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or nine times its weight of inolasses. Af ||of the combustion remain in the state of||the volume of the bydrogen is reduce
d ter producing this effect it will not act again gas or vapor, ihe flame will give but little one ball, and the dersity of the compoun until the coloring matter absorbed has been light.
is fourteen. Even at a low red lieat, oleseparated by calcining the charcoal a se- Thus, when phosphorus is burnt, the fiant gas begins to decompose, depositing cond tune.
whole product is solid, and the flame has half iis carbon, and being ihus converted As an instance of the use of these sub-| the greatest brilliancy of any that is known;llinto light carburetted hydrogen whose stances in the arts, we may cite an article | when heavy carburetted hydrogen, (olefiani density is lessenied in the relation of 8 to well known in our markets. l he made vas) burns, a part of its carbon is deposited, || 14. Át a full red leat it is completely wine, called Marseilles Made ra, is prepar- which, disseminated through the flame in a decomposed. In: burning therefore it de. el from the conmon red wines of the south solid forin, gives it the lucire due to an in-posites twice as much carbon from an equal of France. Their drep color is dischargedensely beated solid; but when hydrogen weight of gas, furnishes a flame of equal by filtering them through animal charcoal, or alcohol are burnt, even by the aid of a siza in that of twice its bulk of hydrogen, and they are made up to the American pul- stream of oxygen, which causes the great and which is far more brilliant, in conse. ate by the addition of brandy. The pecu. est heat of any known combustion, the quence of the quantity of carbon de posi. liur smell and taste of the original wine is Game will have so little brillianey as to be ted in the fame being iwice as great.discharged at the same, and it is thus harilly visible in the bright light of day, be- Olefiant gas is therefore the musi valua. ready to receive such as inay be given it anse the products are aqueous vapor and ble of those generated by the decomposi. artificially. carbonic acid gas.
lion of combustible l'odies, and in the Animal has similar advantages over com
Combustible bodies may not only be de- inanufacture of them every exertion should mon charcoal in the rectification of spiritu-composed directly in a fire, or by the aid be made to obtain it in ilie greatest qunt:ous liquors. By its use, all the peculiar of wicks, but they may be heated in close cities, which the nature of the material and often offensive taste and smell of these vessel, and the gases which are evolved will admit, and 10% preserve it from waste liquors may be separated. We shall have may be kept in proper reservoirs until after it is furnied. The most obvious cause occasion to treat of these uses of charcoal needed for the purpose of illumina:ion.- of waste is its buving a greater degree of under their proper heads.
From these vessels they may be carried in solubility in waier, ihan 11:e light carbu. A carbonaceous substance, having pow-pipes to the plce where the light is need. retted liydrogen or pure hydrogen ; water ers in these respects about equal to calcineded, and inflamed by an igni'ed subsiance as taking up one eighth of iis own bulk. bones, has been prepared from a species, hey issue from beaks of sonie convenient Two liquid carburets of hydrogen
form. of shale charged with bitumen, which is
were discovered by Friday to exist in found in some geological formations, and
When comlu.lible bories, whose princi. Igas. Tiese are very volatile, one of them particularly in the strata of coal tiel s. In
al cousinvents are carbon and hydrogen, boiling av 60 Fahr. and the other as low the separation of the volatile matter the
re decomposed by heat, thise ele as he ireezing point. Both of these may shale becomes extremely porous.
iments mins be either wholly separated 05 Herefore exist in vapor at mean tem. therefore well adapted to the construction may enter into new combinding. The pro- peratures, and the latter under almost all
lucts are therefore chrbon in the solid form circumsiances. They boil contains more of filters, which may be maile of slabs of the carbonised rock.
which remaiis in the apparatiis where the carbon than oleliant gas, and therefore
decomposition is performed; hydrogen in furnish a flane of greater brilliancy, but it 7. GAS-LIGHT.
