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Source: Official Government Records
SAXONS AND DANES
Egbert.. Son of Ealhmund, of Kent, King of Wessex, founded Heptarchy.
Ethelred. Fourth son of Ethelwulf, killed by Danes in battle..
Athelstan... Eldest son of Edward the Elder.
Brother of Athelstan, murdered by a freebooter.
Brother of Edmund...
Eldest son of Edmund, died of grief.
Edward. "The Martyr," Son of Edgar, drove out Oslac, the Earl, murdere
Harold II...Brother-in-law of Edward the Confessor, slain in battle.
Stephen....Third son of Stephen, Count of Blois, by Adela, fourth daughter of
HOUSE OF PLANTAGENET
Son of Geoffrey Plantagenet, by Matilda, only daughter of Henry I.
1377 1399 34 1399
1413 47 13
1413 1422 34
Edward II... Eldest surviving son of Edward I; deposed by Parliament, Jan. 7,1327.
Richard II. Son of Black Prince and grandson of Edward III (deposed)..
HOUSE OF LANCASTER
Henry IV....Son of John of Gaunt (Ghent), 4th son of Edward III..
Edward IV.. His grandfather was Richard, son of Edmund, 5th son of Edward
HOUSE OF TUDOR
Henry VII... Son of Edmund, eldest son of Owen Tudor, by Katherine, widow of
Henry VIII.. Only surviving son of Henry VII.; 2 of his 6 queens were beheaded..
Elizabeth... Daughter of Henry VIII., by Anne Boleyn who was beheaded.
James I..... Son of Mary Queen of Scots, granddaughter of James IV., and
Charles I....Only surviving son of James I.: beheaded at London.
COMMONWEALTH DECLARED MAY 19, 1649
The Crom- Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector....
Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector, resigned May 25, 1659.
1653 1658 59
Charles II... Eldest son of Charles I, died without issue.
Son of William Prince of Orange, by Mary, daughter of Charles I.
George I.... Son of Elector of Hanover, by Sophia, daughter of Elizabeth
George II... Only son of George I., married Caroline of Brandenburg.
George IV... Eldest son of George III., married Caroline of Brunswick.
Edward VII. Eldest son of Victoria, married Alexandra. Princess of Denmark...
1923, Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon; acceded to throne, Dec.11;
The name of the Royal Family was changed to Windsor by a proclamation (July 17, 1917).
752 Angus I. (again).
The first royal Stuart was Robert II (1316-1390). He was called the "Steward," and was a son of Walter, the Steward of Scotland by the latter's wife, Marjorie, daughter of King Robert the Bruce. James VI of Scotland succeeded to the throne of England as James I and was crowned in 1603. Margaret (1286), the "Maiden of Norway," granddaughter of Alexander, was recognized by the States of Scotland although a female, an infant, and a foreigner. She died on her passage to Scotland. In the competition for the vacant throne, Edward I of England decided in favor of John Balliol.
Dukes of Kief (Kiev)-(850) Ruric or Rurik; (879) Oleg: (913) Igor I; (945) Olga, his widow: (955) Swiatoslaw 1; (973) Jaropalk I; (980) Valdimir; (1015) Swiatopalk; (1018) Jaroslaf; (1054) Isiaslaf I; (1073) Swiatoslaw II; (1078) Wsewolod I; (1093) Swiatopalk II; (1113) Vladimir II: (1125) Mitislaf; (1132) Jaropalk II; (1138) Wiatschelaw, and Wsewolod II; (1146) Isiaslaf II, and Igor II; (1153) Rotislaf; (1149) Jurie, or George I, who built Moscow.
Grand Dukes of Vladimir-(1157) Andrew I; (1175) Michael I; (1177) Wsewolod III; (1213) Jurie, or George II; (1217) Constantine; (1238) Jaraslaf II, then his son; (1245) Alexander-Nevski: (1263) Jaraslaf III: (1270) Vasali, or Basil I: (1275) Dmitri, or Demetrius I; (1281) Andrew II: (1294) Daniel-Alexandrovitz; (1303) Jurie. George III, deposed; (1305) Michael III: (1320) Vasali, or Basil II; (1325) Jurie or George III, restored; (1327) Alexander II.
