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WEIGHTS AND MEASURES

The Metric System Source: Bureau of Standards, U. 8. Department of Commerce The International Prototype Meter is kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. By definition the meter now bears no definite relation to the earth's quadrant, but is the length of a certain platinum-iridium bar when supported in a definitely specified manner, at the temperature of melting ice, and at standard atmosphere pressure (760 millimeters of mercury).

The kilogram is independently defined as the mass of a definite platinum-iridium standard, the International Prototype Kilogram, which is also kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures. The liter is defined as the volume of a kilogram of water, at standard atmospheric pressure, and at the temperature of its maximum density, approximately 4. C. The meter is thus the fundamental unit on which are based all metric standards and measurements of length and area, and of volumes derived from linear-measurements.

Comparison of Metric and Customary Units From 1 to 9

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Units

UNITS OF LENGTH
Inches Links Feet Yards Rods Chains Miles Cent. Meters

1 0.126 263 0.083 333 0.027 777 0.005 050 0.001 262 0.000 015 2.540 0.025 400
7.92

0.66 0.22 10.04 0.01 10.000 125 20.116 0.201 168 12 1.515 152

0.333 333 0.060 6060.015 1510.000 189 30.480 0.304 800 36 4.545 45

1 0.181 818 0.045 4540.000 568 91.440 0.914 401 198 25 16.5 5.5

0.25 0.003 125 502.921 5.029 210 792 100 66 22 4

1 0.0125 2011.684 20.116 84 63 360 8000 5280 1760 320

80

1 160 934.72 1609.3472 0.3937 0.049 7090.032 8080.010 936 0.001 9880.000 497 0.000 006

1 0.01 39.37 4.970 960 3.280 833|1.093 61110.198 838 0.049 7090.000 621

100

1

1 inch 1 link 1 foot 1 yard i rod 1 chain 1 mile 1 cent. 1 met.

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A supplementary definition of the meter in terms of the wave length of light was adopted provisionally by the Seventh General (International) Conference on Weights and Measures, in 1927. According to this definition, the relation for red cadmium light waves under specified conditions of temperature, pressure, and humidity is-1 meter=1 553 154,13 wave lengths. This corresponds to a wave length (cadmium red) of 6 438.469 6x10-7 millimeters.

The kilogram is the fundamental unit on which are based all metric standards of mass. The uter 1s & secondary or derived unit of capacity or volume. The liter is larger by about 27 parts per million than the cube of the tenth of the meter, i.e., the cubic decimeter--that is, 1 liter=1.000 027 cubic decimeters.

UNITS OF AREA
Square Square

Square
Links
Feet

Yards

Square
Inches

Valta

Square
Rodo

Square
Chalos

1 sq. inch
1 89. link
1 sq. foot
1 sg. yard
1 89. rod
1 sg. chata
1 acre
1 sq. mlle
1 sg. cent.
18. meter
1 hectare

1 0.015 942 3 0.006 944 0.000 771 0.000 025 0.000 001 594 62.7264

0.4356 0.0484

0.0016

0.0001 144 2.295.684

1 0.111 111 1 0.003 673 09 0.000 229 568 1296 20.6612

9

0.003 057 85 0.002 066 12 39 204 625 272.25 30.25

1/ 0.0625
627 264

10 000
43561
484

161
6 272 640 100 000 43 560

4840

160

10 4014 489 600 64 000 000 27 878 400 3 097 6001

102 400

6400 0.154 999 7 0.002 471 04 0.001 076 0.000 119 598 0.000 003 953 0.000 000 247 1549.9969 24.7104

10.763 87 1.195 985 0.039 536 7 0.002 471 04 15 499 969 247 104 101 638.7 11 959.85 1395.367

24.7104

Units 1 sq. inch 1 sq. link 1 sq. foot 189. yard 1 sq. rod 1 sq. chala 1 acre 1 89. mile 1 sq. centi. 1 sq. meter 1 hectare

