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there were 4,286 cases of fever, of which 446 were fatal. of these cases 1,887 wore in New Orleans, where 1442 per cent. of the cases died.

Important affairs abroad in 1897, apart from those connected with the Cuban revolution, were: A British trading expedition was murdered by the King of Benin, Central Africa, January 6. Count Muravieff was appointed Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs Janoary 10. A Greek squadron arrived at Canea, Crete, and the union of Greece and Crete was proclaimed at Halepa February 8; on February 21 the insurgents at Canea, Crete, were bombarded by the fleet of the Powers; the next day Fort Voukouleis, in Crete, was captured from the Turks by Greek troops; the Powers ordered Greece to withdraw from Crete February 23, and on March 21 the blockade of Crete by the Powers' fleets began; the Turks and Christians fought near Malaxa, Crete, on March 25; Turkey declared war against Greece April 17, and on the following day the Greek Legislative Assembly declared its acceptance of such war; the Turks captured Domokos, in Thessaly, after a sanguinary battle in Milouna Pass, April 24; the Delyannis ministry in Greece resigned and was succeeded by the Ralli ministry April 29; the Turks occupied Pharsalos, after a battle, May 6; Volo was occupied by the Turkish army May 8; the representatives of the Powers intervened in the war May 11, and Greece accepted their terms and ordered the withdrawal of her forces from Crete; Turkey agreed to an armistice with Greece May 18, and a treaty of peace between the two warring nations was finally signed at Constantinople September 18. Japan adopted a gold standard March 1. Queen Ranavalona III., of Madagascar, was exiled by the French conquerers of the island March 7. Emperor William unveiled a statue of his grandfather on the centenary of the latter at Berlin March 22. The massacre of 700 Armenians at Takat, in Anatolla, was reported March 25. The Congress in Venezuela ratified the boundary arbitration treaty with Great Britain April 5. Peru suspended the coinage of silver April 9. An attempt was made to assassinate King Humbert of Italy at Rome April 22. The log of the Mayflower was transferred from British possession to the American Ambassador at London May 9. The plague ravaged Bombay, India, in May and June. By the burning of a charity bazaar in Rue Jean Goujon, Paris, some 180 persons, mostly of the French aristocracy, lost their llves May 4. The French line steamship Ville de St. Nazalre foundered at sea off Cape Hatteras, with a loss of many lives, May 7. The Brussels Exposition was opened May 10. A memorial bust of Sir Walter Scott was unveiled in Westminster Abbey May 21. Cambridge University refused to confer degrees on women by a voto of 1,713 to 662 May 30. A bomb was exploded near the carriage of President Faure, in France, June 13. Queen Victoria began the celebration of her jubilee, which was observed throughout the British Empire; services were held in St. Paul's Cathedral, and there was a great naval review near Portsmouth in honor of the occasion. The Pan-Anglican Conference of the Church of England and Episcopal Bishops began at Lambeth, England, forty-five American Bishops being in attendance, June 30. Herr Andree, with two companions, started in a balloon from the Island of Fromsoe for the discovery of the North Pole July 11. Great Britain cancelled its commerckal treaty with the German Zollverein July 30. A tidal wave destroyed many towns and thousands of lives on the coast of Japan August 5 and 6. Senor Canovas, Prime Minister of Spain, was assassinated by an anarchist August 8. The Emperor and Empress of Germany visited Russia as the guests of the nation August 8-11. The Anglo-Egyptian army captured Abu-Hamid on the Nile August 9. The surrender of the King of Benin, Central Africa, to the British was announced August 11. Prince Henry of Orleans and the Count of Turin fought a duel with swords near Paris, both being wounded, August 15. President Faure, of France, visited St. Petersburg and was entertalned with enthusiasm August 23-27. President Borda, of Uruguay, was assassinated at Montevideo August 25; on the same day it was reported that a treaty offensive and defensive between Russia and France was signed at St. Petersburg. An attempt was made to klil President Dlaz, of Mexico, September 15, and the assailant was hacked to pieces by a mob. There was severe fighting on the border of Afghanistan between the British and tribesmen September 16-20. A hurricane in the South Pacific Ocean destroyed many thousand lives October 12. The British troops stormed Dargai Ridge, or the Samana range, northern frontier of India, driving out the tribesmen; the Gordon Highlanders suffering severely, October 20.