Grand Dukes of Moscow-(1328) Ivan, or John I; (1340) Simeon; (1353) John II; (1359) Demetrius II. Prince of Susdal; (1362) Demetrius III, Donskoi; (1389) Basil III, Temnoi; (1425) Basil IV.
Czars of Muscovy-(1462) Ivan (Basilovitz), or John III (took title of Czar, 1482); (1505) Basil V: (1533) Ivan, the Terrible; (1584) Feodor. or Theodor 1, and his son, Demetrius; (1598) Boris Godonov, usurper; (1605) Feodor II; (1606) Demetrius, impostor, a Polish monk, succeeded by
Vasali-Chouiski; (1610) Ladislaus of Poland; (1613) Michael-Feodorovitz, of the house of Romanov, descended from John III; (1645) Alexis, his son: (1676) Feodor III; (1682) Ivan V, and Peter I brothers of Feodor III.
Czars, or Emperors, of Russia-Peter I, the foregoing, since known as Peter the Great (took the title of emperor in 1721); (founded the city of St. Petersburg, later called Petrograd, and, still later, Leningrad); (1725) Catherine, his widow: (1727) Peter II, son of Alexis Petrovitz, and grandson of Peter the Great; deposed; (1730) Anne, Duchess of Courland, daughter of the Czar Ivan: (1740) Ivan VI, infant, grand-nephew of Peter the Great, kept in prison, murdered in 1764; (1741) Elizabeth, daughter of Peter the Great: (1762) Peter III, son of Anne, deposed and succeeded by his consort, Catherine II, known as Catherine the Great, daughter of a Prussian general of high rank; (1796) Paul, her son, murdered in 1801: (1810) Alexander I, son of Paul; (1825) Nicholas I. brother of Alexander I; (1855) Alexander II, son of Nicholas; assassinated: (1881) Alexander III: (1894) Nicholas II, son of Alexander III. The czar and his family were assassinated in 1918. He had abdicated in 1917, after the revolution of March 12.
The General Secretary of the Communist Party, Joseph Vissarionovitch Stalin, was chosen premier of Soviet Russia in 1941, just before the Germans began the war against his country "to abolish Bolshevism."
Rulers of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire
Source: Historical Records
Carlovingian Dynasty-Ludwig "The German,"
Charles "The Fat," 876-887; reunited the Empire of Charlemagne, was crowned Emperor by the Pope and deposed after a treaty with the Normans.
Frederick III, 1439-1493; cousin of Albert; wars with the Turks and with Charles of Burgundy. Maximilian I. 1493-1519; son, married Mary of Burgundy. End of the period of the middle ages. Charles V. 1519-1556; King of Spain; grandson of Maximilian; Edict of Worms, 1521; Martin Luther; Reformation; civil war with the imperial with Francis I of France; religious wars.
Arnulf, Duke of Karthia, 887-900; nephew of Charles the Fat; final separation of the Empire. Ludwig "The Child," 900-911; last of the descen-knights, 1521; and with the peasantry, 1525; wars dants of Charlemagne.
Konrad I, Duke of Frankonia, 911-919; first elected sovereign.
Saxon Dynasty-Henry I "The Fowler," Duke of Saxony, 919-936.
Otto I "The Great," 936-973; son of Henry the Fowler, crowned in 962 by the Pope John XII as Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
Otto II, 973-983; son of Otto I; attempted the conquest of Lower Italy from the Greeks and Arabs and lost the battle of Cotrone; was buried in Rome. Otto III, 982-1002; son of Otto II; was 3 years old when his father died; regency of his mother Teophano and his grandmother Adelheid; at the age of 16 was crowned Emperior by the Pope.