Square

Square

Square
Acres

miles
centimeters

meters

Hectares 0.000 000 169 4230.000 000 000 249 1

6.451 626 0.000 645 162 0.000 000 064 0.000 01 0.000 000 015 625

404.6873 0.040.468.73 0.000 004 046 0.000 022 956 8 0.000 000 035 870 1 929.0341 0.092 903 41 0.000 009 290 0.000 206 612 0.000 000 322 831 8361.307 0.836 130 7 0 000 083 613 0.006 25 0.000 009 765 625 252 929.5

25.292 95

0.002 529 295 0.1 0.000 156 25 4 046 873 404.6873

0.040 468 7 0.001 562 5 40 468 726 4046.873

0.404 687 640

25 809 984 703 2.589 998 258.9998 10.000 000 024 710 0.000 000 000 038 610

1 0.0001

0.000 000 M 0.000 247 104 10.000 000 386 100 6

10 000

1

0.0001
2.471 04
10.003 861 006
100 000 000 10 000

1

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UNITS OF VOLUME
Cubic
Cubic
Cubic

Cubic Cubic Cubic inches

feet

yards centimeters decimeters meters 1 0.000 578 704 0.000 021 433 16.387 162 0.016 387 0.000 016 387 1728

1 0.037 0370 28 317.016 28.317 016 0.028 317 016 46 656 27

1 764 559.4 764.5594 0.764 559 4 0.061 023 38 0.000 035 314 0.000 001 307

0.001 0,000 001 61.023 38 0.035 314 45 0.001 307 943

1 000

0.001
161 023.38
35.314 45 11.307 9428

1 000 000 1000

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CAPACITY-LIQUID MEASURE U.S. fluld

IU. S. quid

(U. S. liquid U.S. liquid
drams Milliliters ounces Milliliters pints Liters quarts Liters
(A dr) (ml) (fl oz) (ml) (pt) (liter) (at) (liter)
1= 3.6966
1= 29.573
1=0.473.17

1=0.946 33
2 7.3932
2 59.146
20.946 33

2=1.892 67
3=11.0898
3= 88.719
3=1.419 50

3-2.839 00
4514.7865
4-118.292
41.892 67

423.785 33

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0.270 52—1 0.541 042 0.811 553 1.082 07=4 1.352 59 1.623 11 1.893 63 2.164 14 2.434 6639

10.169 074-5 10.202 888=6 0.236 7037 10.270 5188 10.304 333—9

1.320 89
1.585 07
1.849 24
2,113 42
2.377 60—9

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UNITS OF CAPACITY (Liquid Measure)
Minims. Fluid drams Fluid Ounces Gills Liquid pts
1

0.016 666 7 0.002 083 33 0.000 520 8330.000 130 208
60
1
0.125

0.031 25 0.007 812 5
480
8
1
0 25

0.0625
1920
32
4
1

10.25
7680
128

16
15 360
256
32
8

2
61 440 1024

128
32

18
16.2311 0.270 518 0.033 814 7 0.008 453 68 0.002 113 42
16 231.1 270.518

33.8147

8.453 68 2.113 42 265.974 4.432 90 0.554 113 0.138 528 0.034 6320

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Units

| dry pint I dry quart I peck I bushel I liter i dekaliter 1 cubic inch

UNITS OF CAPACITY (Dry Measure)
Dry
Dry

Deka- Cubic pints quarts Pecks Bushels Liters liters Inches

0.5 0.0625 0.015 625 0.550 599 0.055 060 33.600 312 5 2

1

0.125 0.031 25 1.101 198 0.110 120 67.200 625 16

8
1

0.25 8.809 58 0.880 958 537.605
32
4
1

135.2383 3.523 83 2150.42 1.816 20 0.908 102 0.113 513 0.028 378 1

0.1

61.0250 18.1620 9.081 02 1.135 13 0.283 78 10

1

610.250 0.029 761 0.014 8800.001 860|0.000 465 0.016 386]0.001 638

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UNITS OF MASS LESS THAN POUNDS AND KILOGRAMS

Units

1 grain 1 ap. scru. 1 pennyw. 1 av. d. 1 ap. d. 1 8V. Oz. 1 ap. or ty.o 1 ap.or ty.ID 1 av. Ib. 1 mill. I gram 1 kilo.

