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Rulers of Germany and the Holy Roman Empire

Source: Historical Records Carlovinglan Dynasty-Ludwig"The German," Frederick III, 1439-1493; cousin of Albert; wars 873-876.

with the Turks and with Charles of Burgundy. Charles "The Fat," 876-887; reunited the Empire Maximilian I. 1493-1519: son, married Mary of of Charlemagne, was crowned Emperor by the Pope Burgundy. End of the period of the middle ages. and deposed after a treaty with the Normans. Charles V. 1519-1556; King of Spain; grandson of

Arnuli, Duke of Karthia, 887-900; nephew of Maximilian: Edict of Worms, 1521; Martin Charles the Fat; final separation of the Empire. Luther: Reformation; civil war with the imperial

Ludwig "The Child," 900-911; last of the descen- knights, 1521; and with the peasantry, 1525; wars dants of Charlemagne.

with Francis I of France; religious wars. Konrad I,

Prankonia, 911-919; first Ferdinand I, 1558-1564. Maximilian II, 1564elected sovereign.

1576; son, Rudolf II, 1676-1612; son, Protestant Saxon Dynasty-Henry I "The Fowler," Duke of Union, 1608. Saxony, 919-936.

Mathias, 1612-1619; brother; 1618 beginning of Otto 1 "The Great," 936-973; son of Henry the the 30 years' war. Fowler, crowned in 962 by the Pope John XII as Ferdinand II "of Steiermark," 1619-1637; leader Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

of the Catholic Liga; elected emperor at FrankOtto II, 973-983; son of Otto i; attempted the fort; religious wars: Gustav Adolph of Sweden. conquest of Lower Italy from the Greeks and Arabs Ferdinand III, 1637-1657; Wallenstein; Peace of and lost the battle of Cotrone; was buried in Rome. Westphalia, 1648. Leopold I, 1658-1705; son, Joseph

Otto III, 982-1002; son of Otto II; was 3 years 1, 1705-1711; son, Charles vi, 1711-1740: son of old when his father died; regency of his mother Leopold I. Teophano and his grandmother Adelheid: at the Maria Theresa, 1740-1780; daughter of Charles age of 16 was crowned Emperior by the Pope. VI; Queen of Hungary: 7 years' war with Frederic

Henry II, Duke of Bavaria, 1002-1024; son of the Great, King of Prussia. Henry the Quarreler, duke of Bavaria, and great- Charles VII of Bavaria, 1742-1745; pretender to grandson of Henry the Fowler.

the throne, crowned; defeated by Maria Theresa. House of Franconia (The Salic House)--Konrad Franz I of Lothringen Toscana, 1745-1765: husII, 1024-1039; great-grandson of Konrad I, and band of Maria Theresa; raised by her to co-heir: son-in-law of Otto the Great.

(since then reigning of the dynasty HabsburgHenry III, 1039-1056; son of Konrad II; occupied Lorrain-Toscana). himself with church affairs; at the Synod in Sutry Joseph II, 1765-1790; son; first partition of deposed three popes and had a German bishop Poland. Leopold II, 1790-1792 elected; annexed Bohemia to the Empire and was Franz II, 1792-1806; abdicated as Emperor of the temporarily recognized as ruler of Hungary. German Nation; continued to reign as Emperor of

Henry TÙ, 1056-1106; son of Henry III; regency Austria; died in 1835. of his mother, Agnes of Poitou; contest with the After the Peace of Pressburg, Napoleon set up the Pope Gregory VII.

Rhine Confederation; in 1815 it was succeeded by Henry V, 1106-1125; son of Henry IV; continua. the Germanic confederation, which included Austion of the conflict with the church; agreement of tria, Prussia, Denmark, Holland and practically Worms 1122; end of the Salic House.

all of the German States. As a result of the Lothar, Duke of Saxony, 1125-1137; crowned in Austro-Prussian war, Austria retired from the Rome 1134; beginning of the contest between the Confederation in 1866; new confederation formed Suabian House of Staufen and the Bavarian House by Prussia and called North German Union; ended of Welf; 1134 Albrecht the Bear was made count of with establishment of German Empire, 1871. the Northern Mark, from which developed Prussia. Rulers of Prussia--Prussia's rulers were called

Hohenstaufen Dynasty-Conrad III, Duke of Markgrafs of Brandenburg: from 1134 till 1356: Suabia. 1138-1152; wars with the Bavarian House they were also known as Dukes of Prussia. From of the Welis; participation in the 2nd Crusade. 1356 (the Golden Bull) they were Electors (Kur

Frederic I Barbarossa" 1152-1190; conquest of furst of Brandenburg), and from 1701 Kings of the cities of Lombardy; second conflict with the Prussia. Pope; loss of Upper Italy; the 3rd Crusade.

The first Markgraf of Brandenburg was Albrecht Henry VI. 1190-1197; conquest of Lower Italy the Bear, 1134-1170. The first Hohenzollern was from the Normans; Kingdom of Palermo, inherited Frederick, Burggraf of Nuremberg (Nurnberg), by his only son Frederic.

1415-1440. Philipp of Suabia, 1198-1208; younger son of

Frederick William, 1640-1688, is known as the Frederic Barbarossa; 'war against otto of Bavaria: Great Elector; his son Frederick III, 1688-1713. was assassinated.

crowned King Frederick I of Prussia on January Otto (of the House of Welf), 1198-1215; excom- 18, 1701. municated and deposed 1215; died 1218.

Frederick I, 1701-1713. of the House of Hohen. Frederic II, 1215-1250; son of Henry VI; ruler of zollern; first King of Prussia; war with Sweden. the Kingdom of Palermo; 5th Crusade; crowned as Frederick William I, 1713-1740; organization of King of Jerusalem; third conflict with the Pope. the State. Conrad IV, 1250-1254; son of Frederic II: King

Frederick II "The Great." 1740-1786; 7 years' dom of Palermo inherited by his brother Manfred: war; annexing of Silesia; first partition of Poland. Pope assists brother of French king, Charles of Frederick William II, 1786-1797; brother of Anjou, to seize Lower Italy. Unsuccessful attempt Frederick the Great; third partition of Poland: of Conradin to restore the throne of the Staufen annexing of Ansbach and Bayreuth. House in Italy, 1268; Conradin was beheaded.

