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especially, a Mahratta Brahman, who was known to some persons in England when he visited it as the Pandit of the Maharaja Dhulip Singh, and now works under the Benares missionaries as a catechist, unites the most earnest conscientiousness and simple-minded humility to varied and thoughtful learning. Truly such men are in Hindostan the salt of the earth and the light of the world ; and though as yet perhaps their influence is little felt, yet to increase their number must be the earnest effort of our missionaries, or rather of all true Christians, for to them we niust look as the instruments through whom the English nation may hope to accomplish the noblest and holiest work which God has given us to do—the conversion of India to the faith of Christ.

G. E. L. C.

" of the Christian religion. In respect " of my complaint, he recommended

some simple medicines, but advised, “ above all, that I should apply myself “ to God in prayer, to lead my mind “into the truth, and to grant me bodily “ healing. I complied with his advice, “ and obtained a perfect cure.

I then “ asked him what I should do for the

name of Jesus Christ. He advised “ that as I had felt the benefit of the “ advice which he had given, I ought to “ consult the benefit of my countrymen, " and with this view found a school for “education in English, Bengali, Per“ sian, and Hindi. In compliance with “ Mr. Wheatly's advice, I set about “establishing such a school, and with “ the help of my friends raised a fund " to supply 200 rupees a month for the " endowment of it.1 Afterwards, Mr. “ Wheatly, failing in business, became “himself the first schoolmaster. His

plan was first to instruct my family “ in Christianity, and pray with them; “ and then to teach the English lan

guage to the scholars who attended. “He continually taught me that from “ joining in prayer and reading the

scriptures no loss of caste was in“volved, but piety would be increased. “ After a short time Mr. Wheatly

I had heard through him of the Rev. Mr. Corrie, and through “ him had sent a small donation with a “ letter to the British and Foreign Bible

Society. I often prayed that he might come to Benares ; and at length he

came to reside at this place. From “ the information communicated by him “respecting the Church Missionary So

ciety ... I determined upon making “ the Calcutta committee of that society “ the trustees of my school, and

legal measures are in progress for

transferring the school endowment “permanently into their hands. In the " meantime, my house in Bengali Tolah, “ which cost me 48,000 rupees in build

ing, has been appropriated for the “school-house, and Mr. Adlington has

begun to give instruction in the

1 He afterwards increased it to nearly double this amount.

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Note on Jay Narain's Foundation.— The following extracts from a letter, dated August, 1818, and preserved in the records of Jay Narain's College, are interesting as recording some of the feelings and struggles of an educated Hindu, desirous of enlightenment for himself and his countrymen.

The writer never made up

his mind publicly to profess Christianity, and died without baptism.

“ It is now many years since I fell very ill, and, leaving Calcutta, came to “ reside at Benares, where I used every

possible means known to Hindus in “ order to get well. Mr. Duncan, who

was at that time Resident at Benares, " and was my particular friend, pro“ cured for me also the assistance of “several European surgeons, who were “ not able to afford me relief. At length "a Hindu, who had been very ill, pro“cured some medicine and advice from

a merchant, Mr. Wheatly, by which “ he obtained a

On this I also sought acquaintance with Mr. “ Wheatly.

He gave me a New Tes“tament, and I bought of him a Book " of Common Prayer. He often passed “ much time with me in explaining the

meaning of these books, and wrote many

letters also to me on the subject

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English tongue. But I long “ most urgently request the honourable

greatly that the most effectual means “ Church Missionary Committee to take “ may be used for enlightening the measures for sending a printing“ minds of my countrymen. I

am, press to Benares, with one or two therefore, anxious to have also a " suitable missionaries to superintend “ printing-press established at Benares, “ it-men of learning, who may be able

by which school-books might be “ to satisfy the learned of this ancient “ speedily multiplied, and treatises on city on matters of science and history “ different subjects printed and dis- as well as of religion. As the “ persed throughout the country. With- “ Society liberally expends its funds for out this the progress of knowledge “ the benefit of mankind, there is no “ must be very slow, and the Hindus place where their labours are likely to

long remain in their very fallen state, be more beneficial than at Benares. “ which is a very painful consideration (Signed) “JAY Narain GHOSAL.” " to a benevolent mind. I therefore

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MORE POLITICAL ETHICS: THE NEAPOLITAN REVOLUTION,

AND THE FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW.

