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ON

THE DEFENCE OF IRELAND.

pear then that Ireland is not only larger than (Being Menbor's Thirel Leller

one half of England and Wales, but Sur;-In my last letter, I in part prov has a population exceeding, in number, one eil the proposition, by explaining the effects half of the population of England and of a successful invasion of Irelaod, that Wales. Conceive, then, a country of so " if Ireland is conquered by Buonaparté, large an extent, and so populous, and the

England will also be conquered by him." people of it so much attached to France, and I reserved for this letter the explanatiou of distant only a few miles from our shores, the dangers to which England would be ex once under the rule of Buonaparté; and conposed in consequence of the capture of Ire template the consequences !!! This is the ind. But, before I proceed upon it, I feel true way of considering what Ireland now that it is necessary to state a few more facts is; what Ireland would be if justly treated respecting Ireland, in order that the capabi- | by England; and what Ireland will be if lity of that country to promote the views of once possessed by France : A country in exBuonaparté may be clearly understood. It tent, population, trade and revenue, far beis a conjinon error among the people of this yond several independant kingdoms and country to think, that lieland is not larger principalities of Europe; not incapable of than Yorksbire; and that the people of it being berself an independent nation from a are not more numerous than the inhabitants want of any attribute that an independent of Manchester or Sirmingham; and under this nation ought to possess; but, preferring a false conception of the extent and poprila state of dependance on Eugland, with a view tion of Ireland, a notion is too generally in to secure her protection, and to obtain the dulged in, that let what will happen in Ire benefits of her constitution: A country realand, an English army is all that can ever be dy to go all lengthis in supporting the strugnecessary to put down rebellion, or success gles in which England is involved; but fully to resist invasion. Now, Sir, if you teling that England has no claim upon the will take the trouble of looking into the ap. exertions of her sons, in consequence of the dendix to Mr. Young's Tour in Ireland, the policy with which for centuries, but, more English edition, you will find that England particularly, during the last 6 months, she and Wales contain 42 millions of aures, has acted towards them : A country anxio:is statute measure,' and that Ireland comisins only to have an opportunity of feeling senti25 millions of acres of the same measure, ments of gratitude for favours, which ongltand with this information you will be able to to be conferred, and to attord all the advan, form a iolerably accurate idea of the extent tages of her population in warding off the of Ireland, if you taku a map of England, imminent dangers which now threaten Engand draw a line through Holy htail and Lon land; but alive to injury and insult, and don; for the portion of England and Wales not averse to a connection with France, it lying to the southward of such a line, will her connection with England should prove be nearly equal in exteat to tbat of Ireland. merely a nominal and barren boon. If You will also be assïsted in acquiring a cor. this country was but a few weeks under the rect notion of the length and breadth of Ire government of Buonaparte's marshalls, de, land if you will measure the distance from pend upon it, Sir, the fate of England would the Land's-end to York, which will give be decided. England would have at once to you the distance from the Giants' Couseway be prepared against invasions from the coast to Cape Clear; and if you will measure the of Denmark, Holland, France, Portugal, distance from Yarmouth to Liverpool, which Spain, and [reland. The numbers of troops will.give you the breadth of Ireland, be that might be collected ink either country tween the Hill of Howth and Slince Head, would be so great, that it would be impracin the county of Galway: 'As to the popu ticable for the fleets and armies of England lation of Ireland, it is computed, by Mr. to prevent them from making good a landChalıners, to have been greater than 4 mil- ing; and even a landing of a small portion lions in 1788, and by Mr. Newenham to be of troops would go a great way in securing greater than 5 millious in 1803. Many very conquest, notwithstanding the numbers and intelligent persons consider it to be, at the valour of the volunteers, and the inestiinapresent time, beyond 6 millions, ground-, ble blessings of the modern British constituing their opinions upon the cheapness and tion in church and state ; for, what would salubrity of potatoe diet, and the great fa become of the trade of England without a cility with whicli every man in Irelani ob. circulating mediam, and of the revenue of tains a lease of a few acres of land. Now, England without trade? And what would Sir, the population of England and Wales England be if her revenue failed, but a þeing little more than 9 millions, it will ap. bankrupt ruined and conquered. But if

come.

SPENCE ON COMMERCE.