Frederick William III, 1797-1840; Napoleonic Interregnum, 1250-1273; different pretenders wars; liberation of the peasants. elected, but none came to power; William of Hol- Frederick William IV, 1840-1861; German Rev. land; Richard of Cornwallis; Alions of Castilia. olution. 1848-49; first Government Parliament in Rulers of Different Houses-Rudolf of Habsburg.

Frankfort-on-Main in 1848; Prussian Constitution. 1273-1291; wars with King Ottokar of Bohemia. 1848; attempt to reunite the German Empire. and conquest of Bohemia; bequeathed Austria to William I, 1861-1888; brother of Frederick Wil. his eldest son; foundation of Austria.

liam IV; German Emperor, January 18. 1871: Adolphus, Count of Nassau, 1291 - 1298; wars with Danish war: annexing of Schleswig: German. Albrecht of Austria, killed in battle of Göllheim. Franco-Prussian war; annexing of Hannover.

Albrecht I. Duke of Austria, 1298-1308; mur- Frederick III, 1888. William II, 1888-1918. dered by his nephew John.

The German Empire was restored on Jan. 18 Henry VII of Luxembourg, 1308-1313; march into 1871, and King William of Prussia was proclaimed Italy: crowned emperor in Rome.

German Emperor at Versailles. After his death he Ludwig of Bavaria, 1314-1347; at the same time was succeeded by his son Frederick and, a year election of Frederic the Beautiful of the Austrian later, by Frederick's son, William II. house (1314-1330); civil war; abolition of the William II abdicated as German Emperor and papal sanction for the election of an emperor. King of Prussia on November 9, 1918. At the same

Charles IV of Luxembourg. 1347-1378; grandson time, or shortly after, the other ruling sovereigns in of Henry VII; ruler of Bohemia; Golden Bull. Germany also abdicated and Germany became a

Wenzelaus, 1378-1400; son of the King of Bo- Republic. A constitution was adopted at Welmar on hemia; deposed.

July 31, 1919. The first president was Frederick Rupprecht, Duke of the Palatinate: 1400-1410. Ebert, February 11, 1919-February 28, 1925: suc

Sigismund, 1411-1437; King of Hungary: wars ceeded May 12, 1925. by Field-Marshal Paul von against pretenders; Jost of Brandenburg and Wen- Hindenburg-Beneckendorff (reelected in 1932). zeslaus; Council of Constanz, 1414-18; Hussit Wars. He died, Aug. 2, 1934; on Aug. 19, Chancellor

Habsburg Dynasty-Albert of Austria, 1438-1439: Adolph Hitler was chosen successor under the son-in-law of Wenzeslaus, inherited from him the title, Leader-Chancellor, by 38,362,760 votes out of Kingdom of Hungary, and Bohemia; beginning of 43,629,710 cast, of which 4,295,654 were in opposithe wars against the Turks.

tion, and 872,296 were defective.

Rulers of France

Source: Official Records After Hannibal crossed the Alps in 218 B.C., the his natural son, Charles Martel (martel means Romans held possession of Gaul until 428 A.D. hammer), father of King Pepin the short and when the Franks, (Merovingian branch) a Ger- grandfather of Charlemagne (Charles the Great) manic people, expelled them as a governing class, who, in 800, at Rome, was crowned Emperor by and began the gradual establishment of the King Pope Leo III. dom of France, which then included Belgium and The original Pepin in history came from Landen, the Rhine Valley to the sea, as well as much of in what is now Belgium, north of Liege. but his Germany.

origin is obscure. The Pepins were warriors. The Arst great Merovinglan king was Clovis Charlemagne and his brother Carloman who (Chlodwig, Ludwig, Louis) son of Childeric, who were born at or near Landen, were to rule jointly began to reign in 481 4.D. The Dynasty lasted over France, Germany, Spain and Italy; Carloman until Childeric III, 742, when Charles Martel, con- lived only three years thereafter. Charlemagne queror of the invading Saracens, took hold. Mean. died in 814, at Aix la Chapelle, which the Germans time the Merovingians had split into east and west call Aachen. His grandsons sought among them. classes, called Austrasians and Neustrians. The selves with armies backing them, but made peace mayors of the palace were often the real rulers. at Verdun in 843 and the empire was divided.

The first powerful mayor of the palace was Pepin France fell to Charles the Bald, son of King of Heristal (687-714); and the next after him was 'Louis, and thereafter was a separate Kingdom.

RULERS OF FRANCE AS A KINGDOM AND AS A REPUBLIC
Acc.
Name

Acc.

Name
The Carlovinginns

1610 Louis XIII. (the Just), son.
840 Charles (the Bald), Emperor of the Romans. 1643 Louis XIV. (the Great), warrior, gallant.
877 Louis II, (the Stammerer), son.

1715 Louis XV., great grandson. 879 Louls III, (died 882), and Carloman II.

1774 Louis XVI.. grandson; married Marie Antot 884 Charles II. (the Gross).

nette: both beheaded. 887 Eudes (Hugh) Count of Paris.

1793 Louis XVII, son of Louis XVI. sald to have died 898 Charles II, deposed, died in prison, 929.

In prison, in 1795. He never reigned. 922 Robert, brother of Eudes, killed in war.

First Republic 923 Rodolph (Raoul). Duke of Burgundy.

1792 National Convention. 936 Louis Iv., son of Chas. III. Dled in all of horse.

1795 Directory, under Barras and others. 954 Lotherlus, son, polsoned.

1799 Consulate, Napoleon Bonaparte. First Consui 986 Louis V., his son, poisoned by queen.

In 1802 he was elected by popular vote Consul The Capets

for ute. 987 Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, (Hugh the Great), son of Hugh the Abbott, selzed the crown.

First Empire 996 Robert (the Wise), his son.

1804 Napoleon, Emperor, so chosen by popular wote 1031 Henry I., his son, last Normandy.

(3,572,329 to 2,569). 1060 Philip I. (the Fair), son, King at 14.

