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Aug

King.

Abyssinia.
Menelik II

Emperor

1843 March 12, 1889 Afghanistan. Habibulla Khan.....

Ameer.

1873 Oct.

3, 1941 Aman Duy Tui ....

King.

1899 Oct., loui Argentine Iepublic. José Figlieroa Alcorta.

President..

Mar. 12, 1406 Austria-Hungary Prancis oseph Emperor. Aug. 18, 1830 I sec.

2, 1818 Baluchistan. Mir Mahmud Khan

1893 Belgium.. Leopold II..

King.

April 9, 1835 Dec, 10, 1800 Bokhara. Seid Abdul Ahad.

Anieer.

1864 Nov. 13, 1885 Bolivia Ismael Montes.

President.

Oct.

24, 1904 Brazil. Alphonso Penna.

President.

Nov, 15, 1906 Bulgaria. Ferdinand...

Prince. o's

Feb. 26, 1861 Aug. 11, 1887 Chile....... Pedro Montt President.....

1906 Chiua Kuan Hgsú(Qu'n, hisauni,rules) Emperor.. Aug

2, 1872 Jan,

12,1875 Colombia General Rafael Reyes. President.

1904 Congo Free State.

Leopold (King of the Belgians). Sovereigu. Apr 9,1835 April 30, 1885 Costa Rica. (i, Gonzalez liquez... President..

1906 Cuba.....

TemporaryGovernment by U.S.
Denmark
Frederick VIII..

King.

June 3, 1843 Jan. 29, 1906 Dominican Republic. Ramon Caceres.

President

Jan, 1906 Ecuador Eloy Alfaro....... President..

1906 Egypt...... Abbas Pacha

Khedive. July 14, 1874 Jan. 7,1892 France. Armand Fallières..

President

1841 Jan, 17, 1906 Gerniany William II.

Emperor

Jan. Prussin.

87, 1859 June 16, 1888

King.
William II.
Bavaria.
Otto.....

King

April 27, 1918 June 13, 1886 Saxony... Frederick Augustus III.

May

25, 1865 Oct. 1b. 1904 Württeinberg. Williabi II.

King.

Feb.

25, 1848 Oct. 6, 1891 Baden. Frederick II,

Grand Duke.

July

9, 1857 Sept. 28, 1907 Hesse. Ernst Louis V.

Grand Duke. Nov. 25, 1868 March 13, 1892 Lippe- Detmold. Count Leopold (Regeut).

Prince....

Jan. 16, 1831 Sept. 27, 1904 Anhalt Frederick

Duke

Aug.

19, 1806 Jan. 24, 1904 Mecklenburg-Schweriu. Frederick Francis IV

Grand Duke.. April 9, 1882 April 10, 1897 Mecklenburg-Strelitz...Ado!plius Frederick..

Grand Duke... July 22. 1848 May

30, 1904 Oldenburg. Frederick Augustus..

Grand Duke. Nov., 16, 1862 Junie 13,1900 Saxe-Altenburg. Ernest.

Duke

Sept. 16, 1826 Aug. 3, 1803 Suxe-Coburg and Gotha Charles Edward..

Duke

July 19, 1884 July 30, 1900 Saxe-Meiningen George II..

Duke

April 2, 1826 Sept. 20, 1866 Saxe-Weimar William Ernest.

Grand Duke. June 10, 1876 Jan. 6, 1.901 Waldeck-l’yrmont. Frederick ....

Prince

Jan. 20. 1865 May 12, 1893 Brunswick Johann Albrecht.

Regent

May

28 1907 Great Britain and Irelaud Edward VII......

King

Nov. 9,1841 Jall, 22, 1901 Greece ... George

King ....

Dec.

24, 184. Oct. 81,1863 Guatemala .... Manuel Estrudla (abrera.

President ... Dec.

24, 1876 Sept. 25, 1899 layti. General Sord Alexis..

President.

1811 May 15, 1902 Honduras Miguel R. Davila

President

April 18, 1907 India, Empire of.. Edward.

Emperor
Nov. 9. 1841 Jan,

22. 1901 Italy Victor Emmanuel Ul..

King.

