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endeavour to recover it; but stop, were filled with tears--the purest Medora- In case our poor young fountain within her heart of hearts friend should call in the evening, do was disturbed and overflowing, and in not be absent,-return soon, that we those waters of life and of happiness may both bid him adieu ere he leaves she feared she saw the sunset of her us. Deny him not the consolation of hopes, and of all her bliss, on earth. seeing that he parts with friends much So much was she lost in these sadattached to him, and deeply interest- dening reflections, that she heard her ed in his future life-So now, my own name pronounced by the voice love, hasten away.”

that was dearest to her, ere she was And here he left her, perplexed aware that any human being was and saddened,-she knew not what near. It was Frederic de Lacey, who to think. What could her father gently seated himself by her side, and have heard to please him ? What with one gaze of kindness, and that meant his strange manner? She was one word spoken, took her hand all in doubt, and a mystery seemed to within his. A few minutes passed ere cling to her; but his last words—they either spoke, and then Medora said, could have but one meaning. In sad “ What can there be here on earth ness, then,-yea, in deep, deep sad more like unto heaven than this ness and melancholy, did she pass scene !” The words were scarcely along. It was a lovely evening, just uttered, but yet the effort was made, such an eve as does end, as should and she gained composure to say, end, so brilliantly beautiful a day—a “ I believe I came here to look for a still—a calm-a pensive evening- book which I dropt in the morning, such as can be felt, but never descri- and which my father is desirous I bed,-an evening when all that is should find.” She seemed much dearest in our existence is thought of, distressed, and withdrew her hand, and mingles with the delicious re- intending to rise. pose of the scene; but 'tis folly to • Stay! stay! I have the book; go attempt to paint it,-for those who not away I entreat you; I have to have never experienced the enchant- question you, to petition you, dear ment of such hours, would not un Medora ; there is a sweet little draw. derstand the separate existence they ing between the leaves of the book, seem to give one; and those who some lines at the back of it, which, have, can imagine what this especial though they belie what you spoke in evening was. It was late, later than the morning, yet are so full of beauMedora had thought when she left ty, and so touching, that if, as an old home; the shades of evening, that friend, I might keep the drawing, I seem peopled with tranquillizing and can only say, there is nothing i at heavenly spirits, were fast approach- present possess which I should prize ing, and the moon was gently rising ; so dearly." she gained the very spot where she “ What is it? oh! what can I have had been in the morning, and sat her so carelessly left about ?” She apdown on the rough ground I men- peared almost alarmed, till he shewtioned, near the rushes. Her heart, if ed her the sketch. not in unison with the scene that lay “ Oh, it is this ! I'm sure if you before her, was so filled as to find an think it pretty, or at all like it, I can exquisite relief and soothing in con- have no reluctance to giving it, save templating it. Her eyes were on its being so very unworthy your acthose peaceful waters, and it was just ceptance, and my regret that it is that light, or twilight, when she was not much, much better.” wont to delight in seeking in their He looked his thanks so meaningly, depths that undefined mysterious that Medora talked on as though scenery, which gives such a charm timidly dreading their expression in to evening communings with the words. “You see that it is the tomb riches of the deep, and which, I sup- of Mr Cleveland, mentioned in a way pose, must be a species of that dis- to make all hearts love him, in Bishop ease of the heart called, I think, the Heber's Journal; and I have placed Calenture. But now, though her eyes in its neighbourhood one of the Sagoe were there, their expression was not Palms, which the Bishop tells us derived from aught without her. Ima- grow in this beautiful form, and must gination was then at rest. No, they therefore appear as temples in the