An attempt was made at Rio de Janeiro to assassinate President Moraes November 6. General Westmacott's column in the Maidan valley, northern frontler of India, met with a severe reverse November 10. A German naval expedition occupied Klao-chow, China, in retallation for the massacre of German missionaries, November 15-16.

A great fire in the Cripplegate quarter of London, destroyed $10,000,000 worth of property November 19. The Austrian ministry resigned, after disorders in the Reichsrath, Novem, ber 28.


The entire civilized world watched, in 1898, the Spanish-American war (see special article on the following page), and drew lessons from its incidental developments and consequences. Especially were the war and navy departments of the universe keenly interested In the methods and results of the battles on land and sea, while the question of American expansion and other future policies entered largely into the brief struggle which resulted so disastrously to Spain. Other events of international interest and of a warlike nature Were: Gen. Joaquin Crespo, ex-President of Venezuela, was killed in battle with the insurgents April 18; the Venezuelan revolution was ended by the capture of General Hernandez June 12; Fashoda, on the White Nile, was occupied by Major Marchand and a French force September 1; Sir Herbert Kitchener, commanding the British and Egyptian army in the Soudan, won a great victory over the Dervishers at Omdurman, near Khartoum, which he occupied, September 2; a Mohammedan outbreak in Crete was followed by a magsacre of Christians and a bombardment of Candia by the Powers September 6; there were strained relations in Crete between the Turks and the warships of the Powers September 9-14; General Kitchener took possession of Fashoda and raised the British flag over it, despite the presence of the French occupants, September 20; diplomatic relations between Italy and Colombia were severed September 22; Chile and Argentina agreed to submit their boundary dispute to arbitration, thus averting war, September 23; Turkey consented to the evacuation of Crete by its troops October 11; France agreed to withdraw from its pretensions at Fashoda, in the Soudan, November 2.. Noteworthy general happenings during the year abroad were: Germany demanded indemnity from China for the killing of German missionaries February 1; the trial of Zola by the French Government was begun at Paris February 7; he was found guilty of libelling the Esterhazy court-martial, February 23, and sentenced to one year's imprisonment and 3.000 francs fine; President Barrios, of Guatemala, was assassinated February 8; an attempt was made to assassinate the King of Greece February 26; Senor Campos Salles was elected President of Brazil March 2; China leased Port Arthur to Russia for ninety-nine years March 7; the Spurgeon Tabernacle in London was destroyed by fire April 20; bread riots in Italian cities caused loss of life, the troops firing on the mobs, May 2-3; China paid the remainder of the war indemnity to Japan May 7; rioting in the streets of Milan were suppressed by the army with great loss of life May 8; Great Britain took possession of Wei-Hai-Wei, China, May 24; the publie funeral of William E. Gladstone was held in Westminster Abbey May 28; a new ministry was formed in Italy by Marquis Rudini May 31; the constitution of federated Australia was defeated in New South Wales June 5; the Anglo-French convention relative to the Niger boundary was signed June 13; the Norwegian Arctic expedition, on the Fram, sailed from Christiana June 24; the Japanese Cabinet, under Premier Ito, resigned June 27; the French steamer La Bourgogne collided with the British ship Cromartyshire and was sunk sixty miles south of Sable Islanda 560 lives were lost, including those of the captain and most of the officers, July 4; the Anglo-American League was organized in London July 13; Zola was convicted a second time of libel in Paris July 18; the appointment of George Nathaniel Curzon as Viceroy of India by the British Government was announced August 10; great fires at Nizhnee-Novgorod, in Russia, caused loss of many lives August 17; the United States and Canadian Joint High Commission met at Quebec August 23; the Czar of Russia announced proposals for a universal peace conference August 27; Colonel Henry, of the French army, committed suicide after confessing that he forged a letter to secure the conviction of Captain Dreyfus August 31; Mme, Dreyfus appealed to the French Government for a revision of the court-martial proceedings in her husband's case September 4; Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands became reigning monarch September 5; the Empress of Austria was assassinated by an anarchist at Geneva September 10; a hurricane in the British West Indies destroyed much property and 500 lives September 11; a balloon ascended from London, attaining an altitude of 27,500 feet, September 15; the French Ministry of War ordered the prosecution of Colonel Picquart, in connection with the Dreyfus case, September 21; the Emperor of China made a forced abdication in favor of the Dowager Empress September 22; the alleged remains of Christopher Columbus were exhumed in Havana, preparatory to shipment to Spain, September 26; the German Emperor and Empress left Berlin to visit Palestine October 12; they received a flattering reception at Constantinople by the Sultan, October 23, and entered Jerusalem October 29; the French Court of Cassation decided to grant a new trial in the Dreyfus case October 29; a new French ministry under M. Dupuy was installed October 31; the Earl of Minto took the oath of office as Governor-General of Canada November 12; Sir William Vernon Harcourt resigned the leadership of the Liberal party in England December 13.