Henry II, Duke of Bavaria, 1002-1024; son of Henry the Quarreler, duke of Bavaria, and greatgrandson of Henry the Fowler.
House of Franconia (The Salic House)-Konrad II, 1024-1039; great-grandson of Konrad I, and son-in-law of Otto the Great.
Henry III, 1039-1056; son of Konrad II; occupied himself with church affairs; at the Synod in Sutry deposed three popes and had a German bishop elected; annexed Bohemia to the Empire and was temporarily recognized as ruler of Hungary. Henry IV, 1056-1106; son of Henry III: regency of his mother, Agnes of Poitou; contest with the Pope Gregory VII.
Henry V, 1106-1125; son of Henry IV; continuation of the conflict with the church; agreement of Worms 1122; end of the Salic House.
Lothar, Duke of Saxony, 1125-1137; crowned in Rome 1134; beginning of the contest between the Suabian House of Staufen and the Bavarian House of Welf; 1134 Albrecht the Bear was made count of the Northern Mark, from which developed Prussia. Hohenstaufen Dynasty-Conrad III, Duke of Suabia, 1138-1152; wars with the Bavarian House of the Welfs; participation in the 2nd Crusade.
Frederic IBarbarossa" 1152-1190; conquest of the cities of Lombardy; second conflict with the Pope; loss of Upper Italy; the 3rd Crusade.
Henry VI, 1190-1197; conquest of Lower Italy from the Normans; Kingdom of Palermo, inherited by his only son Frederic.
Philipp of Suabia, 1198-1208; younger son of Frederic Barbarossa; war against Otto of Bavaria; assassinated.
Otto (of the House of Welf), 1198-1215; excommunicated and deposed 1215; died 1218.
Frederic II, 1215-1250: son of Henry VI: ruler of the Kingdom of Palermo; 5th Crusade; crowned as King of Jerusalem; third conflict with the Pope.
Conrad IV, 1250-1254; son of Frederic II; Kingdom of Palermo inherited by his brother Manfred; Pope assists brother of French king, Charles of Anjou, to seize Lower Italy. Unsuccessful attempt of Conradin to restore the throne of the Staufen House in Italy, 1268; Conradin was beheaded. Interregnum, 1250-1273; different pretenders elected, but none came to power; William of Holland; Richard of Cornwallis; Alfons of Castilia.
Rulers of Different Houses-Rudolf of Habsburg, 1273-1291; wars with King Ottokar of Bohemia, and conquest of Bohemia: bequeathed Austria to his eldest son; foundation of Austria.
Adolphus, Count of Nassau, 1291-1298; wars with Albrecht of Austria, killed in battle of Göllheim. Albrecht I, Duke of Austria, 1298-1308; murdered by his nephew John.
Henry VII of Luxembourg, 1308-1313; march into Italy: crowned emperor in Rome.
Ludwig of Bavaria, 1314-1347; at the same time election of Frederic the Beautiful of the Austrian house (1314-1330); civil war; abolition of the papal sanction for the election of an emperor. Charles IV of Luxembourg, 1347-1378; grandson of Henry VII; ruler of Bohemia; Golden Bull. Wenzelaus, 1378-1400; son of the King of Bohemía; deposed.
Rupprecht, Duke of the Palatinate; 1400-1410. Sigismund, 1411-1437; King of Hungary: wars against pretenders; Jost of Brandenburg and Wenzeslaus; Council of Constanz, 1414-18; Hussit Wars. Habsburg Dynasty-Albert of Austria, 1438-1439; son-in-law of Wenzeslaus, inherited from him the Kingdom of Hungary, and Bohemia; beginning of the wars against the Turks.
Ferdinand I, 1558-1564. Maximilian II, 15641576; son, Rudolf II, 1576-1612; son, Protestant Union, 1608.
Mathias, 1612-1619; brother; 1618 beginning of the 30 years' war.
Ferdinand II "of Steiermark," 1619-1637; leader of the Catholic Liga; elected emperor at Frankfort; religious wars: Gustav Adolph of Sweden.