combined; light carburetted hydrogea,ole. may happen that all the carbon they de. Rationale.— Bodies which burn with fiant gas or heavy carburetted hydrogen ; l pusite is not consunied, and thus, tuo great Aame must be either volatile, or capable of liquid cursures of hydrogen ; and tar. In a proportion of them may take the forin furnishing a gas when heated. Thus, phos- the present case the resduuun of carbon for-niuke. pherous and sulphur burst into flame, when need not be spoken of, nor would we have The vapors of these carburets agree
heir vapor escapes freely, and the vapor ot any thing to add to what has been stated with olefiant gils m one property, viz., alcohol is readily ignited. Any aeriform under the heads of Coke, and the several they are decomposed by chlorine, rapidly bidy whatsoever, if intensely heated, as- varieties of charcoal. Hydrogen has and without the aid of light, while hy• sumes the appearance of flame. In olea- the sma lest density of all knowi budies, drogen, and light carbureited hydrogen, ginous, resinous, and bituminous substan- and in burning produces the most intense || are condensed by it more slowly. ces, a red heat cau es a decomposition, and heat; but as the prulluet of iis combustion these vapors a:d olefiant gas are niore val. new combination of their elements ; these is aqueous vapör, and that extremely uable for illumination, the measure of the new combinations are both gaseous and vo- rare in consequence of being geiterated ai quality of a given inixture which is con. atile, are readily ignited, and in burning is very elevale i comperature, the fanie has rensed on the first application of chloform flame. Thus in a common fire of bi- so lille brilliancy as to be hurdly visible roe is the best of all tesis for the value tuminous coal, bitumen is first formed; this in the ligiit on the sun. Light carburet. lof gas intended for illumination. is again decomposed by the heat, yielding ted hydrogen is a compound of one equiv. Another liquid carburet, analogous to tar and gaseous carbeurts of hydrogen ; lale:it of carbon !o two of hydroge!. The Niipea is likewisy produced in the de. the former yields vapor, which in mixture Hensity of the compound is increased tu viposition of cual. As this does not with the
ga3 burns with flame. In a com- eight times that of hydrogen, or the num buil below 180°, but latile of its vapor non lamp or candle, the wick composed others which respectively represent these can be present at ordinary temperatures ; inflammable matter readily takes fire ; the specific gravities are 1 and 8. In a close but if present it produces a dense smuke, heat thus produced melts the tallow, when vessel ii is not affected by a heat below except in burriers of the best form. t'iat is used ; the liquid tallow, or oil, is one approaching to whiteness ; but at a The tar need only be mentioned here drawn up by capillary attraction into the white heat or a litle below, it is decom. in consequence of its being capable of pores of the wick, and coming in contact posed, and deposites its carbon. When decomposition by being returned to the wiib its ignited rart, is decomposed and burning freely, si flient heat is genera- | apparatus, and thus of yielding the gaseous yields carburetted hydrogen; this is set on ed to produce this decomposition, and and volatile compounds just spoken of. In fire by the ignited wick, and flame is formed. he carbon deposited in the flame having the laboraiory, or under circumstances
Gases do not become luininous, nor as. the solid forin, and therefore becoming where the heat may be carefully regula. suine the appearance of flame, except at gore luminous than the hydrogen or theted, the character of the products may be very high temperatures, far higher, indeed, 'queous vapour which that gas forms, varied to a very great extent. From bi. than ihose at wh'ch solid bodies become gives brilliancy to ihe flame. Light car. Tuminous substances little else but tar Juninous. If then, a gas, when heated in | uretted hydrogen is not absorbed by wa. may be obtained, and oleaginous substances the act of combining with oxygen, sɔ fa er to any appreciable extent.
will yield liitle but their own vapor, if the as to become luminous, should deposite : Olefiarit gas contains twice as much appuralus be not permitted to become red solid body, or if the product of the com carbon as light carburetted hydrogen, and hot.
carbon as light carburetted hydrogen, and hot. If allowed to rise to a low red heat, hustion should have the solid form, the nay be considered as a combination of|olefiant gas, and the two volatile carburets Name will be brill a t; but if the product me equivalent of each of its constituents ; || will become the principal products; at a
BY M. PUVIS.
ligirer beat light carburetted hydrogen ; | flower pot and made of iron ; to this a cover
AGRICULTURE, &c. and at a while heat uncombined hydro. was fitted by grinding, whence a pipe gen. In he successive stages of the pro-proceeded; and the pipe was usually divided
From the Firmer's Register. cess, the several substances will come into two branches eich of which lermi ON THE NATURE, FORMATION, PROPERTIES over mixed in various proportions, and nated in a burner. The retort being filled
PRODUCTIONS each in its turn will cease to appear.
with coal was set in a coinmon fire, and In nanufactories on the large scale. the gas ignited when it began to escape such nicety is impracticable, nor is it ever from the burner. In order io prevent the Translated for the Farner's Register, from n:cessary. I is ihen sufficient to divide offensive smell of the gas from being appa.
The Annals de l'Agriculture Francais. ine mallers which are used into two class- | rent, the lights were kept beneath the
(Continued from our last.) os, each of which requires a peculiar chimney.