Bourbons Restored 1108 Louis VI. (le Gros), son.

1814 Louis XVIII., King; brother of Louis XVI. 1137 Louis VII. (le Jeune), son.

1824 Charles X., brother: deposed. 1180 Philip II. (Augustus), son, crowned at Rhelms.

House of Orleans 1223 Louis VIII., The Lion, son. 1226 Louis ix. (Saint Louls). son, died at Tunts.

1830 Louis Philippe (Egalue), King.

Second Republic 1270 Philip III. (the Hardy), son, 1285 Philip IV. (the Fair), son. King at 17.

1848 Louis Napoleon elected President.

Second Empire 1314 Louis X. (the Headstrong), soa.

1852 Louis Napoleon. Emperor, deposed 1870. 1315 John I.. posthumous son. 1316 Philip V. (the Tall), brother.

Third Republic--Presidents 1322 Charles IV. (the Fair), brother.

1871 Thlers, Louis Adolphe (1797-1877), historian. House of Valois

1873 MacMahon, Manbal Patrice M. 1808-1893). 1328 Philip VI. (of Valois), grandson of Philip III.

1879 Grevy, Paul J. (1807-1891), resigned. 1350 John II. (the Good), his son, retired to England.

1887 Sadı-Carnot, M. (1837-1894), assassinated. 1364 Charles V. (the Wise), son.

1894 Casimir-Perier, Jean P. P. (1847-1907), resigned

1895 Faure, Francols Fellx (1841-1899). 1380 Charles VI. (the Beloved). Son. 1422 Charles VII. (the Victorious), son.

1899 Loubet, Emile (1838-1929).

1906 Fallieres, Armand (1841-1931). 1461 Louis XI. (the Cruel), son, clvil reformer. 1483 Charles VIII. (the Affable), son.

1913 Poincare, Raymond 1860-1934).

1920 Deschanel, Paul (1856-1922), resigned. 1498 Louis XII., Duke of Orleans, grt. grandson of Charles V.

( 1515 Francis I.. of Anjouleme, nephew, son-in-law. 1921 Doumergue, Gaston 1883–1937. Resigned, 1547 Henry II., son, killed at a joust.

1931 Doumer. Paul (1857-1932), assassinated May 6. 1559 Francis II., son, married Mary Stuart.

1932, at Paris. 1560 Charles IX., brother, son of Catherine de 1932|Lebrun, Albert (1871-1940),

Medici. 1574 Henry III., brother, King of Poland, stabbed

Germany, in June, 1940, conquered France, occuto death.

pying Paris and a large part of the coastal and House of Bourbon

border regions. The third Republic of France has 1589 Henry IV. of Navarre, son-in-law of Henry II: disappeared and the Government (Oct. 1, 1941) has murdered.

not assumed final form. Kings of Sweden-Before 1001 the Swedish The rulers have been-(630) Olaf of Sweden; rulers

The (640)

Halfdan I; (700) Eystein 1; (730) Hairdan u; were known as Kings of Upsala. sovereigns since 1389 when Margaret of Denmark (784) Gudrod; (824) Halfdan II, the Black Warrior:

(865) his son; (934) his son, Eric I, the Bloody was called to the throne, have been: (1412) Eric

Axe; (923) Hako the Good, then Harold, son or XIII; (1440) Christopher III; Charles VIII (Canuteson); (1483) John II: (1520) Christian 11; Erc; 0977) Hako the Earl; (995) Olaf 1; (1015) his

son, Olaf II; (1028) Oanute the Invader, then (1522) Gustavus I (Vasa); (1560) Eric XIV; (1569) Sweyn; (1035) Magnus 1, natural son of Olai II: John III; (1599) Sigismund II; (1604) Charles (1047) 'Harold Hardrada;' (1066) Olar III, Magnus Ix; (1611) Gustavus (Adolphus, the Great): II: (1093) Magnus III, son of Olat ni: (1103) (1633) his daughter, Christina; (1654) Charles X Sigurd 1, Elystein II, Olaf Iv; (1130) Magnus iv. (1660) Charles XI; (1697) Charles XII: (1718) Harold iv; (1136) sigurd ii, son of Harold iv: Ulrica Eleanora and her husband Frederick 1: (1162) Magnus ví (1186) swerro the Adventurer: (1741) Frederick 11. (1751) Adolphus Frederick: 11202 Hako, his son; (1204) Inge Baardson; (1217) (1171) Gustavus Il; (1792) Gustavus IV: (1809) Haakon

Haakonsson; (1263) Magnus Lagaboter: Charles XIII: (1818) Charles XIV (Jean Barna: (1280) Erik

Magnusson; (1299) Haakon V. Magnus dotte, formerly one of Napoleon's marshals): son; (1319) Magnus Eriksson; (1355) Haakon VI (1844) Oscar 1; 1859) Charles XV; (1872) Oscar Magnusson: (1381) Olav Haakonsson (1388) Mar. ii; (1907) Gustavus v.

greta; (1389) Erik of Pommern; (1443) Kristofer Norway, which had been united with Denmark of Bayern: (1449) Karl Knutsson (1450-1814) same and Sweden, in 1389, under Margaret, declared sovereigns as Denmark; (1814) Kristian Fredrik; Independence in 1814, but the union of Norway end (1814-1905) same rulers as Sweden: (1905) Haakon Bweden was not finally dissolved until 1905, when VII (Prince Carl of Denmark). He fled to England Prince Carl of Denmark was elected King of in 1940 when the Germans forcibly seized his Norway as Haakon VII.

country.

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The Seven Kings

37 Caligula (Calus Caesar), stain. 275 Tacitus. 752 Romulus (legendary). Tatlus.

41 Claudius, uncle of Caligula. 276 Probus Marcus Aurelius;slain 54 Nero

Claudius Caesar, 282 Carus, killed by lightning. 715 Numa Pompilius (elected). 672 Tullus Hostilius (murdered).

suicide.

