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den, and thus of the two states of Georgia and South Carolina ; and was prepared to advance into North Carolina. In the mean time general Gates was sent to the south, and began to collect a new army. His presence revived the expiring embers of opposition; the spirit of revolt manifested itself; and many of those who had fled from their country upon its subjugation by the enemy, to the adjoining states, returned.
“ Among them were Francis Marion and Thomas Sump“ ter, both colonels in the South Carolina line, and both pro“ moted by governor Rutledge to the rank of brigadier gen" eral in the militia of the state. Marion was about forty “ eight years of age, small in stature, hard in visage, healthy, “ abstemious, and taciturn. Enthusiastically wedded to the
cause of liberty, he deeply deplored the doleful condition of “ his beloved country.
The commonweal was his sole ob“ject; nothing selfish, nothing mercenary, soiled his ermine “ character. Fertile in stratagem, he struck unperceived ; « and retiring to those hidden retreats, selected by himself, « in the morasses of Pedee and Black river, he placed his
corps not only out of the reach of his foe, but often out of “the discovery of his friends.* A rigid diciplinarian, he re
• " Lieutenant colonel Lee was ordered to join Marion, after “Greene determined to turn the war back to South Carolina in 1781. “ An officer, with a small party, preceded Lee a few days march to “ find out Marion, who was known to vary his position in the swamps " of Pedee : sometimes in South Carolina, sometimes in North Caro. “ lina, and sometimes on the Black river. With the greatest difficul.
ty did this officer learn how to communicate with the brigadier ; and « that by the accident of hearing among our friends on the north side “ of the Pedee, of a small provision party of Marion's being on the
same side of the river. Making himself known to this party, he “ was conveyed to the general, who had changed his ground since his “party left him, which occasioned many hours' search even before his
own men could find him."
“ duced to practice the justice of his heart; and during the “ difficult course of warfare through which he passed, caluma
ny itself never charged him with violating the rights of per.
son, property, or of humanity. Never avoiding danger, he u never rashly sought it; and acting for all around him as 4 he did for himself, he risked the lives of his troops only « when it was necessary. Never elated with prosperity, nor “ depressed by adversity, he preserved an equanimity which “ won the admiration of his friends, and exacted the respect
of his enemies. The country from Cambden to the seacost « between the Pedee and Santee rivers, was the theatre of « his exertions.
« Sumpter was younger than Marion, larger in frame, bet“ ter fitted in strength of body to the toils of war, and, like “ his compeer, devoted to the freedom of his country. His u aspect was manly and stern, denoting insuperable firmness u and lofty courage. He was not over scrupulous as a sola 6 dier in his use of means, and apt to make considerable al« lowance for a state of war. Believing it warranted by the « necessity of the case, he did not occupy his mind with crite, ical examinations of the equity of his measures, or of their u bearings on individuals; but indiscriminately pressed for
ward to his end--the destruction of his enemy and libera“tion of his country. In his military character he resembled “ Ajax; relying more upon the fierceness of his courage
than “ upon the results of unrelaxing vigilance and nicely adjust“ed combination. Determined to deserye success, he risk« ed his own life and the lives of his associates without re“ serve. Enchanted with the splendor of victory, he would “ wade in torrents of blood to attain it. This general drew « about him the hardy sons of the upper and middle grounds ; « brave and determined like himself, familiar with difficulty, “ and fearless of danger. He traversed the region between “ Cambden and Ninety-six.