Nov, 11, 1869 July 29.1.00 Japan. Mitsubito.

Mikado... Nov.

3, 1852 Feb. 13, 1867 Khiva. Seid Mabomed Rabin,

Kahn

1845

1865 Korea.. Yi-Syck....

Emperor..

July 19, 1907 Liberia. Arthur Barclay.

President.

1854 May,

1407 Luxembourg. William....

Grand Duke April 22, 1852 Nov. 19, 1905 Mexico General Portirio Diaz.

President. Sept. 30,1830 Dec. 1, 1984 Monaco Albert.

Prince

Nov. 13, 1848 Sept. 10, 1889 Montenegro Nicholas

Prince

Oct

7, 1841 Aug. 14, 1860 Biorocco. Muley Abdul Azziz.

Sultan

1878 June 11, 1894 Nepal. Surendra Bikranı SbamsherJang Maharaja, Aug. 8,1875 May

17, 1881 Netherlands.....! Wilhelmina,

Queen.

3), 1890 Sept.

5, 1898 Nicaragua General José S. Zelaya........

President..

1882 Norway, Haakon VII..

King.

Aug. 3, 1872 Nov. 18, 1906 Oman Seyyid Feysal bin Turkee. Sultan

June 4 1848 Panina, ... Manuel Amador Guerrero President..

1833

1904 Paraguay Berrigno Ferreira.

President

Nov. 25. 1906 Persia... Mohammed Ali Mirza... Shah.

June 21, 1872 Jan,

9, 1907 Peru ...... José Pardo..

President.

1864 Sept, 23, 1904 Portugal Carlos

King.

Sept. 28, 1863 Oct. 19, 1889 Roumania

Charles
.......

king.

April 20, 1839 March 26,1981 Russia Nicholas II...

Emperor. May 18, 1868 Nov. 2, 1894 Salvador... Fernando Figueroa.

President.

Jan., 1907 Servia ...***** Peter (Karageorgevitch).. King.

1844 June 15, 1903 Siam Khoulalonkorn..

King.

Sept. 21, 1873 Oct. 1,1869 Spain Alphonso XIII......

King.

May

17, 1886 May 17, 1806 Sweden. Oscar II.....

King.

Jan. 21, 1829 Sept. 18,1872 Switzerland

**** M. Brenner.

President.

1818

1907 Tunis El Hadi Pasha..

Bey

July,

1902 Turkey ...... Abdul Hamid II..

Sultan.. Sept. 22, 1849! Ang. 81, 1876 United States of America. Theodore Roosevelt..

President..

Oct.

27, 1858 Sept. 14, 1901 Uruguay.......... Claudio Williman

President.

March 1, 1907 Venezuela................. Cipriano Castro...

President. Oct. 12, 1860 Oct.,

1899 Zauzibar..................... Seyyid All...

sultan .......

1866) ni 1902

Aug.

1893

European

1907.
AUSTRIA-HUNGARY.

EMPIRE.
Minister Foreign Affairs-- Baron A.L.vonAehrenthal Minister War --F. Z. M. von Schonaich.
Minister Pinance-Herr von Burian,

1

Minister Navy-Adm. Count R. Montecuccoli.

AUSTRIA. Premier-Baron Dr. Mar von Beck,

Minister Agriculture-Dr. Alfred Ebenhoch. Minister Interior-Baron Richard Bienerth,

Minister Commerce-Professor Franz Fiedler, Minister Pefences-F. 2. M. Julius von Latscher, Minister German National-Franz Peschka. Minister Railroays-Dr. Julius von Derschatta, Minister Czech National-Karl Praschek. Minister Public Instruction-Dr. Gustav Marchet. Minister Polish National-David R. v, Abrahamovicz Minister Finance-Dr. Korytowski,

Minister Future Labor Doparlmonl+Dr. Albert GessMinister Justice-Baron Dr. F. Klein,

mann.

HUNGARY
Premier and Finances-Dr. Alexander Wekerle. Minister Interior-Count Julius Andrassy.
Minister Defences-F. Z. M. von Yekelfalussy, Minister Agriculture-- Baron Artur Feilitsch.
Minister Commerce-Franz Kossuth.