283 Carinus and Numerlanus. 640 Ancus Martius, gr. s. of Yuma.

68 Galba, assassinated.

284 Diocletian (Caius Aurelius). 69 Otho, killed himsell.

305 Galerius and Constantius. 616 Tarquinius Priscus (Greek). 578 Servius Tullius, ex-slave.

69 Vitellius (Aulus), killed.

306 Constantine the Great

70 Vespasian (Titus Flavius 330 Constantine removes seat of 534 Tarquinius Superbus.

Sabinus).

Empire to Constantinople The Republic

79 Titus (Flavius), son of Ves- 337 Constantine II., Constans and 509 Tarquiplus, expelled.

pasian.

Constantius. 498 Lartlus, first dictator.

81 Domitian, son of Vespasian. 361 Julian the Apostate. 488 Tribunes created.

96 Nerva (Marcus Coccelus). 363 Jovian, restored Christianity 483 Quaestors Instituted.

98) Trajan (Marcus Ulplus). 364 Valentinian (West). Valens 456 Cincinnatus, dictator. 117 Adrian (or Hadrian).

(East). 453 Tribunes incr. 5 to 10. 138) Antonius Plus.

367 Gratian (West). 445 Military Tribune created. 161 Marcus Aurelius Antonius and 375 Valentinian II. (West). 437 Censorship Instituted.

Lucius Verus.

379 Theodoslus the Great (East) 391 Marcus F, Camillus, dictator. 171 Marcus Aurelius (alone). 394 Theodosius (East and West). 325 Papirius Cursor, dictator.

180 Commnodus (son of above) 395 Arcadius (East), Honorius 301 Fabius Maximus and 192 Pertinax; Julianus.

(West).
Valerius Corvus.
193 Septimius Severus.

408 Theodosius II. (East).
260 Provin, Quaestors Inst.
211 Caracalla and Geta.

425 Valentinian III. (West) 217 Fabius Maximus, dictator. 212 Caracalla (alone): slain.

450 Marcian (East). 183 Cato, the Elder, Censor. 217 Macrinus (Marcus), slala. 455 Petronius Maximus (West) 82 Sylls (Sulla), dictator.

218 Hellogabalus (ex-prlest). 455 Avitus (West). 70 Crassus and Pompey, Consuls. 222 Alexander Severus.

457 Leo the Great (East). 59 Pompey (slain in Egypt).

235 Maximinus ("The Thracian'') 457 Majorianus (West).
49 (Calus) Octavius Caesar, Marc 238 Gordianus I. Gordianus II. 461 Severus (West).
Antony and Lepidus, 2nd
238 Puplenus and Balbinus.

467 Anthemlus (West),
Triumvirate.
238 Gordianus III.

472 Oliblus (West).
244 Philip the Arabian.

473 Glycerius (West).
Emperors
249 Decius, slain by Goths.

474 Julius Nepos (West). 31 Augustus (Calus Jullus Caesar 251 Gallus, slain by his troope. 474 Zeno (East). Octavianus).

254 Valerianus, slaln by Persians. 475 Augustulus Romulus (West). A.D.

260 Gallienus, slain by his troops 476 Rome taken by Odoacer, King 14 Tiberlus (Claudius Nero Cae- 268 Claudius II. (Marcus Aurelius)

of Italy; extinction ol
sar).
270 Aurelian

Western Empire
ROMAN EMPIRE OF THE EAST
A.D.
Ruler
A.D.
Ruler
A.D.

Ruler 491 Anastasius I., Dicorus.

842 Michael III, Assassinated. 1204 Alexius IV. Deposed. 518 Justin I., the Goth. 867 Basilius.

1205 Alexius V. Ducas. Killed. 527 Justinian 1., the Great. 886 Leo VI. (the Philosopher).

Latin Emperors 565 Justin II., his nephew. 911 Constantine VII.

1 204 Baldwin I., Earl of Flanders. 578! Tiberius II.

919) Constantine and Romanus 1 206 Henry I., his brother. 582 Maurice (Flavius Tiberius). 959 Romanus II.

1216 Peter de Courtenay. 602 Phocas, the Centurion.

963 Nicephorus II., Phocas. 1221 Robert de Courtenay. 610 Heraclius, the Cappadocian. 969 John Zemisses.

1228 Baldwin II. Deposed. 641 Constantine III., Heracleonas. 976 Basilius

Greek Emperors at Nicaea, 641 Constans II., Heracllus. 1025 Constantine VIII.

Asia Minor 668 Constantine IV., the Bearded. 1028 Romanus Argyrus.

1204 Theodore I., Lascaris 685 Justinian Il. (Short Nose). 1034 Michael IV., Paphlagonlan. 1222 John III., Ducas. 695 Leontius,

1041 Michael V (the Calker). 1255 Theodore Lascaris 11. 698 Tiberius III., Aspimar.

1042 Constantine (Monomachus). 1259 John IV. Lascaris. Deposed 705 Justinian II. (again). 1054 Theodora (Empress).

Restored to Constantinople 711 Philippicus Bardanes.

1056 Michael VI., the Warrior. 1261 Michael VIII., Palaeologas. 713 Anastasius II., Artemlus. 1057 Isaac I., Comnenus,

1282 Andronicus II. 716 Theodosius III.

1059) Constantine X. (Ducas). 1295 Michael IX. Palaeologus. 718 Leo (the Isaurlan). 1068 Romanus Diogenes.

1328 Andronicus III, 741 Constantine V. (Copronymus).|1071 Michael VII. Ducas.

1341 John Palaeologus I. 775 Leo IV., an Isaurian.

1078) Nicephorus III. Dethroned. 1347 John Cantacuzenus (Regent). 780 Constantine VI. (Flavius). 1081 Alexius I. (Cornnenus).

1391 Manuel II., Palaeologus. 797 Irene, his tnother. 1118 John (Comnenus),

1425 John Palaeologus II. 802 Nicephorus, fought Turks 1143 Manuel I. (Comnenus).

1448 Constantine XIII. (Palaeolo811 Michael I. (Rhangabe). 1180) Alexius II. (Comnenus).

kus). Killed. 813 Leo V. (the Armenian). 1183 Andronicus (Comnenus). 1453 Constantinople taken by the 820 Michael II., Balbus. 1185 Isaac II., Angelus (Comnenus).