Apothecaries

Avoirdupois ! Apothecaries' | Avoirdupols Gralas Scruples Peanyweights Drams

Drams

Ounces 0.05

0.041 666 67 0.036 571 43 0.016 666 7 0.002 285 71 20 1

0.833 333 3 0.731 428 6 0.333 333 0.045 714 3 24 1.2 0.877 714 3

0.054 857 1 27.343 75 1.367 187 5 1.139 323

1

0.455 729 2 0.0625
60
3
2.5
2. 194 286 1

0.137 142 9
437.5
21.875
18.229 17
16

7.291 66
480
24
20
17.554 28

8

1.097 142 9 5760 288 240 210.651 4

96

13.165 714 7000 350 291.6667 256

116.6667 16 0.015 432 0.000 771 618 0.000 643 014 0.000 564 383 0.000 257 205 0.000 035 273

15.432 356 0.771 618 0.643 014 85 0.564 383 3 0.257 205 9 0.035 273 96 15 432.356 771.6178 643.014 85 564.383 32 257,205 94 35.273 96

Valts

1 grain,
1 apoth. scru.
! pennyw't..
1 avo. dram..
1 apoth, dram.
1 avoir. Oz....
I ap. or troy o.
lap. or troy p.
I avoir lb....

milligram... 1 gram...... i kilogram.

Apothe. or Apothe. or Avoird.
troy ounces troy pounds pounds Milligrams Grams Kilograms
0.002 083 33 0.000 173 611 0.000 142 857 64.798 918 0.064 798 918 0.000 064 798
0.041 666 7 0.003 472 222 0.002 857 143 1295.9784 1.295 978 4 0.001 295 978
0.05

0.004 166 667 0.003 428 571 1555.1740 1.555 174 0 0.001 555 174 0.056 966 1460.004 747 178 0.003 906 25 1771.8454 1.771 845 4 0.001 771 845 0.125

0.010 416 667 0.008 571 429 3887.9351 3.887 935 1 0.003 887 935 0.911 458 3 0.075 954 861 0.0625

28 349.527 28.349 527 10.028 349 53 0.083 333 33 0.068 571 43 31 103.481 31.103 481 0.031 103 48 12

1

10.822 857 1 373 241.77 373 241.77 0.373 241 77 14.583 333 1.215 277 8 1

453 592.4277 453.592 4277 10.453 5924 27 0.000 032 160 0.000 002 679|0.000 002 204 1

0.001

0.000.001 -0.032 150 74 0.002 679 23 0.002 204 62 1000

1

0.001 32.150 742 2.679 228 5 12.204 622 341/1 000 000

1000

11

UNITS OF MASS GREATER THAN AVOIRDUPOIS OUNCES

Avolr. Avoir. Short Hun. Short

Long

Metric Uolts Ounces Pounds Weights

Tons
Tons Kilograms

Tons 1 av. Oz

1 0.0625 0.000 625 0.000 031 25 0.000 027 901 0.028 349 53 0.000 028 349 1 av. Ib. 16

0.01
0.0005

0.000 446 428 0.453 592 4270.000 453 592 1 sh. cwt 1600 100

1
0.05

0.044 642 86 45.359 243 0.045 359 243 1 sh. t. 32 000 2000 20

1

0.892 857 1 907.184 86 0.907 184 86 1 lg. ton 35 840 2240

22.4
1 12
1

1016.047 04 1,016 047 04 1 kilo. =35.273 957 2.204 622 0.022 046 223 0.001 102 3110.000 984 206

0.001 1 met, t =135 273.957/ 2204.622 34 22.046 223 1.102 311 2 0.984 206 40 1000

When the tables do not give the equivalent of tables, making a shift of decimal points, if necesany desired quantity directly and completely, the sary; and merely adding the results. equivalent can usually be obtained, without the combining the words "meter,

The supplementary metric units are formed by

"gram," and "liter necessity of making a multiplication of these re- with the six numerical prefixes, as in the following duction factors, by using quantities from several table: Prefixes Meaning

Units

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All lengths, areas, and cubic measures in the than the corresponding units used in this country. tables are derived from the international meter,