XIX. On all the varieties of this soil, management.
Previous to the ycar 1806 the factories provided it is drained, resinous trees seem The first class comprizes those sub- of Watt ani Bolion at Biriningham, and to become naturalized, and often grow even s!ances which d.) nət decompose rapidly | of Philips and Lea at Manchester were more rapidly than in the mountainous coununtil the light carburetted hydrogen is lighted by gas obtained from coal; and in tries where nature seems to have placed formed. These inust be subjected to all the ten years succeeding, it was generally them exclusively. In this soil, where the full red heat ; for an attempt to obtain introduced into all the large manufactories richest harvests are refused to the cares the inore valuable compounds would be of Great Britain It was also occasionally and labor of man, all the families of resinat ende: both with delay and a waste of used in smaller establishments, and in parous trees often prosper better than in our tie initerial. Still as some olefiant gis ticular at Ackerinan's in London, whose gardens. The larch and the forest pine will be formed, no more water should be example had a powerful influence in bring. (sylvestre) the sea -pine and the laricio grow used in purifying them than is absolutely | ing it into public notice. When first ap. vigorously over the whole extent of this necessary to re nove offensive matter.
plied, no atiempt was made to purify the soil, when it is laid dry, and the pine du Coal is a body of this class.
gas, its use was therefore extremely offen. lord seems of all to be that which best withThe second class comprizes those-ive, and by no means wholesome. During stands the wetness. These make an exwhich may be decomposed with sufficient|| he ten years of which we have spoken the cellent alternation with the deciduous (feurapidity, at a temperature consistent with character of the gases evolved in the deth: existence of olefiant gas.
illus) trees. A single generation of these These
composition of coal were chemically ex- large trees, after having enriched man with ough to be treated at the lowest tempera- amined, and by the aid of science, the mode its productions, often suffices to accumulate thie which will ensure the decomposition of separating every offensive substance, upon the soil many inches of productive of their own vapor; one which merely and most of ihose injurious to combustion mould. gives a red glow to the surface of the discovered.
I shall not repeat here the observations iron vessel used in the process is sufficient for the purpose. To this class belong
In 1815, some streets in London were which I have a'ready made elsewhere upon oils, and the solution of rosin in spirits of lighted by coal gas distributed in pipes, and this soil, the nature and properties of which, turpentine.
in 1816 the inechod became general in that appear to have been hitherto so little atcity
tended to; however, it is necessary to reHistory.—The adaptation of a wick to oil or 'allow, in order to ob:ain light by the decomposiiion of oil, which, when pro- forined of it, contain but few springs ; be
In 1817, Taylor and Martineau began peat that in consequence of the iir permea.
bility of the soil, the plateaux which are the decomposition of these substances, and yield is a nong the oldest of human inven. Previous to this time Mr. David Gordon, a the ignition of the gases and vapors they illuminating power than is given by coal
. cause, in the first place, the rain water can,
not penetrate into the interior to form and tions. On the old continent neither tradi. tion, written history, nor even mythological United States, had proposed 10 renler gas waters cannot, but with great difficulty, esgentleman for many years a resident of the maintain reservoirs to supply them; but es
pecially, moreover, because the interior fable reach the epoch of its discovery.Yet it must have been introduced prior to portable by condensing a number of at
So cape through the impermeable stratum, to the separation of the races which peopled long as no gas but that from coal could be arrive at the surface.
It is probable that the two continents ; for while in the an, obtained the method promised but little suc- in this soil which confires the water, Artecient world there is no tribe so ruile and
On the introduction of oil gas how. sian wells, to give it a passage, would have savage as not to be acqnainted with the use of the lamp, even the polished nations ever, the plan was resumed and carried in:o a better chance of success than elsewhere. successful operation. By this mei hod,ships,
These table lands, having in which occupied Mexico and Peru were steamboats, railroad and other carriages some declivity, enough of rain water rests ignorant of it. The only inhabitanis of the Western hemisphere who used wicks may be furnished with the beautiful and on the surface to injure vegetation, but not were the Esquimaux, and if they be an safe light given by oil gas; and if it was
enough to form marshes. Marshes proancient American race, they may have de compelled to give way before the immense ceeding from interior water—from waters
capital vested in coal gas manufactures in beiow the impermeable stratum, are then rived this information from Greenland, the British capital, there is little doubt that also very rare, and can only be met with in which was peopled at a remote era by a lit might be applied to advantage in a new this soil
, when the impermeable stratum in Norwegian colony.
and open field; particularly in countries the bottom of the basins happened to be The idea of separating the two processes where coal bears as high a price as it does mixed in plaees with gravel, which renders which take place in the wiek, effeciing the in most of our Atlantic cities.
it permeable. decomposition at one tirne, and storing up
The small number of marshes which are
The manufacture of gas from rosin as found in this soil, are placed in the basins the gases for use did not appear to have occurred to any one until the year 1785,|| of Professor Daniell of King's College, stratum has been diluted or modified in its
now usually conducted, was the invention of water courses where the impermeable when it was proposed by a French engi-London. neer of the name of Lebon. This was aplon a large scale no where except in the be easily drained, because the plateaux
It has, however, been conducted
nature; they are of small extent, and could plied to the distillation of wood, and he en.
city of New-York. Mr. Rembrant Peale deavored to collect at the same time the
themselves have, generally, a very sensible pyrolignous acid which was crolved. I was however, probably the first who pre
. Shopes does not appear that this use of his inren:pared gas from this material, alıhough he
These water courses, destined to receive ireated it in a different manner The tion was attended with any valuable result.