Turks; extinction of the 829) Theophilus. 1195 Alexius Angelus (the Tyrant).

Eastern Empire. Kings of Modern Italy-(1805) Napoleon, Em- XII; (1886) Alphonso XIII (died Feb. 28, 1941, of peror of the French; he abdicated in 1814; (1861) a heart attack, in Rome, at the age of 54. His Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia; (1878) Humbert I. property and his citzenship had been restored. (1900) Victor Emmanuel III who, in 1937. was On April 14, 1931, Alphonso quit Madrid without proclaimed Emperor of Ethiopia.

formally resigning the throne, and a republic was Rulers of Austria-Hungary-(1804) Francis 1, proclaimed under the provisional presidency of who reigned as Francis II of Germany until 1806: Niceto Alcala Zamora. Later, a Republican Parlia(1835) Ferdinand, his son; (1848) Francis-Joseph, ment (Cortes) was elected, Zamora was chosen son of Francis-Charles, who was a brother of Ferdie president, and a constitution was established. He nand. The Dual Monarchy dissolved in the World was removed on April 7, 1936, by the Cortes, which War, Austria becoming a republic and Hungary a chose as his successor ex-Premier Manuel Azana, kingdom, with a regent at its head. Francis-Joseph who resigned on Feb. 27. 1939, and Spain went died, Nov. 21, 1916, and was succeeded by Charles under the military rule of Gen. Francisco Franco. who abdicated, Nov., 1918, and died in exile in Kings of Denmark---(1839) Christian VIII, son 1922. Austria was absorbed by Germany in 1938. of Frederick VI (who was King of Denmark and

Kings of the Belgians-(1831) Leopold I: (1865) Norway); (1848) Frederick VII, (1863) Christian Leopold II; (1909) Albert, nephew of Leopold II; IX; (1906) Frederick VIII; (1912) Christian X. (1934) Leopold III, son of Albert.

Rulers of Holland (1806) Louis Bonaparte, Kings of Spain--(1512) Ferdinand V.; (1516) brother of Napoleon, abdicated in 1810: Holland re. Charles I; (1556) Philip II; (1598) Philip III: united to France; (1813) William Frederick, Prince (1621) Philip IV: (1665) Charles II; (1700) Philip of Orange; (1940) William II; (1849) William III; V (the first Bourbon); (1724) Louis I; (1746) (1890) Wilhelmina (daughter of William III and Ferdinand VI; (1759) Charles III; (1788) Charles his second wife, Princess Emma of Waldeck). She IV: (1808) Ferdinand VII; (1808) Joseph Bona- fled to England with the Princess Juliana, in 1940 parte; (1813) Ferdinand VII, (1833) Isabella II; when the Germans seized her country, but had (1870) Amadeo I; (1873) a republic; (1874) Alphonso not resigned.

1883 1851

Noted Americans of the Past

Source: Biographical Records (See also Presidents, and wives, Vice-Presidents, U. S. Supreme Court Justices, Ambassadors, Signers

of the Declaration of Independence, Actors, Composers, Singers, Painters, etc.) B. D.

Name
Occupation

D.
Name

Occupation 1916 Abbe, Cleveland. Meteorologist 1843 1888 Campbell, Bartley

Dramatist
1928 Abbe, Robert

Surg. Radium 1847
1909 Canfield, James

Educator
1803
1879 Abbot, Jacob.

Juv. Fiction 1863 1941 Cannon, Annie J. Astronomer 1835 1922 Abbott, Lyman.

Preacher

1835 1919 Carnegle. Andrew Iron Master 1886 Adams, Charles F. Statesinan 1737) 1832 Carroll, Charles.

Statesman 1915 Adams, Charles F Historian

1809

1868 Carson, Kit (Chris.). Scout
1838
1918 Adams, Henry

Hist.. Bios.
1866 Cass. Lewis

Sen., Cabinet 1803 Adams, Samuel

Gov., Patriot

1828

1914 Chamberlain, Joshua L Soldier 1822 1897 Adams, William T. Juy Fiction 1813 1879 Chandler, Zach.

Sen., Cabinet 1860 1935 Addams, Jane

Civic Worker 1780 1842 Channing. William E Theol. Retorn 1807 1873 Agassiz, Louis J, R. Scientist

1829 1894 Childs, Geo. W

Newspaper 1799 1888 Alcott, A. Bronson

Philosophy

1799
1859 Choate. Rufus.

Lawyer
1832
1888 Alcott. Louisa May. Fiction

1832) 1917 Chnate, Joseph H

Lawyer 1836 1919 Alden, Henry M.

Ed. Mag.
1752 1818 Clark, Geo. Rogers.

Soldier
1841
1915 Aldrich, Nelson W
U.S. Senator 1770 1838 Clark William.

Explorer 1836 1907 Aldrich, Thos. Bailey Fiction

1854 1916 Clarke, James P.

Gov., Sen 1834 1899 Alger, Horatio..

Juv, Fiction

1772
1852 Clay, Henry

Sen., Cabinet 1737 1789 Allen, Ethan

Patriot

1796 1856 Clayton, John M. Law., State. 1849 1925 Allen, James Lane. Fiction

1835 1910 lemens, Samuel L. Humorist 1879 Allen, William.

Gov., Sen. 1769 1828 Clinton, DeWitt Sen. Gov.
1758
1808 Ames, Fisher

Lawyer
1739 1812 Cunton, George

V. P., Gov.. 1804 1873 Ames, Oakes Credit Mobil 1845 1917 Cody, William F.

Scout 1844 1917 Anderson, Elisha B. Educator

1792 1865 Collamer, Jacob

Jur., P. M. G. 1818 1867 Andrew, John A.

War. Gov.

1829

1888 Conkling, Roscoe U.S. Senator 1841 1935 Andrus, John E..

Financier

1830 1886 Cooke, John Esten. Fiction 1829 1916 Angell, James B. Educ., Diplo. 18651 1940 Cook, Dr. F.A.