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these events were not immediately to follow ated nation, to see more dangers in the cruan invasion, what hopes can be entertained citix of an old man, called the Pope, than in that the contest would terminate in favour the sword of Buonaparté: To be occupied of England ? The points of the coast which in dreaming about your church being at. would be exposed to attack would be so nu tacked by visionary armies of monks and merous, and the opportunities of attacking friars; whilst your very existence as a naso frequent, that the army and spirit of Eng tion is tottering before the threatened assault land must in the end be worn out and over of your known and inveierate enemy!

Peace with France would be the on. “ Quem deus vult perdere prius dementat." ly resource, and that upon Buonaparte's own But, God grant that the darkness which has terms. It would be made, and when time obscured your intellects may yet feet awsy, would have afforded an opportunity for re before more is done towards the completion flection, it would then be deplored, that the of the decline and fall of the British empire! value of Ireland had not been better under -I am, &c.-MENTOR.- Oct. 30. stood, and the dictates of justice and sound policy listened to in time. It is really lamentable to reflect upon that blind policy

-The extract from Mr. Spence's which leaves Ireland exposed to conquest, pamphlet on Commerce, inserted in the last when the operation by which she could be namber of your Register, and there earnestly secured, and England placed in a state to de recommended to the attention of your readfy France, is so simple and obvious. What ers, I have reflected upon with all that condo we want but the hearts of the people of sideration which I am always disposed to Ireland to be with us, or on what can Buo bestow upon every work that has obtained naparté build his hopes of conquest, but up: the applause of one possessing so sound a on our own folly in alienating then ? judgment as yourself. It is impossible for But, Sir, the peculiar danger to which this me, however, to acquiesce in the proposition conntry would be exposed in consequence of which it is the object of that extract to subIreland being conquered, does not consist in stantiate ; that "all the wealth of a nation the additions which Buonaparté would be is created by agriculture, none by manufacable to make to his armies, but in the oppor tures ;" and, I shall, therefore, take the lic tunity which he would acquire of sending berty of offering a few observations tipon the his armies through Ireland into England and subject. In order to be as brief as possible, Wales. That he would be able to send his I proceed at once to the example which dir. troops to Ireland in defiance of the fleets of Spence has adduced in the way of demonEngland, is proved by the numerous instan. stration. “If a coachmaker were to emces which have occurred of late ycars, of his ploy so many men for half a year in the ships having been able to go to the West In building of a coach, as that for their subdies, to Egypt, and to Ireland without mo sistence during that time he had advanced lestation. That he would be able to traus 50 quarters of corn; and if we suppose port his troops with safety from Ireland 10 " he sold this coach to a land proprietor for England is evident, from the short distance 00 quarters of corn, it is evideni, that the between the respective coasts, and from the - coachmaker would be ten quarters of known fact, that no ships can keep at sea in corn richer, than if he had sold it for 50 St. George's Channel in tempestuous wea quarters, its original cost. But it is equalther; much less men of war and frigates, ly clear, that the land proprietor would be for which there is no port between Wilford ten quarters of corn poorer than if he had Haven and Scotland. The passage from bought his coach at its prime cost.” That a Dublin to Holyhead has been trequently land proprietor who purchases for 60 quar: made in row boats. The fishing boats on ters of corn a coach, the prime cost of which the eastern coast of Ireland are alone suffi

was 50 quarters only, would after such parcient in nuniber to convey a very large boily chase be ten quarters of corn poorer, than if troops; but if these were not suiticient for he had bought it at the prime cost; and that his purpose, the fishing boats and small craft the coachmaker would be ten quarters of on the west, and some shore, boats night corn richer, than if he had sold the couch at easily be collected in the several harbours such original cost, are propositions too between Cork and Waterford, and would grossly plain and self-evident, to be in any afford the means of transporting an immense danger of being controverted ! But, it is not army. Yet, notwithstanding all this, are quite so apparent, that they afford the we doing every thing that lies in our power slightest countenance to the doctrine, that to promote Buonaparte's views in obtaining « manufactures are no source at all of papossession of Ireland, Bigoted and infatu. « tional wealsh." The deduction however,