the water from rains, and especially from In this country, however, about 30 years his direction by gas prepared froin rosin as Museum in Phila:lelphia was lighied under
the springs of a district, are then also very ago, the apparatus of Lebon was manu.
rare in these lands without springs ; and factured in Baltimore, anil occasionally long ago as 1814.
those which are met wih, are rapid, and
a. Coal Gas. used for the distillation of bituminous coal.
have hollowed out deep valleys; because The retort employed was of the shape of all
(Conclnded in our next.)
the bottom of these valleys tends to come
upon the level of the great rivers which flow || guishes its arid sub-soil, and have rendered || Dombes can hardly be biennial, for it can at the foot of the plateau, and because the it at last capable of producing the larger || not establish itself in the soil in the course plateaux most frequently rise several hun-| vegetables-he trees which cover it in a of the year preceding the rye during the dred feet above the level of the rivers, the great many places. But in a few genera- | fallow-ploughings; it must spring up, at argilo-siliceous alluvion of these basins hastions, when the previous growth of heath, or the earliest, in October, with the rye itself
, been ofteu entirely carried off.*
of other plants natural to this soil, has not and last three months lur:ger than it, for at XX. When the argi o-siliceous alluvion accumulated great resources, this succeed- the end of October its plants are almost all is left to itself, the herbage, which elsewhere ing growih of trees is soon exhausted. It dry. covers the soil with a close and lasting car. happens, then, often in this soil, which re
If there are two different varieties, it pet, comes up upon it weak and thin ; and|ceives few of the principles of vegetation would be still uncertain whether the smell when the surface is badly drained, its wet- from the atmosphere, that the whole growth of that of Dombes were natural to it, or ness is favorable to cares and other species of woods languishes and disappears quickly arose from the climate and soil which pro• generally of little substance, and even these from the surface; then reappears the alter-duced it. Could this soil, in which the ingrow badly and slowly; they are often found nate cover, or shift (assolement) of small terior waters are corrup'ed at the time of accompanied by a variety of muss, which plants, the producers of acıd mould—and the flower's blooming, injure also the odor covers the surface, and still more the sub-| the soil, by these means, stores up new of the plant? If the two plants belong to soil when naked and exposed, with its whit-powers for new productions. In this great the same variety, the question would be deish foliage. When the soil is better drained, rotation of Nature's crops, the ages of man cided; the alteration of odor would be ow. heath, broom, (genet) sheep sorrel, spurry, count but as years.
ing to the state of the soil at the end of (spergule) fern, the peculiar and exclusive Among these soils there are some, how-summer. vegetables of this soil, take possession of ever, more happily endowed. The natural XXII. What particularly distinguishes the surface at the expense of other growths. rotation then takes a different character : ||the argilo-silicious soil from alluvial soils, Sheep are here supported better than on the the larger plants continue to live upon and others of good quality, is, that the subpoor horbage of wetter soils ; other cattle them; different characters of these plants soil
, which, as we have seen, does not differ also feed and live upon it nearly throughout only, are replaced by others, and the differ from the upper stratum, is entirely without the summer.
The soil derives remarkableent families succeed each other. Thus on vegetable matter, while we see in alluvial advantages from these vegetables which it good mountain soils we see the beech and soils, and even in calcareous soils, mould ocnourishes : man believes that he has a right the iesinous trees succeed each other incurring below the soil, or vegetable surface to complain of them because they present turn, as on good soils in plains we see the stratum. Here, there is only a barren clayey obstacles to its cultivation ; but these spe- birch replace the oak, which soon reappears sand.
Also, while in other soils, vegetacies, larger than the feeble grasses of turf, || itself after one generation of the birch. bles sink their roots to seek nutritive juice leave more dead remains or litter on the
XXI. With this great analogy in all the below-in this soil the roots run without soil, and by a happy foresight of nature, principal points which distinguish these sinking, because there is nothing to be these remains are decomposed with diffi
| soils, with their identity of composition and found below the stratum exposed to the atculty in this inert soil, assume the character of production, we still, on each particular mospheric influences. This circumstance of acid mould, (humus acide,) and form fu- body of table land, or ridge, (plateau) meet explains, in a plausible manner, the quick ture resources for this unfruitful land.t
with circumstances which appear peculiar exhaustion of the surface in trees on white The plants, of the production of which we to each district, and which it is perhaps im- land, (terrain blanc) and consequently their complain, are then of great benefit to this portant to remark. Thus on the great ar-disappearance after a longer or shorter pesoil, or rather to us : they have changed gilo-silicious plateau of the basin of the riod of vegetation. It is for this reason, the nature of the soil, they have furnished Rhone, as it rises towards the south and that, while in good soils trees often do little to it the mould (humus) which alone distin-approaches Lyons, it loses the name of injury to crops, and sometimes even afford
Bresse to receive that of Dombes; its soil them advantageous shelter; in the soil of * And with it, the beds immediately beneath, which becomes more sandy, lighter, and less wet, which we speak, they consume the resources have not offered resistance to the flool-such as the marly beds. The surface soil
, or mould, of i he bultom on a great extent of soil. In the most of the surface, starve the surrounding vegeof the valley, rests then upon plastic clay-abed mor.. sandy and least wet parts, one of the tables to some distance, and wither them firm, which is i ol washed up by, and its particles sus. pended in water, and which has therefore beiter re grasses, the anthoranthum odoratam takes up, especially during the heats of summer. sisted ils force, than the beds of other earth ihat were possession eve'y year among the rye, and It is thought sufficient to account for this, super-imposed. -Ed.