wilderness; and who shall say that gladdened the bosom of the lake by in those far-away countries, where her gentle beams, has, my own, my the blessings of Religion are so little loved Medora! the power to make me known, the exquisite formation of the happiest, the most blessed of this tree, with all its rich gothic beings. Tell me, oh tell me, that I arches, may not arouse some of our am loved !" As the moon sheds her own people to remembrance of those first spangle on the rippling of the places of worship that adorn their lake, Medora sent, by one look, the own land, and lead them, by a train deepest, the most lasting ray of of newly-awakened holy feeling, to happiness into the soul of him who pour forth those praises and prayers all but adored her. which have too long been unbreath It scarcely needs to tell, that no ed ?”. This was said hurriedly, as a evening had been so blissful to the thought long since born, and as in happy party at the Cottage in the explanation of the picture; the de- Lane as this. The Vicar had given voted look of deep delight of him up the living to the patron Sir Herwho listened, again met her, and bert, who, in answer to his nephew's she went on to say, “I could not have proposal of going to India, offered it put the tomb in better scenery, I to him. It was of course accepted, thought,-it must be a beautiful tree; and the first reflection of those moonlittle, oh how little, did I think or beams on the calm bosom of the fear when I drew this, that my kind ake, shone upon two of the happiest and early friend would perhaps see hearts, and shewed them to each other it growing in its native soil! and now, in all their fulness of affection and alas ! ere this harvest moon again fervent love. visit us, you will perhaps have rest The father, too-to him it was the ed under its shade.” She could say opening of a new life-a life of hope no more, she was altogether over and holiness—and thus were the powered by the effort she had made loved votaries of the Gate listened to speak at all; but she had not an to in their tenderest wishes, thus instant to feel this, ere he clasped were they all rewarded, for not folher towards him, and said, “No, no, lowing too much the devices and deMedora, not such is my fate ! in you sires of their own hearts, when their alone does it rest; this moon that duty and devotion to the Maker and now is, that is just ready to peep Giver of those hearts bade their above yon mountain, before she has wishes tend Heavenwards.


No. III.

The Condition of the Lower Orders: This is a subject which has been of all those which enter into its coma good deal written upon lately, both position. directly, and in connexion with va We entertain a very special conrious points of internal policy, from tempt for those, who, in a country the consideration of which a matter like this, pretend to be of no party, so important and so pressing could and yet meddle in politics; but there not be excluded. But though we are some questions of import so abcannot claim the merit of originality sorbing and universal, that, in the in our subject-matter, we can at all contemplation of them, a thing so events plead its overwhelming impor- comparatively trifling as the triumph tance, at the present time, in excuse of party is forgotten. If our object for entering upon its consideration were to create excitement, or proif, indeed, any apology be necessary duce effect for a party purpose, we for dwelling upon a division of our should seek a subject original. either general subject which is of by far the in itself, or in the relations in which deepest and most extensive interest we should place it; but having in

view nothing but the serious and 80 that a few were the store-keepers of ber purpose of drawing the public the kingdom's wealth, while such attention to an evil which is spread a guarantee existed for its distribu. over the whole country, and like a tion amongst all the members of the rising flood threatens general ruin, community who would work. It was unless it can be suppressed, we take true that labour was the portion of up a subject on which a good deal one part, while idleness, or at all has been said already, but which can events, exemption from bodily exernot be mentioned too often or too tion, was that of the other; but it was loudly, until something is devised ever a matter of debate whether la. respecting it fitting the magnitude of bour was, upon the whole, a more the occasion.

painful condition than that of idleHe must be either a very superfi- ness, and it was cheerfully submitted cial, or a very inattentive observer to, because it was the sure and alof the present condition of affairs, ways current value for subsistence. who

supposes that there is nothing It is no longer thus; and it might more in it than has often occurred melt the sternest heart to contembefore-nothing but the ordinary oc- plate the hopeless wretchedness of currences of a stagnation in trade, thousands, almost millions, of their and a harvest of less than average fellow-creatures, willing, eager, to abundance. Our condition is the give their labour for bread, and well result of a new form which the in- able, too, until “ sharp misery had dustry of the country has assumed, worn them to the bone," who yet greatly aggravated, as we must con cannot touch a particle of the abuntinue to maintain, by a monstrously dance which teems around them. In erroneous policy with regard to trade vain and currency. This new form of industry, which made such rapid pro “ They beg their brothers of the earth gress during the war, was, in conse To give them leave to toil." quence of the peculiar circumstances attendant on the war, not felt by the There is a cheaper mode of getting common people, except in the alte- the work done than by employing ration of their employments; but them; and there is a certain delirium since the peace, while its progress reigns at the present time, about this has been even more rapid than be- thing, “ cheapness,” which having fore, it has indeed been felt by them been taken up as a public principle, in the dreadful and appalling cer is, without hesitation, used