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which Mr. Spence draws from them is, that | dition to his wealth in the 60 quarters of

a transfer, not a creation of wealth, has corn, because, however plausible such an taken place; whatever one gains the argument as between two individuals may “ other loses, and the national wealth is to some persons appear, it will, I think, be just the same.” Now, most certainly no seen from what I shall presently submit, creation of wealth hath arisen from the mere that upon the more enlarged scale of the erchange or act of bartering the corn for the dealings of a nation, such an argument will coach ; for the best of all possible reasons, not be thought by any person to hold good. that the coach as well as the corn forined a Let me assume (for argument's sake) the popart of that wealth, previously to any such pulation of a country to comprise one hun-, exchange or transfer having taken place. dred thousand persons, consisting in part of Most certainly also, the couchmaker would | persons employed in agriculture, and in part gain the corn and lose the coach ; wbilst, on of persons not so employed. Either the prothe other hand, the land proprietor would duce of the land would be more than sufiigain the coach and lose the corn by such a cient to supply with food the whole of such barter! Bilt the misfortune is, that this de population ; or, would fall short of yielding duction of Mr. Spence's does not, as it seems an adequate supply; or, the produce of the to me, comprehend the only point at issue, land and the consumption of that population the only true question being whether BY THE wuld be nearly equal. In the case first DANUFACTURE of such a coach, no greater supposed_if there were a yearly superabunadition was made to the stock of wealth, dance-it is manifest, that it had better be than if it had not been manufactureil at «ll? exported in exchange for specie, or some foMr. Spence's supposition sceans to be, that reign articles of use or convenience, than inasmuch as the coachmaker receives for that that it should remain in the country to pecoach an equal value in corn, by which he rish; and it is equally manifest, that by such rennburses himself for the food advanced to an accession of specie or foreign articles, the the journey,men manutacturers and consumed wealth of the country would be incieased. by himself and family, during the period that : In the second case supposed—if there the coach was building; therefore, it wouid ? should be a yearly dxficiency in the supply of be a mere transmutation of food, a wealth

I corn at home-then it would obviously be of a perishable nature, into a manufacture good policy to promote as much as possible which constitutes a wealth more durable. the fabrication of manufactures, and the imAnd, that in consequence,“ no wealth could portation of grain, or of specie wherewith to " with truth be said to have been brought buy grain of other nations, in exchange for " into existence by the manufacturer.” Rut, : such manufacturus. In the third case suphow happened it that Mr. Spence overlooked posed, that is, taking the produce of the land the consideration, that the master and jour to be just sufficient for the consumption of neymen manufacturers, if they had not been the people, without any deficiency or redunemployed in building the coach, must not danct--then, inasınuch as there would be a withstanding huve ealen, and would, in point considerable portion of the community not of fact, have consumed the same quantity of occupied in agricultural concerns, but who food ? Had not the coachmaker by the in nevertheless, must sulisist upon the produce of dustry of himself and servants, erected the the land, it can surely require no arguments coach for the land proprietor, one of these to prove, that it is inore fitting that they two events would have taken place-either should be employed in the manufacture of use the land proprietor’s 60 quarters of corn ful articles, than live like so many idle drones. would have passed into the bellies of those And to me it does seeni obvious, that by such persons without his receiving any equivalent their manufactures they make an addition in relurn, or otherwise would have reagined to the stock of individual, and consequently in his granaries to perish. But, the coach of national wealth, seeing that but for such having been built, the land proprietor finds manufactures the yearly provuce of the land at the end of the year, that he has not only would be totally consumed, without any the land to produce him a crop in the suc thing of wealth remaining to represent that ceeding year, but that his wealth is increased yearly produce. But, in truth, there always by the addition of the coach. Wly, then, is would be manufactured by the class of artiit nut most plain that the coach which con ficers, a much grea:er number of articles than stitutes that additional wealth, was BROUCHIT would be necessary to procure for themselves INTO EXISTENCE by the manufacturer ? --It subsistence, by exchanging with the land will be in vain to say, that if those artificers proprietor for corn: wbo, then, will be had not been so employed the land proprie- bold enough to contend, that the in.anuface tor would, instead of the coach, have an ad Iure of such supernumerary arti İs, ünltic