Minister Justice-Doctor Guenther.
Minisler Education de Worship-Count Alb. Appomji. J Minister for Croatia--Count Theo. Pejacsevich.

BELGIUM.
Premier and Minister of the Interior-Mr. J. de , Minister of Industry and Lahor-Mr. Armand Hubert.
Orooz.

Mintater of Publie Works--Mr. August. Delbeke. Minister of Justice-Mr. Jules Reukin.

Minister of Railways, Posts 'and Teleyraphs- Mr. Minister of Foreign Afrirs-Mr. Julien Davignon. Georges Helleputte. Minister of Finance Mr. Julien Liebnert.

Minister of War-Mr, le Lient.-General Hellebant. Minister of Sciences and Arts-Mr. le Baron Des- Minister of Agriculiure-Mr. Georges Heiloputte camps,

(provirionally).

FRANCE. President of the Council and Minister of the in- Minister Agriculture-M, Ruau, terior-M, Clemenceau.

Minister Commerce-M. Doumergue. Minister Foreign Affairs-M. Pichon,

Minister Public Instructim and Fine Arls-M. Briand. Minister War-General Picquart,

Minister Colonies-M. Millies-Lacroix. Minister Marine-M, G. Thomson.

Minister Public Works-M. Barthou. Minister Justice-M. Guyot-Dessaigne,

Minister of Labor and Public Health-M. Viviani, Minister Finance-M. Caillaux.

GERMANY.
Chancellor of the Empire-Prince Bernard von Minister Justice-Dr. Nieberding,
Bülow.

Minister Finance-Baron von Stengel
Minister Foreign Affairs-Herr von Schoen,

Minister Pos!.Office-Herr Kraetke.
Minister Interior - Herr von Betmann-Holweg. Minister Railroads--General von Breitenbach.
Minister Marine-Admiral von Tirpitz.

ITALY.
President and Minister Interior-Signor Giolitti. Minister Finance-Signor Lacava.
Minister Foreign Affairs-Signor Tittoni.

Minister Treasury-Signor Carcano.
Minister Justice-Signor Orlando.

Minister Agriculture-Signor Cocco-Orto. Minister War-General Vigano.

Minister Public Works--Signor Berlolini. Minister Marine-Rear-Admiral Mirabello.

Minister Posts and Telegraphs--Signor Schanzer. Minister Instruction-Signor Rava.

NETHERLANDS.
Minister Finance-M. de Meester.

Minister Interior -M. Rink.
Minister Foreign Affairs-J. van T. van Goudriaan. Minister Marine-M. Cohen Stuart.
Minister Colonies-M. Fock.

Minister Public Works-Professor Kraus.
Minister Justice-M. van Raalte.

Minister Agriculture, Industry and Commerce-M. Minister, War-Jonkheer van Rappard.

Yeegens.

NORWAY. President Council-J. Lövland.

Minister Religion and Instruction-Berge. Minister Defence-Dawes,

Minister of Agriculture-Aarrestad. Minister Foreign Affairs-J. Lövland.

Minister Commerce, Naviyation, and Industry-S. A. Minister Justice and Police-Bredal.

B. Arctander, Minister Public Works--K. D. Lehmkuhl,

Minister Finance and Customs--Halvorsen.

RUSSIA. President of the Council and Minister Interior--M. | Min, Im. Domainnanrl Agriculture-M. Wassiltschikow Stolypin.

Minister War --General Rodiger, Minister Foreign Affrirs-M. Tswolsky.

Minister Marine-Vice-Admiral Diekow. Minister finance--M, Kokowzew.

Minister, Justice-M, Schtscheglowitsch. Minister Instruction and Religion-M. Kaufmann. Minister Public Works and Communicalions--M. Minister Imperial Household-Baron Fredericks. Schaufuss.

SPAIN. President of Council-Senor Magra.

Minister Justice-Marques de Figueroa. Minister War-Marshal Primo de Rivera,

Minister Foreign Afrirs--Senor Allendesalazar. Minister Marine-Adiniral Ferrandis,

Minister Instruction --Senor Rodriguez San Pedro. Minister Interior --Senor Lacierva.