Interesting events in the United States were: The monetary convention met at Indianapolis January 20; President Dole, of Hawail, arrived in Washington as the guest of the United States January 26; silver was beaten in the House of Representatives by a vote of 182 to 132 January 31; an earthquake in California did serious damage March 31; avalanches in the Chilkoot Pass, Alaska, killed more than 150 persons, mostly gold seekers, April 3; the levee at Shawneetown, Ill., on the Ohio River, broke, and many lives were lost by drowning, April 3; a commercial treaty with France was signed at Washington May 30; the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition opened at Omaha, Neb., June 1; a joint resolution for the annexation of Hawaii passed the House of Representatives June 15, and the Senate June 17; Senator Quay, of Pennsylvania, was held for trial on the charge of misusing public funds October 12; an explosion by gas in the Capitol at Washington wrecked the Supreme Court room and library November 7; general elections throughout the United States secured a small Republican majority in the House of Representatives of the next Congress November 8; the steamer Portland, bound from Boston to Portland, Me.. foundered in a gale off Cape Cod, with a loss of 118 lives, November 29; President McKinley and his Cabinet attended the Peace Jubilee at Atlanta, and visited Montgomery, Savan. nah and other Southern cities, receiving great ovations, December 13-19.


Although the overstrained temper of the American people precipitated the SpanishAmerican war, immediately after the destruction of the battleship Maine in Havana harbor on February 15, 1898, a long series of persecutions of Cuba by Spain had aroused the sympathies of American humanitarians, while years of disorder in the island made business men of the United States also insistent upon a speedy restoration of tranquillity. The wanton massacre of the Virginius prisoners during Cuba's ten-years' war was never forgotten by Americans, and Spain's haughty attitude did not tend to strengthen the bonds between Washington and Madrid, In February, 1895, a new insurrection began in Cuba, and the Spanish Government wać warned that prompt and effective measures to suppress the trouble must be taken. Spain sent great numbers of soldiers to Cuba, recalled General Campos for alleged lack of aotivity and supplanted him by General Weyler, who soon won the sobriquet of Butcher" by his bloody methods. To fire, rifle and sword he added the weapons of starvation and disease by driving non-combatants into reconcentrado camps, where he deprived them of food and other necessities. This was the state of affairs in Cuba in February, 1896, when the United States Congress entered into investigation and debate which resulted, April 6, in the passing of a resolution recognizing war between Spain and the Cuban Insurgents, offering the friendly offices of the United States to Spain, and declaring that the United States should maintain a strict neutrality. General Weyler, who had boasted when he assumed command that he would end the insurrection in a few months, accomplished little beyond increasing the sufferings of the Cubans, and his brutalItles led to vigorous remonstrances by the United States Government to the Spanish ministry. Weyler was thereupon recalled, being succeeded by General Blanco; the policy toward the reconcentrados was modified, and the semblance of an autonomous government for Cuba was instituted.