Ferdinand III, 1637-1657; Wallenstein; Peace of Westphalia, 1648. Leopold I, 1658-1705; son, Joseph I, 1705-1711; son, Charles VI, 1711-1740; son of Leopold I.
Maria Theresa, 1740-1780; daughter of Charles VI; Queen of Hungary; 7 years' war with Frederic the Great, King of Prussia.
Charles VII of Bavaria, 1742-1745; pretender to the throne, crowned; defeated by Maria Theresa. Franz I of Lothringen Toscana, 1745-1765; husband of Maria Theresa; raised by her to co-heir: (since then reigning of the dynasty HabsburgLorrain-Toscana).
Joseph II, 1765-1790; son; first partition of Poland. Leopold II, 1790-1792.
Franz II, 1792-1806; abdicated as Emperor of the German Nation; continued to reign as Emperor of Austria; died in 1835.
After the Peace of Pressburg, Napoleon set up the Rhine Confederation; in 1815 it was succeeded by the Germanic confederation, which included Austria, Prussia, Denmark, Holland and practically all of the German States. As a result of the Austro-Prussian war, Austria retired from the Confederation in 1866; new confederation formed by Prussia and called North German Union; ended with establishment of German Empire, 1871.
Rulers of Prussia-Prussia's rulers were called Markgrafs of Brandenburg; from 1134 till 1356; they were also known as Dukes of Prussia. From 1356 (the Golden Bull) they were Electors (Kurfurst of Brandenburg), and from 1701 Kings of Prussia.
The first Markgraf of Brandenburg was Albrecht the Bear, 1134-1170. The first Hohenzollern was Frederick, Burggraf of Nuremberg (Nurnberg), 1415-1440.
Frederick William, 1640-1688, is known as the Great Elector; his son Frederick III, 1688-1713, was crowned King Frederick I of Prussia on January 18, 1701.
Frederick I, 1701-1713, of the House of Hohenzollern; first King of Prussia; war with Sweden. Frederick William I, 1713-1740; organization of the State.
Frederick II "The Great," 1740-1786; 7 years' war; annexing of Silesia; first partition of Poland. Frederick William II, 1786-1797; brother of Frederick the Great; third partition of Poland: annexing of Ansbach and Bayreuth.
Frederick William III, 1797-1840; Napoleonic wars; liberation of the peasants.
Frederick William IV, 1840-1861; German Revolution, 1848-49; first Government Parliament in Frankfort-on-Main in 1848; Prussian Constitution. 1848; attempt to reunite the German Empire. William I, 1861-1888; brother of Frederick William IV; German Emperor, January 18, 1871: Danish war; annexing of Schleswig: GermanFranco-Prussian war; annexing of Hannover.
Frederick III, 1888. William II, 1888-1918. The German Empire was restored on Jan. 18 1871, and King William of Prussia was proclaimed German Emperor at Versailles. After his death he was succeeded by his son Frederick and, a year later, by Frederick's son, William II.
William II abdicated as German Emperor and King of Prussia on November 9, 1918. At the same time, or shortly after, the other ruling sovereigns in Germany also abdicated and Germany became a Republic. A constitution was adopted at Weimar on July 31, 1919. The first president was Frederick Ebert, February 11, 1919-February 28, 1925; succeeded May 12, 1925, by Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg-Beneckendorff (reelected in 1932). He died, Aug. 2, 1934; on Aug. 19, Chancellor Adolph Hitler was chosen successor, under the title, Leader-Chancellor, by 38,362,760 votes out of 43,629,710 cast, of which 4,295,654 were in opposition, and 872,296 were defective.
Rulers of France
Source: Official Records
After Hannibal crossed the Alps in 218 B.C., the Romans held possession of Gaul until 428 A.D.. when the Franks, (Merovingian branch) a Germanic people, expelled them as a governing class, and began the gradual establishment of the Kingdom of France, which then included Belgium and the Rhine Valley to the sea, as well as much of Germany.