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sale of them to foreign nations for gold Spence then comes to the consideration of (which gold, Mr. Spence assures as, is un the subject-Whether the employment of a doubtedly wealth), or in exchange for ne circuleling medium affects the creation of nocessaries, as tallow and barilla, for example, tional realth. The circulating medium of wherewith to make soap, --- who, I ask, will “ civilised nations," he observes, " is either be bold enough to assert, that no addition “ gold and silver, or paper. ''GOLD AND SILwould, by such manufacturer, be made to VER ARE UNDOUBTEDLY WEALTH, yet they national wealth ? Aye, will Mr. S. perhaps " are but a small portion of what has properly exclaim, but in the case of the tallow and a claim to that title; and a nation which barilla, at least, -as, when the soap comes

" has ABUNDANCE OF GOLD AND SILVER, is to be sold to the land proprietor, there will in fact not richer than if it had none. be given its value in corn for it, there is only -Really, Mr. Cobbert, it would be doing a little more complexity in the case, and it your readers a great kindness to explain this will eventually turn out to be the same thing, (to me inexplicable) paradox! You see, as far as national wealth is concerned. as if Sir, the gentleman tells us, that "gold and the manufactures so exported had been sold “ silver are undoubtedly WEALTH ;" but, to the proprietor of land for corn in the first only two lines below, asserts, that " instance. Now, Sir, I «leny that the conse " tion which has abundance of this same quences would be the same ; for, let it be gold and silver is not RICHER than if it remembered, that we are now speaking of

" had none !" That is to say :

a nation articles of manufacture, for which, the land “ which is wealthy is not richer than if it proprietor being already supplied, he has not “ had no wealth at all!" I would not com. the least occasion ; and he would not have plain of this most palpable contradiction, she useful article of soap at all, in exchange did it not prevent me from understanding for a part of his corn, but for the industry what the meaning of Mr. Spence is, and and enterprize of the manufacturer, who thereby deprive me of the pleasure I should exported his manufactures in exchange for otherwise feel in grappling with his reasonthe tallow and barilla--Then, Sir, as to ing “ The nation has," Mr. Spence says, the point, whether any addition would be paid an equal value of some other wealth made by such mapuficture and traffic to the “ for this gold and silver;" and therefore it wealth of the nation :--and it does appear is, I suppose, that Mr. Spence concludes, to me to be indisputable, that the national that from the presence of such gold and sil. wealth would thereby be increased to the ver the nation is not richer. Why, yes, Mr. full amount of the value of the tallow and Spence, there is certainly sometiiing in your barilla ; for the owner of those raw articles observation. Thus, in the case which I supis the manufacturer, who has already ob. posed above, the manufacturers received for tained from the land proprietor, in exchange the supernumerury articles which they exfor certain articles sold to him, sufficient ported, gold and silver ; but yet, perhaps, grain for the subsistence of himself and the nation was not richer after the exchange journeymen; so that, the produce of the than it was after such articles were made, lavd, in exchange for those raw materials, and before they were exported. But pray, would be to him of no service : and such Mr. Spence, recollect, that your argument manufacturer would therefore receive from against manufactures and commerce gnes the soapmaker, for his tallow and barilla, ei- iliis lengih :--that neither ly the manufacther gold or silver, or some other kind of tures exported, nor by the specie taken in durable wealth ; thereby adding to his own exchange for them, was any auiition made individual wealth, and, by consequence, to

to the national wealth !-You, Mr. Sperice, the wealth of that nation, of whose popu tell us, that there is no good reason why lation he makes one. It may be admitted, “ the nation should be desirous of having that the soapmaker will receive from the gold and silver, rather than any other land proprietor cora in exchange for bis species of wealth: for (say you, the only soap, but then there will not be required, superiority in value which the precious for the subsistence of the so:p-maker and “ metals possess over other products of his servants, so much com as will amount " the labour of man, is tbeir fitness for bein value to the full value of the soup ; for,

ing the instruments of circulation and even supposing him to make no protit by the exchange.” But, Sir, give me leave to sale of ihe soap, yet he must at least reimburse ask you, does not that very superiority con: himself the price paid for the raw material, situte A GOOD REASON why the nation should in order to reinstate his capital by taking in give the preference to gold and silver! The exchange for some part of his soap some land, we will suppose, owing to an unfae thing very different from food.r. vourable harvest, has not yielded its usual,

SINKING FUND.

