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iron-foundries and Manchurian battle- others?'' The conclusion which be fields and leave him at the end pos- reaches is that the very term race is sessed without effort of the essential only a product of our mental activities. features of one of the most important and that races as irreducible categories problems of the time. Messrs. Me- only exist as fictions in our brains. thuen are the publishers.

With whatever prejudices the reader

may approach this book, he Dr. George M. Gould has published, scarcely fail to respect its scientific through P. Blakiston's Son & Co. of breadth and thoroughness and the temPhiladelphia, two more volumes of his per in which it is written. "Biographic Clinics," in which he traces the connection between long- It is many a day since there has been continued eye-strain and various forms published a book of travel so fresh, su of disease, and illustrates his theme vivacious and so well worth the read by studies of the cases of eminent men ing as Miss Gertrude Lowthian Bell's and women of letters and others whose "The Desert and the Sown" (E. P. lives have been shortened and made Dutton & Co.) Every page has its inmiserable by eyestrain and its conse- terest,--of description, of characterizaquences. The books are forcefully tion or of incident. It tells the story written, in a manner which appeals of a recent Syrian journey, starting quite as much to laymen as to the pro- from Jerusalem, and leading through fession, and the author's theory is but- the country east of the Jordan to the tressed by a large amount of convinc- Jebel-ed-Druz, and thence through Iaing evidence. If Dr. Gould's vigorous mascus, Homs, Hama, Aleppo, and Anpreaching of this theory serves to di- tioch to the coast at Iskenderun. The rect attention to the close connection route followed is shown upon a large between visual defects and disease in folding map, and scattered through the many acute and distressing forms, he book are perhaps one hundred and fifty may be reckoned a benefactor.

illustrations from photographs, some of

them full-page and others printed with M. Jean Finot's “Race Prejudice," the text. These pictures cover a wide which E. P. Dutton & Co. publish in range of subject and add both to the a translation by Florence Wade-Evans, piquancy and the value of the book. is a serious and scientific contribution The author must have had an adrento the discussion of a subject which is turous spirit to attempt such a journey too often treated with unreasoning unattended save by Arab servants and passion. The author examines with muleteers. That she has also a tolcare the grounds upon which the theory erance and a capacity for sympathy not of an enduring inequality of races common among Occidentals is shown rests, studies the distinctive character- by the vividness with which she de istics which are based on the head, scribes native customs, habits of hair and color of the skin, considers thought and political conditions. Her the character and significance of physi- Arabs and Druzes are very much alive. ological and pathological differences, and their talk, as she reproduces it. traces the effects of cross-breeding, ex- is unstrained and natural. There is amines historically the origins of races, a sufficient index, The book might and, closing with a chapter upon the have been made still more alluring by negro, gives an emphatic negative to the use of page-headings or at least of the question "Are there peoples con- chapter-headings, but that is a small demned to remain eternally inferior to matter of detail.



No. 3273 March 30, 1907.


CONTENTS. 1. A New Endor. By Marcus Reed. MACMILLAN'S MAGAZINE 771 n. The Celtic Year. By W. W. Tulloch, D. D.

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 775 Hi. Amelia and the Doctor. Chapter XXV. Lord Riverslade Behaves

as Well as Could be Expected. Chapter XXVI. The Marriage
Bell Rings Down the Curtain. By Horace G. Hutchinson.

782 IV. With a Car to the German Maneuvres. By the Author of On

the Heels of De Wet." (Conclusion) BLACKWood's MAGAZINE 789 V. Santa Sophia. By L. March Phillipps. CONTEMPORARY REVIEW 798 VI. Strong Rick. o' Taxal." By Emma Brooke .

CORNHILL MAGAZINE 808 vu. The Ethics of the Poor.

SPECTATOR 818 VIII, Toys of the Ages


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From the Cape to Cairo. By Lance Fallaw

AJDedication. By Newman Howard








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The counterpart of Endoris not gue

that last unpleasantness a way; very difficult to find. Incantations, they would as soon have dreamt of though of the mild modern sort, are doubting the iron they stood up in. now as common in the West as they The Devil's pitchfork was as absolute were in the East in the days of King au entity to them as their own agriculSaul; a singular fact arising from that tural implements. When they saw the greater knowledge which proves to be arch-enemy himself, as they frequently more dangerous than the little knowl- did, they were never astonished, for edge of antiquity and the Middle Ages. why should they not see him? He The marvels of X-rays and of wireless frightened them, that was all. He telegraphy are answerable for much frightened them once to good purpose of this paradoxical reaction; it seems to indeed, when against all rules and be taken for granted that these mate- precedents he went to church, a risk rial wonders justify the wildest super- which, to our knowledge, he never natural theories. Telepathy,

lan before or since. On Sunday, Ocpounded by public and private profes- tober 21st, 1638, he entered the parish sors, may be all so much rubbish (some church of Widdecombe in Devon and of us think it is) but to many minds it dragged therefrom a boy who was is the natural sequence of Marconi's asleep, disappearing in a sudden and discovery; and so with all the rest. If violent thunderstorm. Of his identity we can see a penny through a purse, there could be no doubt, for, asking his why should we not be able to see the way at a roadside inn, he drank a glass departed come through the door? The of ale which hissed and spluttered reasoning is ridiculously faulty, but the down his throat. Of all the discrepaninference is neverthless widely enter- cies of this well-attested case the good tained by those who know no logic and folk of the seventeenth century took could not use it if they did.