Polar Explorer 1797 1867 Anthon, Charles

Educator

1789 1851 Cooper, J. Fenimore. Fiction
1820
1906 Anthony, Susan B. Suffrage

1791
1883 Cooper, Peter

Merch., Phil 1832

1901 Armour, Philip D. Meat Packer 1824 1889 Cox, 8. S. (Sunset). Congressm'n 1745 1816 Asbury, Francis

Bishop

1867 1906 Craigie, Pearl M. (John 1763 1848 Astor, John Jacob. Merchant

Oliver Hobbes)

Fiction
1908 Astor, William
Landowner 1870) 1900 Crane, Stephen

Fiction 1792 1875 Astor, William B.

Landowner 1845 1909 Crawford, F. Marion Fiction 1919 Astor, Wm. Waldorf. Landowner 1787) 1863 Crittenden, John J. U.S. Senator 1780 1851 Audubon, John James. Naturalist

1836 Crockett, David.

Hunter
1790
1836 Austin, Stephen F. Texas Founder

1841
1922 Croker, Richard

Politics
1859
1912 Aycock, Charles B.. Gov., Educ.

1903 Curry, J. L. M..

Diplomat 1888 Baird, Spencer F.

Zoologist

1850

1933 Curtis. Cyrus H. K. Publisher 1871 1937 Baker, Newton D. Sec. War

1812

1894 Curtis, Geo. Ticknor. Historian 1771 1852 Ballou, Hosea

Preacher
1892 Curtis, Geo. Wm

Essayist 1761 1851 Baldwin, Simeon.

Jurist
1876 Custer, Geo. A..

Soldier
1800
1891 Bancroft, George.

Historian

1819
1897 Dana, Chas. A.

Newspaper 1816 1894 Banks, Nathaniel P. Soldier

1813

1895 Dana, James Dwight. Geologist 1812 Barlow, Joel

Poet

1856
1929 Dana, John Cotton

Librarian 1810 1891 Barnum, Phineas T.. Showman

1787

1879 Dans, Richard Henry Poet. Essayist 1821 1912 Barton, Clara H. Red Cr's f'd'r

1815

1882 Dana. Richard Henry, Jr. Author. Law 1827] 1911 Bascom, John

Educator

1857

1938 Darrow, Clarence Lawyer 1767 1815 Bayard, James A. Sr. U.S. Senator

1808
1889 Davis, Jefferson

Confed. Pres. 1880 Bayard, James A. Jr. U.S. Senator

1916 Davis, Richard Harding. Fiction 1828 1898 Bayard, Thomas F Sec. St'te, Sen.

1855
1926 Debs, Eugene V

Socialist
1785
1853 Beaumont, William Army Surg

1820 Decatur, Stephen

Naval 1813 1887 Beecher, Henry Ward... Preacher

1928 Depew, Chauncey M Orator 1775 1863 Beecher, Lyman.

Preacher

1917 Dewey, George, Admiral Naval 1847 1922 Bell, Alexander G

Inventor

1756

1834 DeWitt, Simeon. Geographer 1898 Bellamy, Edward. Author

1849 1925 deYoung, M. H.

Newspaper 1816 1890 Belmont, August.

Banker
1886 Dickinson, Emily

Poetry,
1919 Belmont August Subway Bldr.

1803 Dickinson, John,

Statesman 1811 1884 Benjamin, Judah P Lawyer

1905 Dodge, Mary E. Mapes. Author, Ed 1872 Bennett, James Gordon Newspaper

1715 Dongan, Thomas Statesman 1841 1918 Bennett, J. G., Jr Newspaper

1819 1893 Doubleday, Arthur. Soldier, baseb'. 1782 1858 Benton, Thomas H. Statesman

1813

1861 Douglas, Stephen A.. Statesman 1862 1927 Beveridge, Albert J. U.S. Senator

1895 Douglass, Fred (Negro) Publicist 1914 Bierce, Ambrose

Fiction
1804 1897 Dow. Neal.

Prohibitionist 1893 Blaine James G.

Statesman 1795 1820 Drake, Jos. Rodman.. Poet, Phys. 1821 1875 Blair. Francis P.

Sld, Edit.

1811 1882 Draper, John W. Chem. Hist. 1735 1820 Boone, Daniel

Hunter

1826

1893 Drexel, Anthony J Banker
1865
1939 Borah, William E. US Senator

1872

1906 Dunbar, Paul Laurence. Poet 1773 1838 Bowditch, Nathaniel Mathematic

1817 duPont, Pierre S. Powder M'I'r 1826

1874 Bowles, Samuel II Journalist 1803 1865 Dupont, Samuel F. Adm. Naval 1847 1910 Bowne, Borden P. Theologian

1861

1938 Duryes, Charles E Auto Iny. 1895 Boyesen, Hjalmar H.. riction

1820
1887 Eads, James B

Engineer 1932 Bradford, Gamaliel. Biographer

1854 1932 Eastman, George. Inventor 1672 Bradstreet, Anne

Poetry

1821 1910 Eddy. Mary Baker. Christ. Scien. 1896 Brady, Matthew B Photographer

1931 Edison, Thos. Alva. Inventor 1760 1806 Breckenridge, John. Statesman

1758 Edwards, Jonathan. Theologian 1904 Breckenridge, WC, P Confederate 1837 1902 Eggleston, Edward.

Fiction 1567 1644 Brewster. William Pilgr. Father

1926 Eliot, Charles W.

Educator 1864 1936 Brisbane, Arthur

Editor

1604
1690 Eliot, John

Missionary 1835 1893 Brooks, Phillips

Preacher

1882 Emerson, Ralph Waldo. Essayist 1848 1908 Brooks, William K. Biologist

1889 Ericsson, John

Inventor 1711 1810 Brown, Chas. Brockden Fiction

1901 Evarts, William M Statesman
1800
1859 Brown, John

Abolitionist 1794
1865 Everett, Edward

Statesman 1877 Brownlow, William G "Parson"

1870 Farragut. DavidG., Adm. Naval 1803 1876 Brownson, Orestes A Author

1930 Faunce, William H. P. Educator 1860 1925 Bryan, William J. Statesman 1806 1869 Fessenden, William P. U.S. Sen. 1794 1878 Brvant, William C.. Poet, Editor 1819 1892 Field, Cyrus W

Atlantic cable 1582 1658 Bulkeley, Peter.