Minister Public Works-Senor Besada. Minister Finance--Senor Oema.

SWEDEN. Premier-S, A. A. Lindman.

Minister Finance.-C. J. G. Swartz. Minister Foreign Affairs-E. Trolle.

Minister Instruction--A. H. Hammarskjold. Minister Justice-G. A. Petersson,

Minister Agriculture-A. Petersson, Minister War-Gen. L., H. Tingsten,

Minis'era ici hout portfolios-C. F. W. Hederstierda, Minister Marine Adın. W. Dyrssen,

G. W, A. Roos, Minister Interior - J. Juhlia..

Reigning Families
OF THE PRINCIPAL EUROPEAN COUNTRIES.

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. Francis Joseph I., the Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, was born August 18, 1830, and was proclaimed Emperor of Austria after the abdication of his uncle, Ferdinand I., on December 2, 1818. He was crowned King of Hungary June 8, 1867. He married, in 1864, Elizabeth, a daughter 2 Duke Maximilian of Bavaria. She died by the hand of an Anarchist in Geneva, September 10, 1898. They tiad issue:

1. Archiduchess Gisela, born 1856; married to Leopold, son of the Regent Luitpold of Bavaria. Issue, two daughters and two sons,

2. Archduke Rudolph, late heir apparent, born 1858; died by suicide, 1889. He married, 1881, Stephanie, daughter of ile present King of the Belgians, and had issue one daughter, the Archduchess Elizabeth, born 1883; married, 1902, Prince Otto Windischgrätz. The widowed Crown Princess Stephanie married, March 1900, Count Elmer Lonyay.

3. Archduchess Marie Valerie, born 1868; married, 1890, Archduke Francis-Salvator of Tuscany.

On the death of the Crown Prince, in 1889, the right of succession to the throne passed to the Emperor's eldest brother, the Archduke Charles Louis, who was born 1833. and died 1896; he married, 1862 second marriage), the Princess Annunciata, daughter of King Ferdinand II. of Naples, aud had issue the Archduke Francis Ferdinand, born 1863, wbo is the heir presumptive to the throne (inarried, inorganatically, 1900, ('outess Sophie ('hotek.and renounced the claim of his issue by berto the throne): the Archduke Otto, born 1865, died 1906, married to the Princess Marie Josefa of Saxony, bad two sons (Archdukes Charles, born 1887. and Maximilian, born 1895); the Archduke Ferdinand, born 1868, and unmarried, and the Archduchess Margaret Sophia, born 1870, died 1902: she married in 1893 Albert, Duke of Würitemberg. By a third marriage, the Archduke Charles Louis had two daughters.

The Einperor bas a second brother, the Archduke Louis Victor, born 1842, who is upmarried, and a sister-iu-law, Empress (arlottá of Mexico, the widow of his brother Maximilialı, executed at Queretaro in 1867. She is insane, and lives in Belgium with the King, her brother.

There are over seventy other archdukes and archduchesses of Austria, cousins of the Emperor, collateral relatives of the reigning house and members of the formerly reigning branches of Tuscany and Morlenta. The family is descended from Count Rudolph of Hapsburg, wbo was elected Emperor of Germany in 1273.

BAVARIA, Otto, King of Bavaria, was born April 27, 1848, and succeeded his brother, Ludwig II., June 13, 1886, wheu that mad monarch comınitted suicide by drowning hiinself in the Starnberg Lake. Outo is also crazy, is shut up in one of his chateaux, and the kingdom is governed by Prince Luitpold, his uncle, as regent. The latter is also the heir apparent to the throue; was born in 1821; married, 1844, the Austrian Archduchess Augusta of Tuscany, who is dead, and has four children:

1. Prince Louis, born 1845; married the Austrian Archduchess Maria Theresa, and has six daughters and four sons, the eldest of the latter being Prince Rupert, born 1869, and married, 1900, his cousin, Duchess Marie Gabrielle of Bavaria.

2. Prince Leopold, born 1846; married to the Austrian Archduchess Gisela, daughter of the Em. peror Francis Joveph I. There are two daughters and two sons.

