Mr. Takahira as her envoys.
Baron Rosen and Mr. Takahira were then Ambassadors of their respective countries at Washington. Escorted with much ceremony to Oyster Bay, the President's Summer home, on separate vessels, the envoys were introduced to each other by President Roosevelt, on the President's yacht Mayflower, on August 5, 1905. At luncheon the President gave this memorable toast:
“I drink to the welfare and prosperity of the sovereigns and the peoples of the two . great nations, whose representatives have met one another on this ship. It is my most earnest hope and prayer, in the interest not only of these two great Powers, but of all civilized mankind, that a just and lasting peace may speedily be concluded between them."
The envoys and their suites were then conveyed to Portsmouth, N, H., and the first peace conference was held at the United States Navy-Yard there on August 9, through interpreters, the Russians used the French and Russian language, and the Japanese used Japanese and English, The Japanese terms, including heavy indemnity, were presented, and were rejected by the Russlans. Accord was finally reached, proposal by proposal, as follows:
No war indemnity to be paid by Russia--& victory for Witte, who had declared "not one kopeck for indemnity"; recognition of Japan's preponderant influence in Korea; evacuation of Manchuria by Rwsians and Japanese; Japan to take over Russia's leasehold of Port Arthur and the Liaotung Peninsula; return of the civic administration of Manchuria to China; Japan to hold all milnary works at Port Arthur and Dalny; Japan to control the Chinese Eastern Rallroad south from Kunshien, which is ten mlles south of Harbin, Russia retaining all the rest, including its lines to Vladivostok and the spur to Karin. There was a deadlock on three Japanese proposals: Reimbursement of Japan for the cost of war; the delivery to Japan of Interned warships in Chinese and American ports, and the restriction of Russian naval power in Aslatic waters. President Roosevelt again intervened, consulting with Baron Rosen and with Baron Kaneko, the latter a trusted, though unofficial, friend of the Emperor of Japan. The President then communicated with both Emperors, and Imperial Councils were held at Tokio and St. Petergburgh. As a final result, the Mikado ordered the Japanese envoys to walve indemnity claims, allow Russia to retain her interned ships, and agree to a division of the Island of Sakhelin, Japan holding the southern halt below the fiftieth parallel. The treaty stipulated that Sakhelin should not be fortified, and that each country should enjoy the "most favored nation" terms. The treaty was signed or September 5, 1905, at Portsmouth Navy-Yard (which is really situated in the town of Kittery, Me.), and is known as the Treaty of Portsmouth. In Japan its terms were unsatisfactory to the people, who felt that Japan should have received more for her sacrificer, In Russia, 1905 was a year of revolution and anarchy, and since then disorders of all sorts, entalling the loss of thousands of Ilves, have followed in quick succession.
Semi-official estimates credit Japan with having had in the field during the war