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visit to a very ingenious gold-beater at Ham-quicksilver, his gilding might have been conburg, he assured me that he prepared this sidered as that with gold-leaf by means of substance himself, and that the case was the heat, dorure en feuille à feu, in which the gold same with most of the gold-beaters in Ger- is laid upon the metal after it has been cleaned many. Even in England, in the year 1763, and heated, and strongly rubbed with bloodthis art was known only to two or three persons, stone, or polished steel. Felibien was unwho practised it as a business, but kept it só doubtedly right when he regretted that the secret that Lewis was not able to obtain a process of the ancients, the excellence of which proper account of it. In Ireland also this skin is proved by remains of antiquity, has been is prepared and sent to England. When the lost. French, in the beginning of the revolutionary False gilding, that is, where thin leaves of a was, hoped to out-manceuvre the Germans by white metal such as tin or silver, are applied to the use of aerostatic machines, it became of the article to be gilded, and then rubbed over some importance to them to obtain a supply of with a yellow transparent colour, through these skins. On this account, the Commission which the metallic splendour appears, is much des armes et poudres drew up instructions for older than I believed it to be in the year 1780. preparing them, which they caused to be The process for this purpose is given by the printed and distributed to all the butchers. monk Theophilus, whose fragments were first At Strasburg they were printed in French, and printed in 1781. According to his directions, at the same time in German, but in many parts tin beat into thin leaves was to be rendered of faulty and unintelligible.
a golden yellow colour by a vinous tincture of About the year 1621, Mersenne excited saffron, so that other pigments could be applied general astonishment, when he showed that over it. The varnish or solution of resin in the Parisian gold-beaters could beat an ounce spirit of wine or oil, used for this purpose at of gold into 1,600 leaves, which together present, appears not then to have been known. covered a surface of 105 square feet. But in But in the sixteenth century this art was very 1711, when the pellicles, discovered by the common; and instructions respecting it were Germans, came to be used in Paris, Reaumur given by Garzoni, Cardan, Caneparius, and found that an ounce of gold, in the form of a others, in their writings. About the same cube, five and a quarter lines at most in length, period, a pewterer at Nuremberg, named Melbreadth, and thickness, and which covered chior Koch, was acquainted with the art of only a surface of about twenty-seren square communicating a golden colour, in the like lines, could be so extended by the gold-beaters manner, to tin goblets and dishes. He died in as to cover a surface of more than one hundred 1567; and with him, as Dopplemayor says, the and forty-six and a half-square feet. This art was lust. A method of applying a white extension, therefore, is nearly one half more metal to paper, and then drawing over it a gold than was possible about a century before. varnish, has been known in China since the
The art of gilding, and particularly unmetal- earliest periods. At present this method of lic bodies, was much facilitated by the gilding is practised more in Sicily than in any|| invention of oil-painting; but it must be ac- other country. It appears also to have been knowledged that the process employed by the used, at an early period, for gilding leather and|| ancients in cold-gilding was nearly the same as leather tapestry; and this perhaps was first|| that used at present. Pliny says that gold attempted at Messina, as we are told by John leaves were applied to marble with a varnish, Matthæus, who, however, in another place, and to wood with a certain kind of cement, ascribes the invention to a saint of Lucca, which he calls leucophoron. Without entering named Cita. But gilt leather was made as into any research respecting the minerals early as the time of Lucian, who conjectures employed for this cement, one may readily that Alexander, the impostor, had a piece of it conceive that it must have been a ferruginous bound round his thigh. The dress of the priests, ochre, or kind of bole, which is still used as a on the festival of Bacchus, was perhaps of the ground (poliment, assiette). But gilding of same kind.-Abridged from Bohn's Edition of | this kind must have suffered from dampness, Beckmann's Inventions. though many specimens of it are still preserved. Some of the ancient artists, perhaps, inay have employed resinous substances, on Erfects or Foul Air.—The purity of the|| which water can produce very little effect. air we breathe is quite as important as the
That gold-leaf was affixedio metals by means wholesomeness of the food we eat. When air of quicksilver, with the assistance of heat, in is loaded with putrid gases, from decaying anithe time of Pliny, we are told by himself in mal and vegetable substances, it becomes an more places than one. The metal to be gilded actual poison. When the air is very foul was prepared by salts of every kind, and rub-indeed, it has been known, in some few instanbed with pumice-stone in order to clean it ces, to destroy life in an instant; and very thoroughly, and to render the surface a little often fatal disease is brought on by exposure to tough. This process is similar to that used at such air, even for a short time. But the present for gilding with amalgam, by means of general effect of impure air is the gradual heat, especially as amalgamation was known to diminution of health and strength, not prothe ancients. But, to speak the truth, Pliny ducing actual disease, but rather that tendency says nothing of heating the metal after the to disease which renders every sickness with gold is applied, or of evaporating the quick-which a person may be attacked, more severe silver, but of drying the cleaned metal before more unmanageable, and more frequently fatal. the gold is laid on. Had he not mentioned - Why are Towns Unhealthy?