The first great Merovingian king was Clovis (Chlodwig, Ludwig, Louis) son of Childeric, who began to reign in 481 A.D. The Dynasty lasted until Childeric III, 742, when Charles Martel, conqueror of the invading Saracens, took hold. Meantime the Merovingians had split into east and west classes, called Austrasians and Neustrians. The mayors of the palace were often the real rulers. The first powerful mayor of the palace was Pepin of Heristal (687-714); and the next after him was RULERS OF FRANCE AS A
his natural son, Charles Martel (martel means hammer), father of King Pepin the Short and grandfather of Charlemagne (Charles the Great) who, in 800, at Rome, was crowned Emperor by Pope Leo III.
The original Pepin in history came from Landen. in what is now Belgium, north of Liege, but his origin is obscure. The Pepins were warriors. Charlemagne and his brother Carloman, who were born at or near Landen, were to rule jointly over France, Germany, Spain and Italy; Carloman lived only three years thereafter. Charlemagne died in 814, at Aix la Chapelle, which the Germans call Aachen. His grandsons fought among themselves with armies backing them, but made peace at Verdun in 843 and the empire was divided.
France fell to Charles the Bald, son of King
936 Louis IV., son of Chas. III. Died in fall off horse. 954 Lotherius, son, polsoned.
986 Louis V., his son, poisoned by queen.
987 Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, (Hugh the Great), son of Hugh the Abbott, seized the crown.
996 Robert (the Wise), his son.
1031 Henry I., his son, last Normandy.
1060 Philip I. (the Fair), son, King at 14.
1108 Louis VI. (le Gros), son.
1137 Louis VII. (le Jeune), son.
1180 Philip II. (Augustus), son, crowned at Rheims.
1223 Louis VIII, The Lion, son.
1226 Louis IX. (Saint Louis), son, died at Tunis.
1270 Philip III. (the Hardy), son.
1285 Philip IV. (the Fair), son, King at 17.
1314 Louis X. (the Headstrong), son.
1315 John I., posthumous son.
1316 Philip V. (the Tall), brother.
1322 Charles IV. (the Fair), brother.
House of Valois
1328 Philip VI. (of Valois), grandson of Philip III. 1350 John II. (the Good), his son, retired to England. 1364 Charles V. (the Wise), son.
1380 Charles VI. (the Beloved), son.
1422 Charles VII. (the Victorious), son.
1461 Louis XI. (the Cruel), son, civil reformer.
1483 Charles VIII. (the Affable), son.
1498 Louis XII., Duke of Orleans, grt. grandson of Charles V.
1515 Francis I., of Anjouleme, nephew, son-in-law. 1547 Henry II., son, killed at a joust.
1559 Francis II., son, married Mary Stuart.
1560 Charles IX., brother, son of Catherine de Medici.
1574 Henry III., brother, King of Poland, stabbed to death.
House of Bourbon 1589 Henry IV. of Navarre, son-in-law of Henry II: murdered.
Kings of Sweden-Before 1001 the Swedish rulers were known as Kings of Upsala. The sovereigns since 1389 when Margaret of Denmark was called to the throne, have been: (1412) Eric XIII: (1440) Christopher III; Charles VIII (Canuteson); (1483) John II: (1520) Christian II; (1522) Gustavus I (Vasa); (1560) Eric XIV: (1569) John III; (1592) Sigismund III; (1604) Charles IX: (1611) Gustavus II (Adolphus the Great): (1633) his daughter, Christina; (1654) Charles X (1660) Charles XI; (1697) Charles XII: (1718) Ulrica Eleanora and her husband Frederick 1: (1741) Frederick I (1751) Adolphus Frederick: (1771) Gustavus III: (1792) Gustavus IV: (1809) Charles XIII: (1818) Charles XIV (Jean Barnadotte, formerly one of Napoleon's marshals): (1844) Oscar I; 1859) Charles XV; (1872) Oscar II; (1907) Gustavus V.