covers the earth like a carpet. Alter har- to say, that " the shade burns." Yet, this 1.Instead of the plants above named, (which, except vest it blooms, and its numerous heads ex ought to have quite a contrary effect, since sorrel, are nut indigenous, and perhaps no km whale a cadaverous odor which infects the it evidently shelters from the heat of the names of cur brom grass, the poverty for hen's nesu atmosphere. Some persons are inclined sun. But if we remark that this effect grass, pive leaves, and whorleberry shrubs, and the toʻregard this odor as the principle of the takes place in all exposures, that it is more description and the generai rema ks wil suit well for ende nic lever of the country; but the fe- sensible on the south side of trees where
in wouls tillage an: again turned Jut.” These poor?st of our vers prevail where the soil is not covered the shade does not fall, than on the neith, natural soils alone, of all in this region, present on ac wi'h the anthoranthu.
which is often shaded, and that this effect cumulation of vegetable malur, soyreai as to be even injurious to cultivated crops-and whain, in that res.
Is this anthoranthum the same variety || does not occur in deep soils into which the pect exhibit many points of resemblance to the pearl as that of the botanists? The heads, the roots descend, while it exercises all its rasoils of Britain, which are unknown in our warm - Powers and the leaves have a great resem-vages on shallow soils, where the roots jun products above nam dar: slow na decomposing, that blance, the odor of the two plants when far to draw from the surface ; if, lastly, we they are thus accumulated on our anthor's “argilo | bruised, is little different, the smell of the remark that the evil is much greater during “ acid soils.". The acil ingredient, or property, o Aowers even has some similarity : yet there droughts, that it shows itself much sooner such soils, is itse!f antiseptic, and therefore tending w would be, apparently, good reason to doubt on these points than elsewhere, that the preserve irom decomposition all vestible under their identity. The plant so called by bot-evil is seen in the withered leaves of the acid quality, and the decoinposition of these, or any || anists, is one of the earliest blooming vegetables, and with all the symptoms pro viher vegetabl...m2:113, proceeds rapid's, l'ossibly. I yrasses in the spring, and that of Dombes duced by drought, we should necessarily His action of calcareous earth is not merely new Blooms at the end of the summer: that of conclude that this effect is owing to the abzing and destroying of the antisep is ariil-but that line botanists has an odor which is in re-sorption of the humidity of the soil and of 11., which serves :) isid and busin the decom.net io give a perfume to hay ; its stalks some vegetalsle principles, by the spreading 11:n of vegetabl: muller, Many persons, who have and leaves of en rise above a foot; that of roots of the tree at the expense of the crop not b en guided hy reasong, chemical knowldse
oombes only covers the soil, its flowers coveri 'g the soil. re-carch. havs formd thi 0,
Mult, from oliserving thera; vid and enti e disa pearancio: the filen leaves rise scarcely six inches, and give out a But a very conclusive fact confirms this on the rich lim "H!0n10 torpots, compared to the great sm-1) almost intolerable to those not habit- explanation, already so plausible. A row and permanent accumulation on the poor woodlands vid to it. Fina'ly, that of the botanists' of poplars planted on the edge of a field of Virginia. See Essity on Calcareous Manures, 24 e': p. 31, and cl.9thru loul.-Ed.