BY THE REV. F. D. MAURICE

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In the last number of this Magazine I My own remarks have made me ventured to make some comments on a suspected by very kind and just critics passage in Mr. Froude's “History.” They of holding opinions which would be at touched upon a very grave question of least as dangerous as any that I could public morality. They were intended have attributed to him. to vindicate what I conceive was the ticularly thankful that my observations spirit of Mr. Froude's note-at all events, should be brought to the test which I what I am sure is the spirit of the myself demanded for them, that of their writer—from a misconstruction to which application to our own times. If they his words seemed to me to be liable. My will not bear that test they must be first complaintof them was, that, by draw- wrong, and I hope that I shall be ing too sharp a distinction between the most ready to confess that they are ethical maxims of the sixteenth century wrong. and of the nineteenth, they threatened If I were merely continuing an old to deprive us of some of the valuable topic, still more if I were merely justifylessons from the history of the former ing myself, I should feel that I had no which no

one had_more successfully business to occupy more space in the drawn out than Mr. Froude. My second columns of a magazine which is bound was, that, by too hastily adopting a pre- to seek for variety, and the readers of valent confusion between the claims of which cannot be interested in the conscience and the claims of private opinions of a particular man.

But the judgment, the writer had suggested the criticisms to which I have alluded in thought that the duties of a citizen, and troduce new and stirring questions- especially of a soldier, must be tried by questions that are of the profoundest a different law from that which we interest to us all at the present moment. apply to the highest questions of all. The tone in which they have been ex

Since the article appeared, I have had pressed can cause nothing but gratitude proofs that I should have been most in the person who is the object of them, unjust as well as most uncharitable, if and the principle which they involve is I had pronounced judgment upon Mr. so serious that it deserves all the reflecFroude for what appeared to me an in- tion that can be bestowed upon itaccuracy in his method of stating his all the light that can be brought from

No. 13.-VOL. III.

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especially, a Mahratta Brahman, who “ of the Christian religion. In respect was known to some persons in England “ of my complaint, he recommended when he visited it as the Pandit of the some simple medicines, but advised, Maharája Dhulip Singh, and now works “ above all, that I should apply myself under the Benares missionaries as a “to God in prayer, to lead my mind catechist, unites the most earnest con- “ into the truth, and to grant me bodily scientiousness and simple-minded hu- healing. I complied with his advice, mility to varied and thoughtful learning. " and obtained a perfect cure.

I then Truly such men are in Hindostan the “ asked him what I should do for the salt of the earth and the light of the name of Jesus Christ. He advised world ; and though as yet perhaps their " that as I had felt the benefit of the influence is little felt, yet to increase " advice which he had given, I ought to their number must be the earnest effort “ consult the benefit of my countrymen, of our missionaries, or rather of all true “ and with this view found a school for Christians, for to them we niust look as “education in English, Bengali, Perthe instruments through whom the “ sian, and Hindi. In compliance with English nation may hope to accomplish “ Mr. Wheatly's advice, I set about the noblest and holiest work which God establishing such a school, and with has given us to do—the conversion of “the help of my friends raised a fund India to the faith of Christ.

“ to supply 200 rupees a month for the G. E. L. C. “ endowment of it. Afterwards, Mr.

“ Wheatly, failing in business, became Note on Jay Narain's Foundation.- “ himself the first schoolmaster. His The following extracts from a letter, plan was first to instruct my family dated August, 1818, and preserved in in Christianity, and pray with them ; the records of Jay Narain's College, are “ and then to teach the English laninteresting as recording some of the guage to the scholars who attended. feelings and struggles of an educated “He continually taught me that from Hindu, desirous of enlightenment for "joining in prayer and reading the himself and his countrymen.