no heed; the only point in dispute was In the old times peoples knew less but this: he evidently did not know his way were far more certain of the little they to Widdecombe, and it could not theredid know. We now drift rudderless on fore be his home, as was too often and an ocean of knowledge, asking hope. too recklessly asserted by the enemies lessly what is the meaning of it all, of Devon,-their neighbors of Cornwall, whence do we come and where do we to wit. go? But from king to peasant not a As a properly complicated theological man asked such questions in the Mid- argument this contradiction held the dle Ages. They knew better. They field for a long time, on stormy nights were absolutely certain of three things and on desolate moors where even the of which we seem to know next to Devil is better than nothing in the way nothing now. There was this present of visitors from the outer world; but life to begin with, not a maze of rid- before laughing too much at such dles and puzzles as it is to us, but an quaint survivals of ancient faith, we easily understood existence of hard should first of all try to determine blows, hard eating, and hard drinking, whether belief in the Devil can be within the fifty miles or so which rightly described as superstition.

As a represented the world to them. Then fundamental part of Christianity, the followed the life to come in heaven or spirit of evil and its manifestations can hell. It never occurred to them to ar- never be ranked with pixies, fairies, hobgoblins, and the minor demons that saw the Devil; Luther threw his inklurk under ladders, between crossed pot at him, for one. knives, and in the salt that is spilt. The ordinary or common ghost stood, There is all the difference in the world and stands, on another footing altobetween an orthodox beliet for which gether. For one thing his intentions our ancestors would have gone to the are not necessarily unfriendly; if be stake, and local traditions for which frightens us it is not his fault, for there old women were pricked with pins or cannot be a more harmless thing on ducked in the pond.

earth. All about Redruth, when the It is true that in the gospel accord- country people see a ghost they say ing to Sir Oliver Lodge the Devil is “Nunny Dumny" and it goes away. completely ignored, but in the older "It is not at all necessary," says a hugospels the doctrine of his material morous native of the delectable duchy, existence and appearance is explicitly "to know what is meant by those words taught, and though it is not probable of dread; the ghost knows, which is that he would appear to-day, say in a quite enough." If our fathers had not newspaper office in Fleet Street, to been so wofully ignorant of ponderables fly away with some too wide-awake and imponderables, of electrons and editor, we cannot disprove the possibil. dynamics, they would have known ity of such an event from a religious how pitifully helpless even the most point of view. If doubt is born within vindictive ghost must be when he us, it is not because we are inclined to comes to try what he can do. Of this disbelief; it is because certain editors we are now so certain that we go to are still in their editorial chairs.

the other extreme and encourage them We have to confess, however, that as much as we can. Curiously enough, Sir Oliver is not the only man for if a census were possible, it might be whom the arch-fiend has no more ter- found that we are quite as unanimous

In this London of ours with its in believing in ghosts as our forefa. six millions of people, fairly repre

thers were in the sixteenth or serensentative of civilized mankind, there teenth century, with a notable differare dozens and dozens of haunted ence, however. The ghost of yesterday houses still; but is there one of the is not the ghost of to-day. Our prede six millions, man, woman, or child, who cessors fainted or ran away when they ever by any chance hits upon the pos- saw one; if a necessitous necromancer sibility of the Devil haunting the tried to raise one, for a paltry fee house? In the country there is a vast which no respectable conjurer would number of ancient abbeys and granges now look at, they promptly burned him haunted by

white ladies, crooked or put him on the rack. Now we are ghosts, shadowy hounds, or what not; most anxious to see them; we coas but even in the country the Devil is as them in all sorts of ways to come and dead as Pan, and we are not a whit the be investigated, to show what they are better for it. Indeed it is a real loss. made of, or what they can do. A duly There was something virile and vigor. authenticated spirit holding the Psyous in the superstitions of the Middle chological Society's certificate, a reasonAges, widely differing from the mawk- able, reliable spirit in short, willing to ish pseudo-scientific faith of those who appear before the most inquisitive comnow sit round tables, attend séances, mittee, would, commercially speaking. Jook sheepishly at one another and

be worth its weight,-in gold we were whisper that "there must be something about to say, but that would not by in it." They were stronger men who much. He or she, for we do not know


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