3. Princess Theresa, born 1850; Prioress of a Convent in Munich.

4. Prince Arnulf, 1852, married the Princess Theresia of Lichtenstein, and died 1907, leaving a son, Prince Henry.

King Otto has five consins who bear princely titles, children of his dead uncle, Adalbert,

The royal house of Bavaria comes from the counts of Wittelsbach of the twelfth century, one of wbose descendants was elevated to the rank of Elector, and a later one made King by Napoleon I.

BELGIUM Leopold II., King of the Belgians, was born April 9, 1835, and was a son of Leopold I., Prince of Sa xe-l'oburg.liotha (uncle of Queen Victoria), who was elected King of the Belgians in 1831, and Princess Louise, daughter of King Louis Philippe of France. The present King, who ascended the throne in 1865, was married, in 1853, to the Austrian Archduchess Marie Henriette (died 1902), and has the following children:

1. Princess Louise, born 1858; married to Prince Philippe of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.

2. Princess Stephanie, born 1864; married, 1881, to the late Crown Prince Rudolph of Austria, and has one daughter. Princess Stephanie married, 1900, Flómer. Count Lonyay of Nagy-Lonyay and Vasoras. Naineuy. Chamberlain to the Emperor of Austria.

3. Princess Clementine, born 1872.

The King's brother was Prince Philippe, Count of Flanders, born in 1837; married to the Hohen.' zolleru Princess Marie, and died in 1905. His son. I'riuce Albert, is the present heir apparent, born in 1875, and married, in 1900, the Princess Elizabeth (daughter of Duke Charles Theodore of Bavaria). They have two sons, Prince Leopold, born in 1901, and Charles Theodore, born in 1903, and a daughter, Princess Marie Jose, born 1906. Prince Philippe had also two daughters, Henriette, born 1870. married, 1896, tie Duke of Vendome; and Josephine, boru 1872; married, 1894, Prince Charles of IIobenzolleri-sigmaringen,

The sister of the King is the hapless ex-Empress Carlotta of Mexico, widow of Maximilian. She was born in 1840, widowed in 1867, has no children, and is now insane.

DENMARK Frederick VIII., King of Denmark, succeeded to the throne of Denmark by virtue of the law of the Danish uccession on the death of his father, King Christian IX., in 1906. He was born 1843;

married the Princess Louise of Sweden in 1869, and has three daughters and four sons, the eldest of the latter being ('rown Prince Christian, born in 1870, and married, 1898, Princess Alexandrina of Vecklenburg-Scliwerill, and has two sons; and the second, Prince Charles, born 1872, and marripd. 1896, Princess Maud, third daughter of King Edward VII., and elected King of Norway in 1905, as Haakon VII. The eldest daughter is married to Prince Charles of Sweden.

The king brothers and sisters are :

1. The Queen of Great Britaln and Ireland (Alexandra), born 1844; married 1863, and has four living children.

2. The King of the Horienes (George I.), born 1845; married to the Grand Duchess Olga of Russia, and has one daughter and five sons the eldest of the latter being Prince Constantine.

3. Tue Dowager Empress of Russia (Daymar), born 1847; married the late Czur Alexander III.' in 1866, and has four children, one being the present (zar.

4. The Duchess of Cumberland (Thyra), born 1853; married the present Duke of Cumberland (English title), son of the ex-King of Hanover, iu 1878, and has two sons and three daughters,

604

REIGNING FAMILIES--Continued.
5. Prince Waldemar, born 1858; married, 1885, the Princess Marie of Orleans, daughter of the
Duke of Chartres, and has four sons and a daughter. He was offered the crown of Bulgaria in
1886, but declined.

GERMANY
William II., German Emperor and King of Prussia, was born January 27, 1859; succeeded his
father, the Emperor Frederick III., June 15, 1888. He married the Princess Victoria of Schleswig-
Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (born 1858), and has had issue:

1. Frederick William, Crown Prince, born 1882, married, June 6, 1905, to Duchess Cecilie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and has two sons, William Frederick, born July 4, 1906, and a sou bor! November 9, 1907; 2. William Eitel-Frederick, born 1883. married, February 27, 1906, Princess Sophie Charlotte of Oldenburg; 3. Adalbert, born 1884; 4. August, born 1897; 5. Oscar, boru 1888: 6. Joachim, boru 1890; 7. Victoria Louise, born 1892.