Preacher
1895 Field, Eugene,

Poet
1855 1896 Bunner, Henry Cuyler. Humor

1835
1906 Field, Marshall

Merchant 1849 1926 Burbank, Luther

Botanist
1816 1899 Field. Stephen J

Jurist 1820 1870 Burlingame, Anson.. Diplomat

1917) 1881 Fields. James T.

Blography 1837 1921 Burroughs, John Naturalist 1863 1940 Finley. John H.

Educ., Editor 1818 1893 Butler, Benjamin F Law, Soldier 1842 1901 Fiske, John

Historian 1844 1925 Cable, George W.

Fiction
1865 1909 Fitch, Clyde.

Drama
1751 1823 Cabot, George.
U.S. Senator 1743 17 18 Fitch, John

Inventor 17821 1850 Calhoun, John C. Sen., V. Pres. 1865) 1902 Ford, Paul Leicester Fiction, Hist.

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1800

B. D.

Name
Occupation B. 7 D.

Name

Occupation 1826 1864 Foster, Stephen C Ballads

1824 1863 Jackson (Stonewall), T.J. Soldier 1862 1919 Freeman, Mary E. w.:: Fletion

1843 1916 James, Henry

Fiction 1813 1890 Fremont, John C.. Explorer

1842 1910 James, William

Philosophy 1752 1832 Freneau, Philip

Poetry
1795 1885 Jervis, John B.

Civ. Eng. 1860 1915 Frohman, Charles. Theater Prod. 1849 1909 Jewett, Sarah Orno. Fiction 1851 1940 Frohman, Daniel. Theater Prod. 1811 1891 Jones, George.

Newspaper 1830 1911 Frye, William P. U.S. Senator 1747 1792 Jones. John Paul. Naval 1810 1850 Fuller, Sara Marg. Author

17881 1850 Judson, Adoniram Missionary 1765 1815 Fulton, Robert.

Inventor

1849 1927 Judson, Harry P.. Educator 1874 1938 Gale, Zona ..

Fiction

1776 1865 Jumel, Mme. (Betsy 1761 1849 Gallatın, Albert.

Statesman

Bowen).

Patriot 1787 1851 Gallaudet. Thomas H. Educator

1843 1926 Kohler, Kaufmann Rabbi, Educa 1805 1879 Garrison, W. Lloyd.. Abolitionist 1820 1867 Kane, Elisha K.. Explorer 1818 1903 Gatling, Richard J. Gun Invent. 1815 1862 Kearny, Philip

Soldier 1839 1897 George, Herry

Economist

1837 1932 Keen. Williain W Surgeon 1826 1897 George, James L. Sold., Jur.,Sen. 1813) 1901 Kellogg, Elljah

Author 1844 1909 Gilder, Richard W Poet, Editor 1856 1937 Kellogg, Frank B. Sec. State 1831 1908 Gilman, Daniel C. Educator

1848 1893 Kenna, John E.

Sold., Sen. 1750 1831 Girard, Stephen

Merchant 1795 1870 Kennedy, John P Fiction 1827 1911 Glick, George W. Gov., Sold. 1763 1847 Kent, James.

Jurist 1831 1902 Godkin, Edwin L. Newsp. Editor 1780 1843 Key, Francis Scott. Poet 1809 1879|Goelet, Robert... Landowner 1886| 1918 Kilmer, Joyce

Poet 1846 1897 Goelet, Ogden

Landowner 1824 1864 King, Rev. Thos. Starr.. Patriot 1858 1928 Goethals. Maj.-Gen.G.w. Canal Eng. 1768 1852 King, William

Gov., Fin. 1850 1924 Gompers, Sainuel. Labor Leader 1813 1894 Kirkwood, Samuel J.. Sen., Gov.. 1793 1860 Goodrich, S.G.(P.Parley) Author

Dip. 1860 Goodyear, Charles. Inventor

1750 1806 Knox, Henry

Soldier (Rev.) 1839 1906 Gorman, Arthur Pue. Politics

1848 1909 Lallan, wulam.

Newspaper 1803 1855 Gorrie. Dr. John.. Inventor

1855 1925 La Follette, Robert M Statesman 1836 1892 Gould, Jay

Railways

1834 1906 Langley, Samuel P Astronomer 1851 1889 Grady, Henry W. Journalist

1842 1881 Lanler, Sidney

Poet
1810
1888 Gray, Asa

Botaniet
1885 1933 Lardner, Ring W

Humorist 1835 1901 Gray, Elisha.

Inventor

1850 1925 Lawson, Victor F. Newspaper 1811 1872 Greeley. Horace. Newspaper

1849 1887 Lazarus, Emma.

Poet. Novel 1844

1935 Greely, Gen. A. W. Sold., Explo. 1823 1901 Leconte, Joseph. Geologist 1846 1935 Green, Anna Katharine

1758 1818|Lee, Henry.

Soldier (Rev.) (Mrs. Charles Rohits) Fiction

1732 1794 Lee, Rich. Henry. Statesman 1834 1916 Green, Henrietta (Hetty) Finance

1807 1870 Lee, Robert E

Soldier 1742 1786 Greene, Nathaniel Holdier

1823 1891 Leldy, Joseph

Scientist 1872 1926 Greenway, Gen. John C. Engineer

1824 1903 Leland, Chas. Godfrey Poet 1861 1920 Guiney, Louise Imogene. Poetry

1774 1809 Lewis, Meriwether. Explorer 1822 1909 Hale, Edward Everett .. Essayist

1764 1836 Livingston, Edward. Statesman 1755 1776 Hale. Nathan..

Patriot

1746 1813 Livingston, Robt. R. Statesman 1788 1879 Hale, Sarah J..

Poet Auth.
1833 1888 Locke, David R.

Humor 1844

1924 Hall, Granville S.. Psychologist 1850 1924 Lodge, Henry Cabot. Statesman 1790 1867 Halleck, Fitz-Greene... Poet

1725 1780 Logan, John..