quisite that it should pass through all the gradations
from a mere elementary state; but this does not include what has been unfortunately the case with regard to Decoration, namely, a total
stand-still, rendered worse by the imbibement of a false and vicious taste. Although the difficulty attendant upon the removal of this last has been at length happily overcome, there is yet another thing required ere perfection can be attained, and that is the discovery of the proper road to be pursued, and which shall open out a field to energy, genius, and talent-awakened, it is true, but helpless without a leader.
We can ourselves describe what in our estimation would lead to the right direction, namely, assiduity and attention; for we feel assured that it is only by a careful and industrious study of the works of the great masters that proficiency will ever be attainable.
In the art of Decoration there are very many things to be considered, which would, very likely, be overlooked by a novice :-it is not crowded quantity that is required, but form and beauty united by symmetry and graced by design-a production that shall at once please the eye, appeal to the taste, and leave a lasting impression upon the mind. This desideratum can only be effected by an intimate acquaintance with the laws of Nature -who is always the best modeller-the rules
of perspective, and the effects of light and F all words. shade. This brief list, we may ada, only
excellence is extends as far as an elementary study; when probably, one proficient in that, more extensive knowledge
of the most must be sought for and obtained-such as the accommodating that effect of ornament with regard to the atmocan be met with in sphere, the effects of different seasons of the the English dic-year upon its appearance, and very many tionary, its appli-points which our space will not permit us to cation being regu- catalogue. lated by a sort ofl When such a course of education as this intellectual sliding forms the aim of the various Schools of Design scale, which adapts now established and establishing, better things |
itself at once to the may be looked for; but to expect them before|| highest and lowest capacity-supplying an would be about as sensible an act as that of ever-ready encomium on the perfect effort of the Irish schoolmaster, who aimed at teaching artistic genius, or the ambitious endeavour of his scholars to write before they could read. the precocious schoolboy. We will not stop to inquire whether this extraordinary etymological elasticity be right or wrong, but, To DYE HORN IN IMITATION OF TORTOISEtaking the word in its strict and literal signifi- Shell.-Mix pearlash, quicklime, and litharge, cation, strive to point out the mode of attain- or red-lead, with water and a little pounded ing what its meaning expresses, without laying dragon's blood. Boil these together for half ourselves open to the imputation of egotism. an hour, and apply hot to the parts of the horn
To attain the acmé of anything, it is re- which it is desired to colour.
First Steps to Geometry.
(Continued from page 77.)
PROBLEM XI. To divide a given angle A B C into two equal parts.
With B as a centre, with any radius, describe an arc a c. From A and c, with any radius, describe arcs crossing each other in . Then draw D B, and it will bisect the angle, as required.
PROBLEM XI. To divide a given right angle a Bc into three equal parts. :
From B as a centre, with any radius, describe the arc a c. From A, with the radius A B, cut the arc a c in d; and with the same radius from c cut it in E. Then through the intersections D and E draw the lines D B and FB, and they will trisect the angle, as was
required. DESIGN FOR A BOUQUET HOLDER.
PROBLEM XIII. SHORT TIME ON SATURDAYS.-The following an angle = D F, equal to a given angle A B C.
At the point D of a given line D e, to make gentlemen have already given their consent to the proposition made by the carpenters and ljoiners of the metropolis-namely, Mr. Thos. Cubitt, Mr. William Cubitt, Mr. Baker, Mr. Kelk, Mr. Jackson, Mr. Piper, Messrs. Armstrong and Smith, Mr. Freak, Mr. Myers, Mr. Fitzpatrick, Mr. Lee, and Mr. Seth Smith. (See page 72, ante.)
GOTHISM. The magnificent altar-piece of From B, with any opening in the compasses, St. Gudule's, at Brussels, designed by Rubens, describe the arc c A. From D, with the same has been disposed of to an Englishman, in radius, describe the arc E F. Take the length order to save the expense of regilding, and c A, and set it off from E to F; then through has passed through a London auctioneer's r draw the line f D, and the angle F D E will be sale-room!
I equal to the angle A B C, as required.