Appars to be long-lived, while that of damaged the crops very much. I caused
a ditch to be dug so as to cut the roots of|| dinary quantity of manure all the produc- Fin:illy thc plateau which forms the Gathe popiars; the following year the crop of|tions more than 50 per cent., during a pe-tinais and Sologne, which declines partly to wheat on one part, and of clover on the riod of more than twelve years. The call the Seine and partly to the Loire, rests every other, was finer in that portion of the field careo's particles which it furnishes to the where upon calcareous deposites. Murlis which ihe trees generally starved, than on vegetable toxture, are not a millionth part of round either on the edge of the plateau, or all the rest of the field. It must, therefore, the product itself, since lime does not format a little depth in its first portions, or have been the roots, and not the shade, | a moiety of the weight of the vegetables re-inally in basins of the streams which water which injured the crops, and the roots, there duced to ashes. This surplus of produc-them. We may then regard it as certain, fore, absorbed the humidity much sooner tion which is not furnished at the expense that generally, there prevail under the argithan they consumed the vegetable joices 01|of the soil, (since at the end of twelve years lo-siliceous deposite a calcareous formation the soil. Yet, I would not admit that the it will still be richer than before the appli- and deposites of marl, which when brought nutritive juices could have accumulated in cation of the alimentary manure,) and winich |out upon the surface may give it a fertility the soil which had to nourish, at the same does not come from the very small portions almost equal to that of the most favored time, the trees and the crop; but I think of the substance of the lime, (which does soils. that the decaying remains of the roots, hav- not form a millionth of the production,) Nevertheless, sufficiently numerous obing become a vegetable nutriment, gave the comes then from the atmosphere. The servations have often shown me a stratum, advantage to those portions of the field soil and the vegetables which it supports, not calcareous, but resembling, in its extewhich they formerly injured.
have then received from the lime, and from rior characters, the carthy marl, on the naXXIII. This kind of soil, it cannot be its mixture with the vegetable stratuin, the ture of which chemical tests alone have dissembled, requires gieat intelligence and faculty of imbibing from the great reservoir been able to undeceive me. This stratum, constant labor to render productive. It is of vegetable elements, carbon, azote, oxy- which is nothing else than what we have for this soil that the proverb was made, gen and hydrogen.
distinguished by the name of plastic clay, “ tant vaut l'homme, tant vaut la terre," (as We shall not now expatiate farther on the is met with from time to time on the table man is, so is the earth ;) but with great subject of improvements by calcareous lands, ard in the spots where we may exo care, much labor, and abundant manures, substances : they demand a longer and pect to find marl ; but it is still more fre(engrais) it may be raised to a production more particular explanation which will find quently found at the bottom of brooks, which compensates the trouble and the another occasion.*
where it serves as a sub-soil to poor meaoutlay. XXV. Let us return to our principal
I have found it sometimes in cysts What particularly distinguishes the argi- subject. As we have said elsewhere, hy a (saws) with marl, and by its side. I have lo siliceous soil from calcarecus soils is, that fortunate and beneficent harmony, the for- met with it npon the marl, but often below in these last, crops without (alimentiry) mation on which the argilo-siliceous soil it: the plastic clay should then be subordimanure (fumier) grow, feebly it is true, but rests is calcareous, and contains marł in nate to the calcareous stratum, as this last without appearing to exhaust ihe soil in a great aburdance ; there is not within our is to the argilo-silicious statum, and we sensible degree ; in the other, without ma- knowledge an argilo-silicious plateau in should hence conclude that where the plas. nure they will scarcely grow at all. To which marl has not been found at a greater tic clay is met with the calcareous stratum make this soil productive, there is absolute or less depth ; generally, it is found where is wanting-has been carried off—and conneed of a stimulant to develope its vegeta-| the ridge or iable land ends on reaching the sequently marl will not be found. ble powers, and the effect of the (alimentary) | alluvions of the basins, and in the inflex
If this law of super-position exists, as is manure consists as much in stimulating the ions of the soil where the waters have car-probable, it may be of great use in search. soil and the vegetable organs, as in supply-||ried off a considerable part of the deposite.ting for marls; but observe, that the clay ing them with the nutritive juices. When On a great portion of the surface of the does not exclude the marl, except upon the an equal quentity of manure is given to terres a bois, terres elytres of Belgium, and spots where it is found; and that it is no that its effect on the calcareous soil is per-| been found. In Picardy, it is brought up have been greatly warped (tourmente’es) and these two soils, so different in their natures, of the Department of the North," marl has proof of exclusion on the neighboring por.
tions. The earthy strata of the surface haps twice as great as on the silicec-argila- from some depth ; on the table lands of the ceous soil; whence we should naturally three departments of ancient Normandy, displaced; they are, therefore, even in the conclude that the faculty of imbibing the it is sought at a depth of 100 feet, even of
same district, far from occupying the same principles of vegetati un from the atmos- 200 feet from the surface ; Puisase obtains level, and from being regularly met with at phere, is much more powerful in the calca- it on the surface (in out-croppings) and
the same depths; nevertheless, in this disreous soils, and the vegetables it produces, Dauphiny at a slight depth.