Indian Chiet 1829 1908 Halstead, Murat.. Journalist

1876 1916 London. Jack..

Fiction 1757 1804 Hamilton, Alexander.. Statesman 1815 1878 Long. Dr. Crawlord W.: Anaesthesia 1830 1896 Hamilton, Gall (Mary

1807 1882 Longfellow, Henry W.. Poet Abigail Dodge) Fiction

1850 1933 Lord, Chester s.. Newsp. Ed. 1811 1900 Hamlín, Cyrus Coll. Found'r 1796 1867 Lorillard. Peter.

Tobacco M't'r 1809 1891 Hamlin, Hannibal. Vice Pres., Gov 1833 1901 Lorillard, Pierre.

Tobacco M'I'r 1818 1902 Hampton, Wade Sold., Statest.

1813 1891 Lossing. Benson J.

History 1824 1886 Hancock, W. S..

Soldier
1838 1915 Lounsbury, T. R.

Essayist 1837 1904 Hanna, Mark.

Iron, Politic 1802 1837 Lovejoy, Elijah J. Newsp. Editor 1820 1899 Harlan, James Sen., Cabinet 1850) 1916 Low, Seth..

Mayor, Educ. 1795 1865 Harper, James.

Publisher
1874 1925 Lowell, Amy

Poet 1797| 1875 Harper, John.

Publisher

1819 1891 Lowell, Jas. Russell.. Poet
1856
1906 Harper, William R.

Educator
1797 1849 Lyon, Mary

Educator 1837 1909 Harriman, Edward H.. Financier

1845

1916 Mabie, Hamilton W Author 1843 1908 Harris, Joel C.

Humor

1861 1908 MacDowell. Edward A. Composer 1839 1902 Harte, Francis Bret.. Fiction

1831 1902 Mackay. John W

Mine Owner 1607 1638 Harvard, John.

Univ. Found. 1863 1941 McAdoo, William G. Fin., States. 1839 1897 Havemeyer, Theo. A. Sugar M'I'r 1809 1884 McCormick, Cyrus H.. Inventor 1804 1864 Hawthorne, Nathaniel. Fiction

1808 1895 McCulloch, Hugh... Sec. Treas'y 1838 1905 Hay, John..

Statesman 1771 1830 McDowell, Ephralm. Physician 1832 1881 Hayes, Isaac I.

Explorer

1800 1873 McGuffey, william H. Educator 1830 1886 Hayne, Paul Hamilton. Poet

1757 1811 McIntire, Samuel

Woodcarver 1791 1839 Hayne, Robert Y

Statesinan

1816 1890 McLean, Washington.. Journalist 1850 1904 Hearn, Lafcadio.. Essayist

1852 1932 McMaster, John Bache. Historian 1799 1878 Henry, Joseph.

Inventor
1796 1859 Mann, Horace

Educator 1736 1799 Henry, Patrick. Statesman 1733 1795 Marion, Francis.

Soldler (Rev.) 1859 1924 Herbert, Victor.

Composer
1852 1940 Markham, Edwin

Poet 1748 1830 Hicks. Elias

Quaker

1801 1882 Marsh, George P. Lawy. Dipi. 1843 1910 Hill, David B. U.S. Senator 1856 1929 Marshall, Louis.

Lawyer 1838 1916 HM. James J.,

Rallroads
1725 1792 Mason, George.

Statesman 1869 1933 Hillqult, Morris

Socialist
1663 1728 Mather, Cotton..

Preacher 1809 1894 Holmes, Oliver W Poet. Essayist 1638 1723 Mather, Increase

Educator 1841 1935 Holmes, Oliver W. Jurist

1852 1929 Matthews, J. Brander. Writer 1814 1879 Hooker, Joseph

Boldier

1806 1873 Maury, Matthew F. Hydrographer 1718 1802 Hopkins, Esek, Com. Naval

1823
1899 Medill, Joseph M

Newsp Editor 1795 1873 Hopkins, Johns.

Univ. Found 1855 1937 Mellon. Andrew W. Fin., Industr. 1802 1887 Hopkins, Mark

Educator
1819 1891 Melville, Herman

Adventure 1770 1842 Hopkinson, Joseph Poet

1849 1922 Miller, Charles R

Newspaper 1822 1885 Hough, Franklin B Forester

1841 1913 Miller, Joaquin..

Poet 1858 1938 House, Edward.

Diplomat
1825 1910 Mills, Darius ...

Finance 1793 1863 Houston, Sam

Sold., States. 1822 1908 Mitchell, Donald G. Essayist 1864 1900 Hovey, Richard.

Poet

1852 1927 Mitchell, Edward P. Editor 1842 1908 Howard, Bronson

Drama
1818 1889 Mitchell, Maria..

Astronomer 1830 1909 Howard, Oliver 0.. Soldier

1829 1914 Mitchell, Silas Weir. Fiction 1819 1867 Howe, Elias

Inventor

1737 1775 Montgomery, Richard. Soldier (Rev.) 1819 1910 Howe, Julia Ward Poet

1837 1899 Moody, Dwight L.... Preacher 1837 1920 Howells, William D Fiction

1869 1910 Moody, william Vaughn Drama, Poetry 1859 1921 Huneker, James Gibbons Essayist

1837 1913 Morgan, J. Pierpont.... Banker 1796 1859 Hunt, Walter..

Inventor

1813 1890 Morgan, Junius s. Banker 1821 1900 Huntington, C. P

Rallways

1838 1923 Morley, Edward W Chemist 1590 1643 Hutcbinson, Anne. Preacher

1802 1864 Morris, George P.

Poet 1833 1900 Ingalls, John James. Sen., orator 1752 1816 Morris, Gouverneur Statesman 1833 1899 Ingersoll, Robert G.. Agnostic

1832 1902 Morton, J.S.

Gov. Cabinet 1783 1859 Irving, Washington.. Fiction, Hist 1791 1872 Morse, Samuei F. B. Inventor 18311 1885 Jackson, Helen Hunt.. Fiction

1823 1877 Morton, Oliver P... Gov., Sen.

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