The Emperor's brother is Prince Henry, born 1862, and married, 1888, to his cousin, Princess Irene of Hesse, daughterof the late Princess Alice of England, and has two sons; and the Emperor has four sisters, all the children of the late Emperor Frederick and the Princess Victoria of England! (the Dowager Empress Frederick, who died in 1901). The sisters are:

1. Princess Charlotte, born 1860; married, 1878, to George, hereditary Prince of Saxe-Meiningen, and has one daughter.

2. Princess Victoria, born 1966; married, 1890, to Prince Adolph of Schaumburg-Lippe.

3. Princess Sophis, born 1870; married, 1889, to Constantine, Crown Prince of Greece, and has three sons and a daughter.

4. Princess Margaret, born 1872; married, 1893, to Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse, and has five sons.

The Emperor has an aunt, the Princess Louise, born 1838, widow of the late Grand Duke of Baden; and he has a number of cousins, descendants of the brothers and sisters of the Emperor William I. 'One of these is Princess Margaret, daughter of the late Prince Frederick Oharles and wife of the British Duke of Connaught, son of Queen Victoria. The reigning family is descended from Frederick of Hohenzollern, a German count in 980, and Frederick William, the Elector of Brandenburg, 1640988, whose son became King of Prussia.

GREECE. George I., King of the Hellenes, born December 24, 1845, elected King in 1863. He is the brother of the present King of Denmark, lrederick VIII., and brother of the Queen of Great Britain and the Dowager Empress of Russia. He married, 1887, the Grand Duchess Olga, eldest daughter of the Grand Duke Constantine of Russia, grand uncle to the present Emperor. They have had six living children, five sons and one daughter. The eldest son is:

Prince Constantine, born 1868; married, 1889, the Princess Sophia, sister of the present German Emperor, and has three sons, Prince George, horn 1890: Prince Alexander, born 1893, and Prince Paul, born 1901, and a daughter, Princess Helen, born 1896.

The King's eldest daughter, Alexandra, married, in 1889, the Grand Duke Paul, uncle of the
present Emperor of Russia, and died September 24, 1891, leaving a daughter and a son.

ITALY.
Victor Emanuel III., King of Italy, was born November 11, 1869, and is the only son of
Humbert I., second King of United Italy, murdered by the Anarchist Bresci at Monza, July 29, 1900.
He married, in 1996, Princess Helene, daughter of Nicholas, Prince of Montenegro, and has four
childreni, Princess Iolande, born June 1, 1901. Princess Matalda, born November 10, 1902; Prince
Humbert (heir apparent), born heptember 15, 1904, and Princess Giovanna, horn November 13, 1907

Emmanuel, Duke of Aosta, born 1869; is eldest son of the late Prince Amarleus, uncle of present
King (and ex-King of Spain); married, 1895, Princess Helene of Orleans, daughter of the laté Connt
of Paris, and they have had issue two children, Amadeus, boru 1898, and Aimon, born 1900. The
three remaining sons of the late Prince Amadeus are Victor, Count of Turin, born 1870; Louis. Duke
of Abruzzi, born 1873, and Humbert, Count of Salemi, born in 1889 of his second marriage with his

niece, Princess Letitia, daughter of Prince Napoleon Bonaparte and the Princess Clotilde.
LU. The mother of the King is Queen Margherita,

daughter of the late Prince Ferdinand of Savoy.
She was born 1851, and married the late King 1868.

The following are the aunts of the King:

1. Princess Clotilde, born 1843; married, 1859, to Prince Napoleon Jerome Bonaparte, the late head of the Bonaparte family, and has issue two sons and a daughter, Letitia. (See " Bonapartists.)

2. Dowager Queen Maria Pia of Portugal, born 1847, and married, 1862, to the late King Louis of Portugal, and has two sons,

The King's great annt hy marriage, the Princess Elizabeth, widow of the Duke of Genoa, has a son
(Prince Thomas, Duke of Genoa, married, 1883, Princess Isabella, daughter of Prince Adelbert of
Bavaria, and has three sons and two daughters) and a daughter, the latter being the late King Hum-
bert's wife. The family is descended from the Counts of Savoy, who flourished in the Eleventh
Century.