order, great as it doubtless is, the law of than in the argilo-siliceous soil, and it is that
super-position which we have noticed does
Our great plateau, which extends into not cease to exist. which constitutes their gaeatest difference. XXIV. But this important faculty, which and in the basins of the streams which three Departments, shows it on the borders
XXVI. Marl and lime are powerful nature seems to have refused to this soil in its formation, man, by a happy compensa- which border on the Loire, and which form for both, and particularly for lime, it is ne
water them. On most of the great plotraur agents of fertility in this kind of soil; but tion, may give to it, with all the properties
that the soil should be drained, or and all the advantages which distinguishments, marl is frequently met with, and is they must be applied to it in quantities recalcareous soils. If he covers the soil within many cases successfully employed. The sembling those of the English. With this marl, if he applies to its surface a certain boulbins of Toulouse have it also, and make condition of the soils being invigorated (by quantity of lime, or sprinkles it with ashes, use of it with great advantage.
draining,] these two agents have already or even confines himself to burinng its sur
changed the face of extensive districts, face, then the nature of the soil is changed ;
which have been doubled by their means in an unusual fertility appears-(alimentary) * And which has been already presented to the wealth and population. An age ago, Normanures act upon it with more effect, and readers of the farmers Register in Vol. 111. in M. folk, now a county of classic agriculture, the soil receives that happy impulse which, Puvis
' essays on lime and marl —ED.
was covered with heath; it is marl which when it is extended over the whole surface 1 Even in this important respect the resemblance has rendered it capable of bearing that sucof the country, changes its entire aspect, and the mein hage Sands of lower virgit ih, and bec: cession of crops which nakes it rival the and produces in it agricultural wealth, the bibly of Maryland and North Carolina. Thoughnut most favored soils in fertility. One-third assured source of prosperity, strength and the marl described by M. Puvis, a calcareone xlarum perhaps of the cultivated soil of England population. Lime, and the substances | whole of this vast region: any though it has as yer and Scotland has received, and still continwhich contain it, would then be a very pou - been reached for use only where its out-croppinesses to receive, from lime, an impiilse of fererful means of vegetation on a soil which
how at the surface, in future times, when the
itility which raises the mean product of their does not contain them; spread so as to 5-d will be found and obtained by Jeep pits, almost fields to, at least, a half more than the same form scarcely a two-hundredth part of the every neighborhood and for the use of large spaces soil produces in France. Marl and lime, cultivated stratum, it increases with the or-lapbarred from this manure.-ED
shich are now considered destitute of, and entirely in Germany, have changed the aspect of
BY M. PUVIS.
whole provinces. Italy, by lime, has im.
From the Farmer's Register.
provements, were too much confined in the proved the culture of large wet plateaux. — ANALYSES AND QUALITIES OF MAGNESIAN neighborhood of Paris. To be successful America renews by lime the exhausted fer
on a soil of good quality, was not enough tility of vast plains, from which cultivatior
for his activily and his desire to be useful ; had demanded too much without returning | Translated for the Farmers' Register, from the Anna- soil of little fertility, and in his hands, thiş
he therefore made a purchase here on a to them a sufficiency of manure.
les de l'Agriculture Francaise. In France, La Puisaye in Yonne, has been trebled in value by marl: half the ter- Excursion Agnonomique en Gatinuis, of
[The following extract is taken from the property has become quite an experimental
form. It could not have been better choritory of the Departınent of the North owes its classic cultivation to marl and lime :
M. Puvis, his publication which next suc
sen for this purpose, because the land is many cantons of Normandy, the Arron
eeded the foregoing article, and part of composed of the two kinds of soil which dissement of Bernay, the environs of Li-We shall present such parts as may throw which is suited to follow in connexion. | form the district.
The property is divided into two parts sieux, seek for marl at the depth of 200 teet : light on the other communications of this by a small valley, containing 50 arpents of and finally in Sologne the use of marl has writer, or otherwise, may seem likely to pasture, meadow and marah, which are already improved great extents, but unfor. furnish agricultural instruction.
divided between the two domains; the tunately it is more rarely found there than i other places.
This part is selected as presenting spe-eastern part belongs to the calcareous plain
cimens of a new class of soils, those con- which unites with the calcareous plains of Lime in the three Departments of Nor-||taining magnesia—and to which ingredient, Yonne, without, however, being of the same mandy has produced effects more numer-|| the author attributes their stability. The nature as they: it composes two thirds of
The ous, more extended, but yet more recent facts presented are novel, (at least to us,)| the property, thit is, 800 arpents. than, marl; a mine of coal (houille) of and also interesting: but the author's de-western part
, which is more elevated than middling quality, worked during the last few puctions from these facts, we dissent from the eastern, belongs to the argilo-silicious years, there furnishes fuel for a great num- altogether. Our views, in contradiction to plateau of the Gatinais ; of the 350* arber of lime-kilns, three-fourths of the pro- our author's will be postponed until his pents which compose it, 150 are sloping, duct of which are employed in agriculture. | opinions have been presented.]
and form the passage from the plateanı to La Sarthe, Maine-et Loire, which have em
the valley. These 150 arpents partake of ployed lime for less than forty years, see
Plateu of Gatinais.
the two natures of the soil; they are of their agriculture enriched in proportion as
At some distance from Paris, when we gord quality, The remainder, 200 arpents, its use is extended.
leave the valley of the Seine, after having belong entirely to the plateau, and are The Department of Landes, with its bar. ascended a hill of considerable elevation, composed of sandy sub-soil mixed with anren sands, is covered with harvests by the lwe find on the summit the silicio-argil-gular flints of chaik. the application of lime to its soil : there is laceous plateau; a great part of the for
This property offers greater resources in nöt perhaps an argilo-silicious plateau, in est of Fontainebleau is situated upon forage than most of the neighboring estates: France, on which trials of marl and lime it
, as is that of Montargis ; this plateau besides the meadows of the valley, just have not been made with success.