(Continued from page 78.) Qualities of Execution.-All the qualities procurable in oil painting are obtainable in
fresco. Solid painting is very easy of exe- в
cution, and is performed by the plasterer laying on a preparatory intonaca of lime and sand with the trowel, while the artist lays on a finishing one of lime and colour with the brush, and he may employ it as thick as he likes. The process of glazing the fresco is variously performed; Vitruvius mentions the
following plan, which was adopted by the Draw any chord, A B, and bisect it by the Greeks :-“When the wall was coloured and perpendicular c D. Divide cd into two equal dry, Punic, or purified and bleached, wax, parts, and the point of bisection o will be the melted and tempered with a little oil, was centre required.
rubbed over it with a hard brush"; this was (To be continued.)
rendered smooth and even by applying a
cauterium, or iron pan filled with live coals, to EXPERIMENTAL LODGING HOUSES IN GLAS
the surface, near enough to melt the wax; it
his was then polished with a linen cloth." Gow. The experimental establishment, which has been fitted up by the “Glasgow Association
Colours.-The colours employed in fresco for Establishing Lodging Houses for the Working
painting are all mixed with, or ground in, Classes," comprises four stories, affording faci
boiled or distilled water, and deposited in lities for accommodating separately the single
small pots for use. They are principally males, single females, and married couples,
earths, as but few mineral and no vegetable leaving the ground storey as a dieting depart
ones can safely be made use of; but there is a ment. It has accordingly been thus arranged, 1.
method of rendering vermilion durable. Pro-the three upper floors as dormitories accord
a fessor Hess, the eminent fresco painter at ing to this classification, and the ground floor
Munich, whose authority has before been as a day-room, divided by low partitions into
made use of, employs the following colours, corresponding compartments for the use of the
namely: lodgers during the day, and in which they may).
Whitei. e., lime, exclusively, which has take their meals. For economy of space, the
either been well washed and kept for a length dormitories have been fitted up with two tiers /
of time, or rendered less caustic by boiling, of berths, after the manner of passengers'
repeated manipulations, and drying. cabins on ship-board, excepting that the upper
Yellow-all kinds of óchres, terra di sienna. and lower berths are entered from opposite
Red-ditto ochres, burnt terra di sienna, * sides; thus, though rendering more standing
oxides of iron, and lake-coloured burnt vitriol. room necessary, accomplishing the complete
Brown-umber, raw and burnt, and burnt separation which is essential in houses of this
terra vert. description. Each berth is furnished with a
Black-burnt Cologne earth. seat, and is enclosed by a door, in order to
Purple-burnt vitriol, cobalt blue, and lakesecure the clothes and other property of the l coloured burnt vitriol. occupants; and each dormitory is provided
Green-terra vert (or Verona green), cobalt with a water-closet, also a lavatory containing
green, and chrome green. several wash-hand boxes, so that a small num
Blue-ultramarine (pure and factitious). ber may wash at one time. The kitchen and/
These colours are perfectly safe, have been bar are combined, and are situated at one end
well tested, and, for the most part, admit of of the ground storey, separated only by a
being mixed in any manner. counter from the seated portion forming the..
Chrome yellow and vermilion are also emday-room. Here are provided the means of ployed; but not, as yet, with complete sucfurnishing plain wholesome meals; and advantage is taken of the draught in the furnace,
- The lime destroys all animal and vegetable which heats the coppers, for ventilating the
colours. dormitories above; this is effected by means of
Great attention is requisite in preparing the an upright shaft of tin tubing, which communi
tints on the palette; for, if they are mixed cates with each floor, and leads into this
during the work, the painting will appear furnace, so as to become mainly the source of
f“ streaky' when dry. its supply of air, while it is the medium byl.
Cennini's mode of preparing the lime as a which the vitiated atmosphere of the several
/ white was as follows, being precisely the same floors is drawn off downwards. In the present
as that at present practised :--Take very white case the downward mode of ventilation hap
slaked lime, reduced to a white powder; place pened to be the most available. Arrangements
it in a large tub, and mix well with water, are being made for fitting up, in the rear of (the premises one bath for male and another for different stages of the burning, produce very brilliant
1 * Cornelius says that the brightest particles, selected at female lodgers.
pouring off the water as the lime settles, and adding fresh for eight days. The lime,
The Art of Pottery. divided into small cakes, is then placed to dry in the sun or on the housetop, and the longer these cakes are left the whiter they become.