When 1898 came matters were worse instead of better in the island, and the American press and public clamored for immediate improvement. The Spanish population in Havana resented this, and there were ugly demonstrations against the Americans, even the life of Consul-General Lee being threatened. The North Atlantic squadron had assembled in the neighborhood of Dry Tortugas, Gulf of Mexico, during the first two weeks of the year, and on January 25 the battleship Maine arrived at Havana on a friendly visit and to preserve cordial relations between Spain and the United States. Spain at once informed the United States that the Spanish battleship Vizcaya would pay a similar visit to New York harbor. Tension was increased on February $ when publication was made of a letter written by Senor de Lome, Spanish Minister to the L'nited States, to a friend, in which he grossly reflected upon President McKinley. De Lome then resigned. On February 9 the United States Senate discussed intervention in Cuba. On February 14 resolutions requesting the President to transmit information relative to the situation in Cuba were adopted by Congress. On February 14 Senor Luis Polo y Bernabe was appointed Spanish Minister to the United States to succeed Senor de Lome. On February 15 occurred the blowing up of the battleship Maine in Havana harbor by a floating mine, 260 American lives being destroyed.

The United States was frenzied by this incident, few Americans believing that the Spaniards were not responsible. Captain Sigsbee, of the Maine, asked for a suspension of judg. ment pending an official investigation, while Spain promptly disclaimed any responsibility and expressed regret. A Court of Inquiry was at once appointed. It consisted of Capt. W. T. Sampson, of the Iowa; Capt. F. C. Chadwick. of the New York; Lieut. -Commander W. P. Porter, of the New York, and Lieut.-Commander Adolph Marix, of the Vermont. The court sat for a monta at Key West and Havana, and the American people, with surprising patience, awaited its verdiot. Many witnesses were examined, divers were employed on the sunken vessel, and voluminous testimony was taken.

On March 21 the court unanimously agreed: **That the loss of the Malne was not in any respect due to fault or negligence on the part of any of the officers or members of her crew; that the ship was destroyed by the explosion of a submarine mine, which caused the partial explosion of two or more of her forward magazines, and that no evidence has been obtainable fixing the responsibility for the destruotion of the Maine upon any person or persons.

While the high Spanish authorities were thus exonerated from any complicity in the affair, and no disposition was shown in the United States to impute guilt to Marshal Blance, the finding that the Maine had been blown up by external means further intensified American feeling. In the meantime, on March 7, a bill appropriating $50,000,000 for the national defence was introduced in the House of Representatives. It passed the House March 8, and the Senate March 9, and was signed by the President, the vote in Congress having been unanimous. The mobilization of the army was ordered, and active preparations were begun for the war which then seemed inevitable. On April 3 Consul Hyatt left Santiago. On April 10 Consul-General Lee left Havana, after seeing American refugees debark. On April 11 General Lee landed in Key West, and President McKinley sent to Congress a message describing the intolerable conditions existing in Cuba; advising against the recognition of the insurgents, to avoid international complications, and asking Congress to take action.

THE WAR BEGUN. On April 13, by a vote of 311 yeas to 6 nays, thirty-eight members not voting in the House, and in the Senate, by a vote of 42 yeas to 35 nays, twelve not voting, a joint resolution was passed recognizing the right of Cuba to be free; demanding the Immediate withdrawal of Spanish land and naval forces from Cuba and Cuban waters; directing the President of the United States to use the entire land and naval forces and the militia of the United States to enforce the resolution, and disclaiming any intention to exercise sovereignty, jurisdiction or control over Cuba, except for the pacification thereof. The President signed this resolution at 11.24 o'clock A. M., on April 20. When a copy was served on the Spanish Minister he immediately asked for his passports and left Washington. The resolution was also cabled to the United States Minister at Madrid, instructing him to inform the Spanish Government, and giving Spain until April 23 to reply. Before Minister Woodford could comply he received, at 7 o'clock on the morning of April 21, his passports from the Spanish Minister for Foreign Affairs, and this act constituted the actual beginning of war. On the day previous to this the Queen Regent of Spain appeared with the boy King before the Cortes and pleaded for support of the throne.

On April 24 the Cortes formally recognized the existence of war, and April 25 Congress, without a division, declared that war had existed since the 21st day of April, inclusive.

The President had proclaimed the blockade of Cuba April 21, and ordered Admiral Sampson's squadron to enforce it. On April 23 a call was issued by the President for 125,000 volunteers, the regular army was concentrated at Chickamauga, and a great camp for volunteers was laid out at Tampa, Fla.