as an extainty, that as the world


it has cuse for individual selfishness. In no longer any need of them. The vain the manufacturing towns throw most important of the old relations off the surplus of their multitudes to of society have been changed, and the country--the poor have no land that by a process, which although of their own—the rich, who have rapid, has been sufficiently gradual land, think it is very well as it is; and to bring the event upon us without though they know, or at all events our having taken such notice of it as ought to know, that by a different would have led to our making due system of management, a much more provision for the change. When so- perfect system of cultivation might ciety grew into its present form, of be carried on, and a much greater the few possessing much, and the number of people be supported theremany possessing nothing, the mul- by, in happy, though laborious, comtitude dwelt safely, in the security, fort, they are either too forgetful, or that those who had possessions could too indifferent about the matter to not turn them to account without bestir themselves, and again the latheir aid—that wealth was nothing bourer is rejected. except in so far as it gave


In vain the rural districts and the of accomplishing work—and that provincial towns send the more ad. work could not be done without venturous of their unemployed numtheir assistance. Natural rights, or bers to the metropolis, in search of to speak more strictly, their exercise, the casual employment which such were readily abandoned under such a huge mass of the wealthy might an appearance of things; and for the reasonably be expected to afford. purposes of the general well-being London itself, with all its gorgeous of society, it seemed of little moment show with all its prodigious reality

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of wealth-with all that is magnifi- his more fortunate brethren. If these cent in costliness, and all that is ex- possessions could be turned to proquisite in art, yet teems with the di- fitable account without him, he would rest miseries of actual want. Not have been left to starve; and now merely that kind of want which must that by our “ improvements” they necessarily be found to some extent can be turned to account without in all great cities, where disease and him, or with a great deal less of his crime get huddled together in dark assistance than formerly, he is accorners, and even common charity is cordingly left to starve. But had scared away from those foul recesses these means which arenow“improvein which all that is loathsome in de- ments,” existed from the beginning, graded humanity rots and dies, in society would not have taken the obscure despair. Not such want as form which it now has; laws would this we speak of; but the decay of not have been suffered to accumulate laborious decency, the misery of one upon another, securing the prosemi-starvation from want of employ- perty to a few, and leaving to the ment of those hands which have ne mass nothing but what their power ver been employed in any thing but of labouring gave them the command honest industry, is even in the me- of, if, as now, that power was little or tropolis deplorably prevalent. It is no security for support. If, then, we 80 even in the parish of Saint Mar- become satisfied that the great matin's, in so much that the parish offi- chine of society went on well and cers, “albeit unused to the melting smoothly hitherto, only in consemood,” are thawed into emotion by quence of a connexion of its parts, forthe dismal sights which their dis- med by necessities and powers which tressing, but necessary duties, bring adapted themselves to one another, before them, and it is fearful to think it is not to be wondered at, that one what it must be in less opulent dis- side of the connexion, namely, the tricts, such as Saint Giles's and Clerk- necessitous, being in a great measure enwell, where the poor so much more worn away, the machine should go abound.

out of order, and one part of it work Now, apart from all considerations exceedingly to the disadvantage of of humanity merely, and those feel- the other. If the people are to live, ings which ought to actuate us as if this kingdom is not to become Christian men, it is, as a political merely the habitation of masters and question, one of the most interesting machinery, with the few necessary to that can be made the subject of en manufacture and attend upon these quiry-Why such distress should ex- laborious and long-lived pieces of ist, and be in a progressive state of mechanism, some change must take aggravation, notwithstanding the im- place in the forms in which property mense accession which has confessedly and society are disposed. been made to our means of producing If the people are to live, and maall those things of which distress," chines make their labour of so little as we have used the word, signifies the value to others that they cannot get ABSENCE ? Why is it that want, and the means of living in exchange for new and extraordinary means of pro- it, they must be provided with someducing abundance, proceed pari pas- thing upon which they can labour su, and that those improvements for themselves. If the world were which wear the appearance of a ge- all as one family, wherein each indineral blessing,are fraught with curses vidual benefited according to the to the poor? It is because the pro- addition which could, by any means, cess through which the advantages of be made to the common stock, then industry were formerly obtained have should we join with the political ecoundergone a change, and that change nomists, and rejoice in the freedom has taken away the necessity which of trade, and in every new device by did exist that the labouring classes which human labour could be disshould have their share from the ca- pensed with in the production of depitalists, of all these advantages. The sirable commodities; but as that state only security which the labourer had of society has not yet come, we must, at any time for his support was, as during the advent of such a happy has been mentioned, the necessity for consummation, resort to means adapthis assistance in order to make an ed to the selfishness of mankind, and vantage of the possessions held by the new powers conferred on that