(Concluded from page 80.) To shorten the process, the cakes may be In all nations, the earliest products of earthenmoistened again with water and well ground, ware may be described as coarse in textureand then dried. This operation, once or twice tender, that is, easily scratched, and very repeated, renders the lime perfectly white. brittle. The latter quality is not, however, Cennini observes that, without this finely: invariable. The earliest of the Etruscan vases ground white, flesh tints, and other mixed are entirely red or entirely black, without tones that may be required, cannot be exe- colour or ornament: the ansation, or system cuted in fresco.
of handles, was so clearly derived from the A corrrespondent of the Atheneum, some human form, that hands and arms were sometime back, stated that, “The sky-blue pigment times directly introduced, and on cinerary used in the ancient Egyptian catacombs con-urns the cover was frequently a bust of the sists of a glass or fritt coloured by the black deceased. The Etro
deceased. The Etrurian, Italo-Grecian, and oxide of copper; and that the red found in the Egyptian vases prese
| Egyptian vases present the most striking evisame catacombs consists of a similar substance dence of a common type; and in the most coloured by the red oxide of copper."
artistic of these productions the archetype has Mr. Buss, from whose lecture we have manifestly been the bust of a beautiful female. before quoted, says that, “The colours em- The Etrurians actually reproduce this model, ployed should be almost entirely of mineral -but the Egyptians recede from it widely. origin, carefully selected, well ground, and Like every other art, pottery must have kept in small pots with covers to them. Ultra- greatly advanced before efforts were made to marine is a difficult colour to manage, as it is combine beauty with utility; and it is quite in apt to fall off the pictures in the form of accordance with recorded experience, that the powder; to remedy this, the Italians usually first advance in artistic decoration should be painted this part in tempera, over a ground of founded on natural resemblances. The ancient black or red, or a mixture of both. Lake is vases found in Chili and Peru have the top not available in fresco, and it is supposed that and neck frequently formed into rude imitathe boasted colour called hæmatite, and by tions of the human shape ; so, also have several other names, was, in reality, no nearer several of the Mexican jugs and cups in the to the quality of lake than Indian red, to judge Sèvres collection. Indeed, the similarity bealso from some English specimens which have tween the Greek and Peruvian vases is not been procured. Whatever may be the age of confined to general outline, but extends to the time, those colours which do not quickly minute details of ornamentation, the wavy change upon a trial slab may be used."
lines, the friezes, and even the truncated (To be continued.)
shafts, which have been usually regarded as the distinctive marks of Grecian art.
It is of some importance to direct attention MANUFACTURE OF BRONZE IN PARIS.-In to the imperfection of the evidence on which colour and casting the Parisian Fabricants de it has been attempted to found a complete disBronze have arrived at a great pitch of perfec- tinction between the Etruscan and the Grecian tion. Their methods of obtaining the former, vases. Truth appears to lie between the exdepend on peculiar processes, both in the first treme theories of Micali and Raoul-Rochette. and final operations. They restore the fire We may concede to the former that there was colour with wonderful success, and they pro- a native school of Etrurian art; and at the duce a great variation in tints, from the same time we must confess, with the latter, peculiar green bronze, to the richest depth of a that the style of ornament, whether sculptured golden brown. This must have struck everyone or painted, is essentially Greek. Between the who has visited the different collections. As years 1827 and 1830, more than four thousand far as it is dependent on the casting, namely, vases were dug up in the neighbourhood of on the proportions of the materials entering Vulci, in the very heart of the Etrurian terriinto the composition of the bronze, we have tories,-descriptions of which were published gathered, that the metal is generally made up by Millingen and the Prince of Canino. of the following:--Copper, 82; zinc, 18; pew- Many of them are covered with inscriptions in ter, 3; lead, it. It should be understood, the Attic dialect: all that we have seen however, that the bronze here indicated is such invariably preserve the Greek association of as is intended for “gilding." If in the bronze colours,- that is to say, brown figures on a there be too much copper, it takes more gold; 1 yellowish ground, black figures on a reddish if too much zinc, the fine yellow in the gilding ground, and red figures on a black ground. colour is lost. For great monuments, such as The last of these was a style of vase brought the " Column of July," it is composed of cop-to the greatest perfection by Wedgewood; but per, 91'40: zinc, 5.53; pewter, 1.70; lead, we believe that the manufacture of such has 11:37 ; total, 100.—The bronze industry of Paris been discontinued. All the subjects repreoccupies abour 6,000 workmen; viz., 400 sented in the decorations, whether painted or sculptors or modellers, 800 founders, 600 tur- in relief, are essentially Greek, and represent ners, 1,800 mounters, 600 gilders, silverers, the divinities, costumes, and usages of Attica. Il and varnishers, 1,200 engravers or chisellers Roman pottery is very closely connected|| ( ciseleurs), and 600 labourers,
Twith Roman history; for the Romans made