Norway, which had been united with Denmark and Sweden, in 1389, under Margaret, declared independence in 1814, but the union of Norway and Sweden was not finally dissolved until 1905, when Prince Carl of Denmark was elected King of Norway as Haakon VII.
1814 Louis XVIII., King; brother of Louis XVI. 1824 Charles X., brother; deposed.
House of Orleans
1830 Louis Philippe (Egaltte), King. Second Republic
1848 Louis Napoleon elected President. Second Empire
1852 Louts Napoleon. Emperor, deposed 1870. Third Republic-Presidents
1871 Thiers, Louis Adolphe (1797-1877), historian. 1873 MacMahon, Marshal Patrice M. (1808-1893). 1879 Grevy, Paul J. (1807-1891), resigned.
1887 Sadi-Carnot, M. (1837-1894), assassinated. 1894 Casimir-Perier, Jean P. P. (1847-1907), resigned 1895 Faure, Francols Felix (1841-1899). 1899 Loubet, Emile (1838-1929). 1906 Fallieres, Armand (1841-1931). 1913 Poincare, Raymond 1860-1934).
1920 Deschanel, Paul (1856-1922), resigned. 1920 Millerand, Alexandre (18591924 Doumergue, Gaston (1863-1937). 1931 Doumer, Paul (1857-1932), assassinated May 6. 1932, at Paris.
1932 Lebrun, Albert (1871-1940).
Germany, in June, 1940, conquered France, occupying Paris and a large part of the coastal and border regions. The third Republic of France has disappeared and the Government (Oct. 1, 1941) has not assumed final form.
The rulers have been-(630) Olaf of Sweden; (640) Halfdan I; (700) Eystein 1; (730) Halfdan 11: (784) Gudrod: (824) Halfdan II, the Black Warrior: (865) his son: (934) his son, Eric I, the Bloody Axe; (923) Hako the Good, then Harold, son of Eric: (977) Hako the Earl; (995) Olaf 1; (1015) his son, Olaf II; (1028) Canute the Invader, then Sweyn; (1035) Magnus I, natural son of Olaf II: (1047) Harold Hardrada; (1066) Olaf III, Magnus II: (1093) Magnus III, son of Olaf III: (1103) Sigurd I, Elystein II, Olaf IV; (1130) Magnus IV. Harold IV; (1136) Sigurd II, son of Harold IV: (1162) Magnus V (1186) Swerro the Adventurer: (1202) Hako, his son; (1204) Inge Baardson: (1217) Haakon Haakonsson; (1263) Magnus Lagaboter: (1280) Erik Magnusson; (1299) Haakon V. Magnusson; (1319) Magnus Eriksson: (1355) Haakon VI Magnusson; (1381) Olav Haakonsson; (1388) Margreta: (1389) Erik of Pommern; (1442) Kristofer of Bayern; (1449) Karl Knutsson; (1450-1814) same sovereigns as Denmark; (1814) Kristian Fredrik; (1814-1905) same rulers as Sweden: (1905) Haakon VII (Prince Carl of Denmark). He fled to England in 1940 when the Germans forcibly seized his country.
509 Tarquinius, expelled.
391 Marcus F. Camillus, dictator.
Valerius Corvus. 260 Provin. Quaestors inst. 217 Fabius Maximus, dictator. 183 Cato, the Elder, Censor. 82 Sylla (Sulla), dictator. 70 Crassus and Pompey, Consuls. 59 Pompey (slain in Egypt). 49 (Calus) Octavius Caesar, Marc Antony and Lepidus, 2nd Triumvirate.
491 Anastasius I., Dicorus. 518 Justin I., the Goth. 527 Justinian 1., the Great. 565 Justin II., his nephew. 578 Tiberius II.
582 Maurice (Flavius Tiberius).
698 Tiberius III., Aspimar.
718 Leo (the Isaurian).
802 Nicephorus, fought Turks.
161 Marcus Aurelius Antonius and Lucius Verus.
171 Marcus Aurelius (alone).
235 Maximinus ("The Thracian")
ROMAN EMPIRE OF THE EAST A.D.