All weights are derived from the International the basic relation between

units of the customary Kilogram, as authorized in the Mendenhall Order and the metric systems being: 1 meter=39.37 of April 6, 1893. The relation used is 1 avoirdupois

pound=453.592 427 7 grams. inches. All capacities are based on the equivalent 1 liter volume occupied by the mass of 1 kilogram of pure

A liter (liter) is a unit of capacity equal to the equals 1.000 027 cubic decimeters. The decimeter water at its maximum density (at a temperature is equal to 3.937 inches in accordance with the of 4C, practically) and under the standard atlegal equivalent of the meter given above. mospheric pressure (of 760 mm). It is equivalent in

The gallon referred to in the tables is the United volume to 1.000 027 cubic decimeters. States gallon of 231 cubic inches. The bushel is the A bushel (bu) is a unit of capacity equal to the United States bushel of 2 150.42 cubic inches. These volume of 2 160.42 cubic inches. This is the sounits must not be confused with the British units called stricken or struck bushel. A heaped bushel of the same name which differ from those used in for apples of 2 747.715 cubic inches was established the United States.

by the U. S. Court of Customs Appeals on Feb. The British gallon (277.420 cubic inches) is ap- 15, 1912, in United States v. Weber (no. 757). A proximately 20 percent larger, and the British heaped bushel, equivalent to 14 stricken bushels, bushel (2 219.36 cubic inches) is 3 percent larger is also recognized.

Troy Lbs.

Metric Tons

2

0.000 373 24 0.000 746 48 0.001 119 73 0.001 492 97

COMPARISON OF TONS AND POUNDS IN USE IN U.S. Avoirdu pois Lbs. Kilograms Short Tons Long Tons 0.822 857

0.373 24 0.000 411 43 0.000 367 35 1.645 71

0.746 48 0.000 822 86 0.000 734 69 2.468 57

1.119 73 0.001 234 29 0.001 102 04 3.291 43

1.492 97 0.001 645 71 0.001 469 39 4.114 29

1.866 21 0.002 057 14 0.001 836 73 4.937 14

2.239 45 0.002 468 57 0.002 204 08 5.760 00

2.612 69 0.002 880 00 0.002 571 43 6.582 86

2.985 93 0.003 291 43 0.002 938 78
7.405 71

3.359 18 0.003 702 86 0.003 306 12
0.453 59 0.0005

0.000 446 43
0.907 18 0.0010

0.000 892 86 1.360 78 0.0015

0.001 339 29 1.814 37 0.0020

0.001 785 71

0.001 866 21 0 002 239 45 0.002 612 69 0.002 985 93 0.003 359 18

1.215 28 2.430 56 3.645 83 4.861 11

0.000 453 59 0.000 907 18 0.001 360 78 0.001 814 37

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At

Years in Which a Given Amount Will Double at Interest
At Compound Interest

At Compound Interest
At
Com -

ComRate Simple Com- pounded Com - Rate Simple Com - pounded Comlaterest pounded Semi- pounded

laterest pounded Semi. pounded Yearly Annually Quarterly

Yearly Annually Quarterly Years. Years. Years. Years.

Years. Years. Years. Years. 100.00 69.660

69.487 69.237 6 16.67 11.896 11.725 11.639 66.66 46.556 46.382 46.297 616 15.38 11.007 10.836 10.750 2 50.00 35.003 34.830 34.743 7 14 29 10.245 10.074 9.966 2% 40.00 28.071 27.899 27.748 71 13.33 9.584 9.414 9.328 3 33.33 23.450 23.278 23.191 8

12.50 9.006

8.837 8.751 316 28.57 20.149 19.977 19.890

81/2
11.76 8.497

8.327 8.241 25.00 17.673 17.501 17.415

11.11

8.043 7.874 7.788 22.22 15.747 15.576 15.490 9% 10.52 7.638 7.468 7.383 5 20.00 14.207 14.035 13.949 10

10.00 7.273 7.103 7.018 5% 18.18 12.942 12.775 12.689 12

8.34 6.116 5.948 5,862

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