We separates the basin of the Yonne from that spoken of, it has some of considerable exare far, it is true, from a commencement of
of the Seine. Silex prevails there in the tent on the Vernisson, a brook wbich waexperiments in their use on a large scale, state of sand ; these sands serve as ma'e.
ters the country. rials for the brown free-stones (aur gres a but it is already a great point to have begun. cement calcaire et a cement siliceu.r,) which sometimes on a white, granulated marl,
I. The calcareous scil of the plain rests Nevertheless, as it appears, scarcely a fourth part of the argil silicious soil can
are met with in only one part of the pla- which is easily crumbled, and semetimes have been improved by either of the means; there is always found a great number of pheric influences; it seems to make an ex
teau ; but when the free-stone is wanting, on a hard rock, which resists the atmosif they were extended to the other threefourths, it is not believed that there is
flints, which by their form and covering|ception among those of its class and ap
any exaggeration in saying that there might re
greatly resemble those belonging to chalk, pearance; its exterior characters would sult an increase of an eighth in the whole which are found so abundantly in the basin cause it to be esteemed fertile in a great production of the French territory; an im- of the Seine as far as the coasts of the sea. part of its extent ; it shows a sufficient stiffmense result, doubtless, and which would Chaik is found on the surface in many pla- iness, a dark color which announces a suffinot be the only one ; for a multitude of ob- ces below Paris; but above, it is most fre- ciently strong proportion of mould, and ofservations and arguments, as well as the ac
quently covered with many other strata'ten even the chestnut color, the ordinary tual healthigess of the lands where lime and which keep it from the surlace; and nevindication of a good soil. marl have been largely used, should induce ertheless, flints are very numerous in the
It is especially in spring crops that this a belief that on this soil, improved by the soil of the plateau. In the same manner. Soil shows its inferiority; oats, barley, and calcareous principle, the salubrity which it in those of Dombes and Bresse we find spring vetches come up well enough after wants would reappear with the fertility.
the rolled peboles of the Rhone, so numer- sowing, but they are without strength at
ous in all the formations of the basin ; so the lime of heading. Clover, lucerne, and XXV.I. When marl and limc are want the argilo-silicious plateaux almost always sainfoin, take well when sown in the spring; ing, or at too great a distance, or too dear, contain fragments peculiar to the formation at harvest, the cereal plants cover them; their place may be supplied, and, on this of the basins which they overlook. soil which requires to be stimulated, an im.
they are vigorous enough, and preserve a
The fragments of the lower parts of the good appearance even during autumn and pulse of fertility may be given analogous to basin which are found in the argilo-siliceous winter; but when the time for shooting arthat produced by the calcareous agents.- alluvion of the plateau, would prove, if that rives, they put up only a small number of Paring and burning is a resource always had not already been established, that this stalks. certain for these soils; there is then a pro- formation is the most recent, that it was When the soil remains uncultivated, it is duction of lime in the calcined vegetable general, and that it took its elements even badly covered with turf, produces thistles, particles. The vegetable powers produce from the bottoms of the basin, and that it euphorbin, and other plants of no use or adpotash and line even in soils which appear covered these bottoms as well as the high vantage to the cattle that run upon it. It to contain none ; paring and burning brings plains, or ridge land. into play these active principles of vegeta
suflers froin wetness. Sheep upon it take tion, which al hough in small proportions
The Estate of Barres.
the rot; but it suffers still more from exercise all their influence on the soil; an:) At scme leagues from Montargis, be- dronglat
, which seems to render the stalks moreover the clay undergoes a modification yond Nogent, we reach Barres, the
of plants stationary upon the soil.
propwhich seems to produce upon the soil an erty of M. Vilmorin.
II. The calcareous plateau of which we effect similar to thai of liine, and, like it, to
This property, which he purchased thir-speak here is very extensive: it reaches develope, in a high degree, the faculty oil teen years ago, contains 600 hectares
from Montargis to beyond Barres, more
than 10 leagues in length. imbibing from the atmosphere the elements (1,200 arpents.) His agricultural experiof the growing plats.
ment", ha desire to undertale great im- * In the original, ihis is misprinted as 250.- TR.