The scriptures no loss of caste was inwriter never made up his mind publicly “ volved, but piety would be increased. to profess Christianity, and died without “ After a short time Mr. Wheatly baptism.

died.. I had heard through him “ It is now many years since I fell “ of the Rev. Mr. Corrie, and through very ill, and, leaving Calcutta, came to “ him had sent a small donation with a “ reside at Benares, where I used every

“ letter to the British and Foreign Bible “possible means known to Hindus in “ Society. I often prayed that he might “ order to get well. Mr. Duncan, who come to Benares; and at length he was at that time Resident at Benares, came to reside at this place.

From " and was my particular friend, pro- “ the information communicated by him 1 cured for me also the assistance of respecting the Church Missionary So"several European surgeons, who were ciety ... I determined upon making “ not able to afford me relief. At length the Calcutta committee of that society "a Hindu, who had been very ill, pro- “ the trustees of my school, .. and “ cured some medicine and advice from legal measures are in progress for

a merchant, Mr. Wheatly, by which “ transferring the school endowment " he obtained a

On this I permanently into their hands. In the “also sought acquaintance with Mr. “ meantime, my house in Bengali Tolah, " Wheatly.

He gave me a New Tes- “ which cost me 48,000 rupees in build“tament, and I bought of him a Book “ing, has been appropriated for the “ of Common Prayer. He often passed “school-house, and Mr. Adlington has “ much time with me in explaining the “ begun to give instruction in the meaning of these books, and wrote

1 He afterwards increased it to nearly double many letters also to me on the subject this amount.

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“ English tongue. . . . But I long “ most urgently request the honourable

greatly that the most effectual means “ Church Missionary Committee to take “may be used for enlightening the " measures for sending a printing“ minds of my countrymen.

press to Benares, with one or two “ therefore, anxious to have also a “ suitable missionaries to superintend

printing-press established at Benares, “ it-men of learning, who may be able “ by which school-books might be " to satisfy the learned of this ancient

speedily multiplied, and treatises on city on matters of science and history “ different subjects printed and dis- as well as of religion. . . . As the

persed throughout the country. With- “Society liberally expends its funds for “out this the progress of knowledge “ the benefit of mankind, there is no “ must be very slow, and the Hindus place where their labours are likely to

long remain in their very fallen state, “ be more beneficial than at Benares. “which is a very painful consideration (Signed) “JAY NARAIN GHOSAL.” " to a benevolent mind. I therefore

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MORE POLITICAL ETHICS: THE NEAPOLITAN REVOLUTION,

AND THE FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW.

BY THE REV, F. D. MAURICE.

case.

a

In the last number of this Magazine I My own remarks have made me ventured to make some comments on a suspected by very kind and just critics passage in Mr. Froude's "History." They of holding opinions which would be at touched upon a very grave question of least as dangerous as any that I could public morality. They were intended have attributed to him.

I am parto vindicate what I conceive was the ticularly thankful that my observations spirit of Mr. Froude's note--at all events, should be brought to the test which I what I am sure is the spirit of the myself demanded for them, that of their writer—from a misconstruction to which application to our own times. If they his words seemed to me to be liable. My will not bear that test they must be first complaint of them was, that, by draw- wrong, and I hope that I shall be ing too sharp a distinction between the most ready to confess that they are ethical maxims of the sixteenth century

wrong. and of the nineteenth, they threatened If I were merely continuing an old to deprive us of some of the valuable topic, still more if I were merely justifylessons from the history of the former ing myself, I should feel that I had no which no one had_more successfully business to occupy more space in the drawn out than Mr. Froude. My second columns of a magazine which is bound was, that, by too hastily adopting a pre- to seek for variety, and the readers of valent confusion between the claims of which cannot be interested in the conscience and the claims of private opinions of a particular man. But the judgment, the writer had suggested the criticisms to which I have alluded in. thought that the duties of a citizen, and troduce new and stirring questionsespecially of a soldier, must be tried by questions that are of the profoundest a different law from that which we interest to us all at the present moment. apply to the highest questions of all. The tone in which they have been ex