NETHERLANDS.
Wilhelmina, Queen of the Netherlands and Princess of Orange-Nassau, boru August 31, 1880,
daughter of the late King William III. and Emma, daughter of Prince George Victor of Waldeck-
Pyrmont. She married, February 7, 1901, Duke Henry of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.

The Queen's mother is the late Regent Queen Emma, whose regency lasted rom the death of the late King, her husband, November 23, 1890, until ihe end of the minority of her daughter, August 31, 1898. The Queen's aunt is the Princess Sophia, inarried to the Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar. She has a son, Prince Charles, born 1814, and two daughters. This family, known as the House of Orange, is descended from the Princes of Orange, stadtholders during the Dutch Republic,

NORWAY Hankon VII., King of Norway, was before his election to the crown by the Norwegian people in 1905, Prince Charles of Denmark. He is the second son of King Frederick VIII. of Denmark: was born 1872; married, 1896, Princess Maud, third daughter of King Edward VII. of Great Britain, and has ype son, Olaf Alexander Edward Christian Frederick, bory July , 1903.

[graphic]

REIGNING FAMILIES-Continued.

PORTUGAL Charles I., King of Portugal, born September 28, 1863, son of the late King Louis and his spouse, the Princess Pia, daughter of King Victor Emmanuel of Italy. He succeeded to the throne October 19, 1889. He married, 1886, the Princess Amelie of Orleans, daughter of the Count of Paris, and has two sons, Prince Louis Philippe, Duke of Braganza, born 1887, and Prince Manuel, Duke of Beja, born 1889.

The King has a brother, Prince Alphonse, Duke of Oporto, born 1865, and unmarried; and an aunt married to the Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, and has three sons.

The reigning family belongs to the House of Braganza, whose founder was an Mlegitimate son of King John I. (A, D. 1400) of the old line of Portuguese kings.

RUSSIA. Nicholas II., Emperor of Russia, was born May 18, 1868, and succeeded his father, the late Emperor Alexander III., November 1, 1894. He is married to the Princess Alice (Alix) of HesseDarinstadt, daughter of the Princess Alice of Great Britain, and has four daughters and one son.Olga, born in 1805; Tatjana, born in 1897; Marie, born in 1899; Anastasia, born iu 1901, and Alexis (the ('zareviten), born August 12, 1904.

The late Einperor Alexander 11., born in 1845, married, in 1866, the Princess Dagmar, daughter of the present King of Denmark, had issue three sons: 1. Nicholas, the present Emperor; 2. Grand Duke George (the late Czarevitch), born 1871, died 1899; 3 Grand Duke Michael, born December 4, 1878, and two daughters: 1. Grand Duchess Xenia, born April 6, 1875; married, August 6, 1894, her cousin, the Grand Duke Alexander, has four sons and two daughters, and 2. Grand Duchess Olga, born June 13, 1882, married to Prince Peter of Oldenburg. The uncles and aunts of the Emperor are:

1. Grand Duke Vladimir, born 1847; married, 1874, the Princess Marie of MecklenburgSchwerin, and has three sons and one daughter; Grand Duke Cyril, born in 1876; married, 1905, Melita, second daughter of the late Dake of Coburg and divorced wife of the Grand Duke of Hesse. Grand Duke Boris, who was in America in 1902, is the second son and was born in 1877.

2. Grand Duke Alexis, High Admiral, born 1850. He is unmarried.

3. Grand Duchess Marie, born 1853; married the late Duke of Edinburgh, and has bad one son (deceased) and four daughters.

4. Grand Duke Sergius, born 1857; married, 1884, Princess Elizabeth of Hesse- Darmstadt, daughter of Princess Alice of England. Assassinated in 1905, he left no issne.

5. Grand Duke Paul, born 1860; married, 1889, Princess Alexandra, danghter of the King of the Hellenes. She died September 24, 1891, leaving a son, the Grand Duke Demetrius, and a daughter. In 1902 he contracted a morganatic marriage with Olga Pistolkohrs, now Countess Hohenfelsen.