and the expected quantity of good grain, but, DOMINION OF THE SEAS; but I should deein if we possess an abundance of that universal myself guilty of the most glaring contradicmedium, gold and silver, we shall be enabled tion, if I were not at the same time a friend to provide aguinst the scarcity, by purchasing to our manufactures, and commerce, for, if and importing corn from foreign coun I ever thought that, abstractedly considered, tries. Is there not then, good Mr. Spence, those manufactures and ibat commerce were a good reason why we should give pre rather prejudicial than of benefit to the ference to gold and silver ? But, according country, still should I think it wise to cul. to that gentleman, the necessity of having rivate rather than check their growth, being gold or silver as instruments of circulation firmly convinced, ihat our naval greatness is and exchange, no louger exists. “Expe inseparable from our commerce, and conse

rience,” he observes, las in modern quenily, that thut commerce is OF VITAL “ times, evinced that paper or the promis. IMPORTANCE to the country.- I am,

Sir, sory notes of inen of undoubted properry, | yours,—W. H. WROC.

yours,-W. H. WROC. - New Square, “ form a circulating medium fully as useful Lincoln's-Inn, Nov. 10:h, 1807. " and much less expensive.” Now, there is no doubt but that the paper of individuals answers the purpose of specie within the limited SIR; Although your correspondent circle, where the responsibility and the pro C. S. has proved to your satisfaction, that bity of those individuals are known ; but

payment of the nation's debts by means of who, besides Mr. Spence, would rank such ihe sinking fund, must increase the taxes, paper as equal in convenience to gold and

depreciate money, raise the price current, and silver, which is current not solely within a ruin us all, sevenfold ; I venture to suggest Jimited circle, nor throughout the nation at a doubt, that C. S's conclusions are not large nerely, but which constitutes the

quite certain. C. S. (see Pol. Reg. Vol. universal circulating medium of all civiliz

xii. p. 445) states as the grounds of his ared nations? --I now take my leave of Mr.

gument, Ist. That agriculture and manu. Spence's observations on Commerce; at factures have found their limit, or are inleast for the present, still retaining the same capable of extension. 2d. That the preopinion which I entertained before I perused sent capital in trade amounts to 100 milthose observations ; that is, that the inherent " lions. '3d. That the funded debt amounts wealth of every nation consists in the land,

to 100 millions." These three premises THE TRADE, and the industry of the people.

granted, he concludes that, “ if the said Were the system, for which Mr. Spence is ** funded debt of 600 millions be discharged 50 strenuous an advocate to be adopted, the “ by means of the sinking fund, then the Jand-proprietors would be rendered com capital in trade will be increased to 700 plete bashaws, and the population of the “ millions; the depreciation of money will country absolutely dependant upon them. “ be in the proportion of seven to one Then, should we in our days, see what our " of its present value, and the effects ancestors of old saw'--the main ludy of the or will be, &c. &c." -Sir, for the prea people were vassals to the greai land-holders,

sent I only venture to doubt, because, if one and our country, again over run and de million be drau'n out of the circulating capivastated by hordes from the more populous tal of 100 millions, that capital is thereby nations. Only destroy the commerce of the reduced to 99; and if the sivking fund apcountry, whicii is the nursery for our seamlen, plies the said one million in discharge of so and you at the same time DESTROY THE much of the debt of 600 millions, then is NAVY OF THE COUNTRY. Then will you the debt reduced to 599, and the one million sec the country sacked by Bonaparte and his

returned into the circulating capital whicha hosts of Myrmidons! Then would che old had been reduced by means of the tax to 99. Roast Beef song not alone sink into con Of course, it (the circulating capital) is retenipt; but you might with equal justice slored to its previous total of 100 millions; jeer at and deride the national song of Rule but, I doubt if it be thereliy encreased, or Britannia!!--This Mr. Spence is, I warrant money thereby depreciated. Repeat the him, a staunch stickler for "the Dominion

operation, draw one again out of the circulaof the Seas,'' and with most admirable con ting capital so restored to its total, with that sistency no doubt inveighs at the same one so drawn out, pay off one more of the time against commerce, although it is to that debt of 599 millions, then is the debt revery commerce that we are indebted for the duced to 598; the one million returned MEANS OF SECURING THAT DOMINIOX: I again to circulation, the circulating capital too (as I believe you know Mr. Cobbert), again complete, but not encreasedt. Had I am a zealous friend to our supporting the the advantages of a Scotch education, I could

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