Since the article appeared, I have had pressed can cause nothing but gratitude proofs that I should have been most in the person who is the object of them, unjust as well as most uncharitable, if and the principle which they involve is I had pronounced judgment upon Mr. so serious that it deserves all the reflecFroude for what appeared to me an in- tion that can be bestowed upon itaccuracy in his method of stating his all the light that can be brought from

any

“ wise saws or modern instances” to after the deposition of Richard, to an anbear upon it.

archy of private judgments, the interest The first objection to which I refer is ceases; we are sure that on some terms contained in a very intelligente and that anarchy must end. So that, I befriendly notice of Mr. Froude's work in lieve, a civil war, while it makes that the. Examiner of October 6th. - The simple obedience which I demanded of writer agrees with me, both in my high the soldier in a state of peace and order estimate of the “History," and in my he- impossible, yet illustrates very strikingly itation respecting the apology for Cecil's the distinction upon which I rested the conduct which was contained in the demand. note. But he thinks that my dootrine I do not, however, for a single instant respecting the duty of a soldier to fulfil confound the struggle in which a Hamphis task as a defender of his country, den might be found on one side, and a without debating the question in his Falkland on the other, with the Italian mind whether any specific war upon struggle of our day. I try to believe which she has entered ought to have that good men may be so attached to been commenced, might oblige a Neapo- the symbols of order with which they litan soldier to follow the fortunes of have been familiar from their nurseries, Francis IL rather than to pledge himself as to think that they should cling to to the cause of Garibaldi. I thought of those symbols when they express only alluding to this topic myself in the outrage upon order, the contempt of course of my article ; I believe it was written and confessed law, the breach an omission not to do so. I am glad of all promises that bind gentlemen, that the writer in the Examiner gives the violation of all oaths by which creame an opportunity of rectifying the tures appeal to the judgment of their mistake.

Creator. With these, as with all personal Before I refer to the special case of cruelties to brave, faithful, enduring Naples, I must take leave to remark citizens, which it is simple Atheism to that the terms of my proposition clearly suppose are not hateful in the sight of presume the existence of a settled go- Almighty God, the name of Francis II. vernment, under which the soldier is is associated. Let him shift his plea to serving and which he has no doubt what- what court he pleases ; let it be one ever is the government of his country. where the strict letter of the law is enA civil war of necessity raises this doubt. forced ; let it be one of equity or When it has begun, the soldier must chivalry ; the sentence must be the decide what is the service of his country.

In the highest of all, the ratiHow agonising that question became in fication must be the most complete. the case of our own Civil War, every When the question is presented to the one knows. The Parliament invoked Neapolitan soldier, “ Is the service of the name of the King against the King. your country the service of the man It became at last an idle, insincere who upholds this state of things, or the formula ; but in the beginning of the service of a man who comes to protest war it expressed faithfully the conflict “ in the name of justice, law, and God, in men's minds, the question where the “ against this state of things?”—I can legitimate authority dwelt. And that but see one answer. Even if there had question was not settled by private

not settled by private not been granted to the Italian of the judgments. A conscience of law, of its nineteenth century all the same signs unutterable sacredness, of the obligation of God-desertion which were gra

ed to which it imposes—a conscience rising

s—a conscience rising the Englishman of 1688—in what some out of that of an actual, personal Law- have called our silken revolution-even giver and King to whom all rulers must if the sceptre had not dropped from bow-gives that period its unspeakable the hands of the Bourbon as it dropped interest for all generations of English from the hands of the Stuart, and at men. When that conscience gave place, the rumour of a feebler, less-disciplined

same.

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