The Emperor has one grand uncle (son of the Emperor Nicholas 1.), Grand Duke Michael, born 1832, feld marshal in the Russian Army; married, 1857. Princess Cecelia of Baden, and has issue six living children, the eldest daughter, Anastasia, born 1860, being the widow of the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.

A grand uncle, the Grand Duke Constantine: horn 1827; died January 12, 1892; married, 1848, Princess Alexandm of Saxe-Altenburg, and had issue tive children, the Grand Duke Nicholas, born 1850, being the eldest, and the Grand Duchess Olga, born 1851, the eldest daughter, being mara ried to the King of the Hellenes,

A third grand uncle, the Grand Duke Nicholas, born 1831, field marshal in the Russian Army, died in 1891; married, in 1856, the Princess Alexandra of Oldenburg, and had issue two sons, Grand Duke Nicholas, born 1856, married, 1907, Anastasia. daughter of the present Prince of Montenegro, and sister of Queen Helene, of Italy, and Grand Duke Peter, married, in 1889, Militsa, sister of the preceding.

The Russian reigning famlly is descended from Michael Romanoff, elected Czar in 1613. The members of the family for over two centuries, however, have married so generally into the German royal houses that the present Romanoffs are practically, by blood, Germans; as much so as their kinsman, the head of the German Empire,

SAXONY. Frederick August, King of Saxony, born May 25, 1865, succeeded his father, King George, October 16, 1904 He married in 1891 Archduchess Louise of Austria (from whom he was separated in 1903. T'he King bas three daughters and three sons, the Crown Prince being George, born 1893.

The King has two sisters, Mathilde, born 1863, upmarried, and Maria Josepha, born 1867. married to the late Archduke Otto of Austria, and two brothers. Johann Georg, born 1869, married first to Duchess Isabella of Warttemberg (died 1904), and in 1906 to Princess Maria Immaculata of Bourbon, and Max, born 1870, a priest in Holy Orders.

A great aunt of the King, Princess Elizabeth, born 1830, married Prince Ferdinand of Sardinia, and after his death in 1856 Marchese Rapallo, who died in 1882. The widow of King Albert, Queen Carola, is also living.

The royal house of Saxony is one of the oldest in Europe, having given an emperor to Germany as early as the beginning of the Tenth Century. The Elector of Saxový assumed the title of King in 1806, and was confirmed therein in 1815.

SPAIN. Alphonso XIII., King of Spain, born May 17, 1886, nearly six months after the death of his father, Alphonso XII. His mother is Maria Christina, an Austrian princess. He married in 1906 the English Princess Victoria Ena, daughter of Princess Beatrice, by whom he has a son and beir, Alphonso, Prince of the Asturias, born May 10, 1907, The King has one living sister, the Infanta Maria Theresa, born 1882, his eldest sister, the Princess of Asturias, Maria-de-las-Mercedes, born 1880, wedded in 1901 to Prince Charles of Bourbon-Caserta, having died on October 17, 1904, alter giving birth to a daughter, since christened as Infanta Isabel.'

The King's aunts are the Infantas Isabella, widow of the Count de Girgenti; Maria, wife of Prince Louis of Bavarin, and Eulalie, wife of Prince Antonio of Orleans (separated from him by deed of separation), who visited the United States and the World's Fair in 1883.

The King's grandmother, ex-Queen Isabella, born in 1830, crowned 1833, abdicated 1870, died 'April 9, 1904, Her husband, the infant Francis d'Assisi, born 1822, died in 1902.

The King's grand aunt, the Infanta Louisa, widow of the Duke of Montpensier (son of King Louis Philippe of France), now dead, was the mother of a son and three daughters; 1. The wife of the late Count of Paris, and mother of the French pretender, the Duke of Orleans; 2. The late Queeu Mercedes, wife of Alphonso XII., deceased; 3. The Infanta Christina, also deceased.

A second cousin of the King is Don Carlos, born in 1848, and a pretender to the Spanish throne, who is married, and has four daughters and a son, Prince Jaime, born in 1870. The Spanish reigning family are Bourbous, descendants of King Louis

XIV. of France,

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