Great Britain issued a proclamation of neutrality April 26, and the other Powers, cept Germany, did the same. The President, by proclamation, reaffirmed the intention of the United States to adhere to the Declaration of Paris, defining the position of the United States in regard to privateering, blockades, and Spanish and neutral merchant vessels with their cargoes. Commodore Dewey's fleet sailed from Hong Kong for the Philippines April 20; Congress passed an act for the increase of the regular army April 26; the batteries at Matanzas, Cuba, were bombarded April 27; Admiral Cervera's fleet left the Cape Verde Islands for the West Indies April 30.

DEWEY'S VICTORY AT MANILA BAY. On Sunday evening, May 1, at sunrise, the first great battle of the war was fought in Manila Bay and indicated to the world that the conflict between Spain and the United States would be of short duration. Acting Admiral Dewey, engaging the fleet of Spanish war vessels commanded by Admiral Montojo, in a few hours entirely destroyed the fleet. The Spanish loss was 412 officers and men killed, while on the American side none was killed and only seven men were wounded. This victory aroused the wildest enthusiasm in the United States, where Dewey became the hero of the hour, and was correspondingly depressing to Spain. Ten days later Dewey was made a Rear-Admiral.

On May 11 an attack was made on Cienfuegos and Cardenas, Cuba, and Ensign Bagley and four men on the torpedo-boat Winslow were killed; on May 11 Admiral Cervera's fleet appeared off Martinique; on May 12 Admiral Sampson bombarded San Juan, Porto Rico, with but slight effect; on May 13 the Flying Squadron left Hampton Roads for Eastern Cuba via Key West; a new Spanish ministry under Senor Sagasta came into office May 18; Admiral Cervera's fleet arrived in the harbor of Santiago de Cuba May 19; the cruiser Charleston sailed from San Francisco for Manila May 22; the battleship Oregon reached Jupiter Inlet, Florida, May 24; the President issued a second call for volunteers, the number being 75,000, May 25; the first Manila expedition from San Francisco May 25; Admiral Sampson's fleet arrived at Santiago from Porto Rico May 30. On the following day the forts at the entrance of Santiago harbor were bombarded by the fleets of Sampson and Schley, Cervera being “bottled up" in the harbor. No damage was done to either the city or the Spanish vessels, and, as the American fleet could not enter the harbor because of mines, it was decided to wait until a land force could co-operate to drive Cervera out or until he should attempt to escape.

Three days later than this occurred the daring episode of the sinking of the collier Merrimac at the entrance to the harbor by a body of seven picked men under Naval Constructor Richard P. Hobson, with the intention of blocking the harbor entrance. Under the Spanish guns at the entrance to the forts, and in sight of the American fleet, the Merrimac was driven at full speed and sunk by a hole being blown in her side, Hobson and his companions trying to escape under fire. but being captured by the Spaniards. Despite the bravery of the act, however, the result of making a barrier was not obtained.

When Shafter's army arrived and begun an attack on the outer works of the city, Cervera found himself in the extremity of remaining in the harbor and being captured by the troops or making a dash for the open sea. He chose the latter alternative, and on Sunday morning. July 3, at 9.30 o'clock, he pushed his vessels out in single column. They were the Viscaya and Oquendo, powerful armored cruisers; the Cristobal Colon and Maria Theresa, and two torpedo-boat destroyers. The waiting American ships gave chase, and in two hours had wiped the Spanish fleet out of existence, with a Spanish loss of 600 killed and drowned and 2.000 captured, including Admiral Cervera. Again the United States rejoiced, and the names of Sampson, Schley, Hobson and others who shared the naval victory were written with those of Manila Bay fame on the roll of honor.

THE FALL OF SANTIAGO DE CUBA. The army's turn came next. Santiago de Cuba, strongly entrenched, was the objective point. As soon as Cervera had been safely locked in the harbor, orders were given to General Shafter to take his entire corps, the Fifth, on transports to Santiago. Because of lack of sufficient means for transportation only $17 officers and 16,072 men went from Tampa. On June 20 the convoy reached Guantanamo Bay, where for two weeks a small force of marines had held the town and adjacent country, after skirmishing with the Spaniards, and where there had been a bombardment of Fort Caimanera by American warships. The beginning of the disc mbarkation of Shafter's troops was at Daquiri on June 22, 0.000 men having landed the first day with a loss of one killed and four wounded. The following day 6.000 more were landed, and on the night of June 24 the entire corps was ashore, having met

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