selfishness, by the inventions which the severe distress of those whom it dispense with the labour of working is a trouble to them to think of, yet

It is curious to find even the they can hardly be blind to the newarmest panegyrists of all the effects cessity of acting in a matter which of machinery admitting that some the people themselves have taken up extraordinary new vent for manu in a way extremely novel in this factures, some wonderful extension country, and dangerous, or the conof trade, is necessary to prevent the trary, according as the Legislature country from sinking. China must may make it. Multitudes of the be crammed with our delf, the whole common people now see clearly the country of Hindostan be covered state they are placed in. They perwith our cotton goods, Japan must ceive that their labour is valuable, if have our tin ware, and if that will they had the means of applying it ; not suffice, we must freight balloons but as their former masters have no to the “pale-faced moon,” or diving- use for it, they are driven to see bells

whether they cannot use it for their “ to the bottom of the deep,

own advantage. Those who have the Where fathom line could never touch the

virtues of thrift and patience, are ground,"

forming themselves into societies for

the purpose of enjoying the benefit in search of new realms to carry off of their mutual labour; and it is imour wondrous stores of manufac- possible to look at their virtuous entures ; and all this wonderful exten deavours to substitute comfortable sion must take place, or else we competence for the horrors of deperish.' Where, then, is the improve- pendence on precarious employment ment? Of what advantage to us these by masters, without wishing them prodigious means of extending our God speed. But it may be worth manufactures without the aid of the while of the politician to look men, when so many of our own po- carefully at the effects which such pulation are thereby left to idleness. societies, should they become exand starvation, and the profit on the tensive and abundant, may have machine-made goods is so small, that upon the political state of the comnothing but the discovery of a new munity. It is not always well (in a world to be “saturated” with them, political sense) that the knowledge can make the trade worth following ? should be forced upon men, of what Our manufacturers have exhausted they may accomplish by co-operathe world, and then imagined a new, tion and union; and especially it which they have prepared goods to is dangerous in an aristocratical exhaust, if their imagination could state, where this knowledge is given be turned into reality ; but who reaps to men of strong coarse minds, to the benefit?--the people of foreign whom meat, drink, clothes, fire, and countries, where they are sold for the liberty of being governed accordless than their first cost, while in the ing to their own views of right, are midst of the abundance of goods rot the summa bona. ting in warehouses, or sent away to Without professing much respect be sold at a loss, the English artizan, for the wisdom generally displayed or he who once was an artizan, shi at extensive meetings of the lower vers in rags, the unhappy victim of orders, it must be allowed that at modern improvements.

several of the many meetings lately It is high time that the Parliament held by the working people for disshould look to this matter. Indeed, cussing the subject of their distress, making all imaginable allowance for a rough and vigorous intelligence has the dulness of our representatives to been displayed, a readiness of speech matters of real importance to the and vehemence of expression, which country, we cannot think it possible indicate powers of mind that are that the ensuing session will pass worthy of some attention. We mean, over without some important mea that they give evidence of the existsure, adapted, so far as the wisdom ence of a description of men, who, of Parliament will go to the present with sense enough not to rush into a state of the once working classes. frantic and desperate tumult, can yet Difficult as it is to force upon the keep strongly alive in the minds of attention of those who live in contic their companions the hardships which nual plenty and immoral indulgence a state of things, subsisting only by

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