66 A third gentleman quickly followed their great exam. #ple. Andrew Pickens,* younger than either of them, inex“perienced in war, with a sound head, a virtuous heart, and a
daring spirit, joined in the noble resolve to burst the chains " of bondage rivited upon the two southern states, and soon “proved himself worthy of being ranked with his illustrious “ precursors. This gentleman was also promoted by the gov. Kernor to the station of brigadier general; and having assema bled his associates of the same bold and hardy cast,' distin
guished himself and corps in the progress of the war, by * the patience and cheerfulness with which every privation " was borne, and the gallantry with which every danger was si confronted. The country between Ninety-six and Augus. « ta' received his chief attention. These leaders were always " engaged in breaking up the smaller posts and the interme“ diate communications, or in repairing losses sustained by " action. The troops which followed their fortunes, on their ” own or their friends' horses, were armed with rifles, in the “ use of which they had become expert ; a small portion on
ly who acted as cavalry being provided with sabres, “When they approached the enemy, they dismounted, leay. “ing their horses in some hidden spot to the care of a few of " their comrades. Victorious or vanquished, they flew to U their horses, and thus improved victory or secured retreat.
“ Their marches were long and toilsome, seldom feeding $ more than once a day, Their combats were like those of " the Parthians, sudden and fierce; their decisions speedy, and “ all subsequent measures equally prompt. With alternatę " fortunes they persevered to the last, and greatly contributed “ to that success, which was the first object of their efforts."
* We believe that this gentleman is now a candidate for the office of governor of South Carolina. Vol. i. pp. 164-167.
To these officers, and others resembling them in spirit ånd patriotism, much of the success which attended the American arms in the southern states, is to be attributed. Traversing the country, they collected temporary bands of the hardy mountaineers, who after some sudden expedition returned to their homes.
“ The wallets were filled with provisions, the guns clean"ed, bullets moulded, and a scanty supply of powder was dis“ tributed qut of their scanty magazine.”—“Two hours only “ were occupied in getting ready to move, which followed “ as soon as the horses could be brought from pasture and “ accoutred. The grass of nature gave subsistence to the “ horse, while the soldier feasted on the homely contents of his " wallet, made and filled by his wife or mother."
It was by such men, that the complete and secure estab lishment of the British power in the south was now prevented, until Gates appeared, and collected an army with which he felt able to approach the enemy. This officer, who had obtained a most unmerited degree of reputation by his victory at Saratoga, where such were the mistakes in the plan upon which his antagonist acted, and such his own physical force, that success was insured to moderately skilful exertions, assumed his new command with an apparent confidence in his own superiority, not less inconsistent with modesty, than it appears to have been with justice. One of his first acts as com mander of the southern armies was the rejection of the offer of a corps of cavalry; and to this ill judged decision ge Lee ascribes in a great measure the heavy disaster which he subsequently experienced. “ Calculating proudly," he says, # on the weight of his name, he appears to have slighted the prerequisities to victory, and to have hurried on to the field of
* Vol. i. p. 205.
battle with the impetuosity of youth."* General Lee's re. marks upon his military conduct are moderate and just, and free from all asperity. For ourselves, we confess that we feel little respect for the memory of the man who used those base and dishonest means to supplant general Washington in his command, that it now fully appears were used by general Gates.t His ungenerous treatment of the commander in chief, and his presumptuous conduct in the Carolinas, are indications of a character proud, selfish, and weak, which presents a still more unlovely aspect from the necessary contrast which we must make between him and Lincoln, who preceded him, and Greene, who was his successor. General Gates was totally defeated in the first and only encounter which he had with lord Cornwallis, then the commander of the British forces in the south. The loss of the battle of Cambden, and the almost contemporaneous destruction of the force under general Sumpter, who had just gained some important advantages, again dispelled every appearance of powerful resistance to the invading enemy in the states of South Carolina and Georgia, and caused them to be considered as reannexed to the British empire. The remains of the American army reasembled at Hillsborough in North Carolina ; and Lord Cornwallis, after some time spent in attention to civil affairs, advanced in pursuit. It was during this time of the prostration of our army, that the importance of those active partizans, who were animated by ardent courage and by true patriotism, was most sensibly felt. The British army was harassed on its march by Davidson and Davie, and the continued activity of Sumpter, Marion, and Pickens, convinced its leader that his conquests were not yet secured. At this period occurred one of the most important achievements of these independent warriors. A party of
161. + See Marshall's Life of Washington, vol. iii. p. 336. and note fifth. Lee, vol. i. pp. 238 and 390.
* Vol. i. p.