842 Michael III. 867 Basilius.
886 Leo VI. (the Philosopher). 911 Constantine VII.
919 Constantine and Romanus
963 Nicephorus II., Phocas.
1025 Constantine VIII
Kings of Modern Italy-(1805) Napoleon, Emperor of the French; he abdicated in 1814: (1861) Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia; (1878) Humbert I. (1900) Victor Emmanuel III who, in 1937, was proclaimed Emperor of Ethiopia.
Rulers of Austria-Hungary (1804) Francis I, who reigned as Francis II of Germany until 1806: (1835) Ferdinand, his son; (1848) Francis-Joseph, son of Francis-Charles, who was a brother of Ferdinand. The Dual Monarchy dissolved in the World War, Austria becoming a republic and Hungary a kingdom, with a regent at its head. Francis-Joseph died, Nov. 21, 1916, and was succeeded by Charles who abdicated, Nov., 1918, and died in exile in 1922. Austria was absorbed by Germany in 1938. Kings of the Belgians-(1831) Leopold I: (1865) Leopold II; (1909) Albert, nephew of Leopold II; (1934) Leopold III, son of Albert.
Kings of Spain (1512) Ferdinand V. (1516) Charles I; (1556) Philip II; (1598) Philip III: (1621) Philip IV: (1665) Charles II: (1700) Philip V (the first Bourbon); (1724) Louis I: (1746) Ferdinand VI; (1759) Charles III; (1788) Charles IV: (1808) Ferdinand VII; (1808) Joseph Bonaparte; (1813) Ferdinand VII; (1833) Isabella II; (1870) Amadeo I; (1873) a republic; (1874) Alphonso
408 Theodosius II. (East). 425 Valentinian III. (West) 450 Marcian (East).
455 Petronius Maximus (West) 455 Avitus (West).
457 Leo the Great (East).
457 Majorianus (West).
461 Severus (West).
467 Anthemius (West).
472 Oliblus (West).
473 Glycerius (West).
474 Julius Nepos (West). 474 Zeno (East).
475 Augustulus Romulus (West).
476 Rome taken by Odoacer, King of Italy; extinction Western Empire.
1204 Baldwin I., Earl of Flanders. 1206 Henry I., his brother. 1216 Peter de Courtenay. 1221 Robert de Courtenay. 1228 Baldwin II.
Greek Emperors at Nicaea,
1204 Theodore 1., Lascaris
1295 Michael IX. Palaeologus.
1347 John Cantacuzenus (Regent). 1391 Manuel II., Palaeologus. 1425 John Palaeologus II.
1448 Constantine XIII. (Palaeolo
1453 Constantinople taken by the Turks; extinction of the Eastern Empire.
XII: (1886) Alphonso XIII (died Feb. 28, 1941, of a heart attack, in Rome, at the age of 54. His property and his citzenship had been restored. On April 14, 1931, Alphonso quit Madrid without formally resigning the throne, and a republic was proclaimed under the provisional presidency of Niceto Alcala Zamora. Later, a Republican Parliament (Cortes) was elected, Zamora was chosen president, and a constitution was established. He was removed on April 7, 1936, by the Cortes, which chose as his successor ex-Premier Manuel Azana, who resigned on Feb. 27, 1939, and Spain went under the military rule of Gen. Francisco Franco. Kings of Denmark-(1839) Christian VIII, son of Frederick VI (who was King of Denmark and Norway); (1848) Frederick VII; (1863) Christian IX; (1906) Frederick VIII; (1912) Christian X. Rulers of Holland-(1806) Louis Bonaparte, brother of Napoleon, abdicated in 1810; Holland reunited to France; (1813) William Frederick, Prince of Orange; (1840) William II; (1849) William III; (1890) Wilhelmina (daughter of William III and his second wife, Princess Emma of Waldeck). She fled to England with the Princess Juliana, in 1940 when the Germans seized her country, but had not resigned.