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in Common Use Ital. Italics
1. W. W. Industrial Workers of the World
(He) painted it Justice of the Peace J. P.
Postmaster; Prime Minister
Knight Bachelor, King's Bench P. M. G. Postmaster-General
Post Office; Postal Order
Professor K. C. M. G Knight Commander of St. Michael Pro tem. Pro tempore (for the time being) and St. George
Provost; Provisional; Province
Postscriptum(postscript);prompt side K. C. v. 0. Knight Commander of the Royal
Q. E. D. Quod erat demonstrandum (which kil. Kilometer
was to be demonstrated), applied kilo. Kilogram
to a theorem Ku Klux Klan K. K. K.
Quod erat faciendum (which was to
Q. E. F.
be done); applied to a problem Pythias
Q. M. G. Quartermaster-General
Quod vide (which see)
q. y. Lat. Latir
Republican Latitude lat.
Royal Academician; Royal Artillery
Royal Air Force
R. A. F.
R. A. s. Royal Astronomical, or Asiatic, Society
R. F. D. Rural Free Delivery
Royal Institute of Painters in Water
Pounds, shillings and pence; Money R. I. P. Requiescat in pace (M&y he or she Lt., Lieut. Lieutenant
rest in peace) Lt. Col. Lieutenant-Colonel
Royal Marines; Resident Magistrate Lt.-Gen. Lieutenant-General
R. N. R. Royal Naval Reserve
Septuagint (the old testament) R. N. v. R. Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve M. Monsieur, Meridian (noon)
R. 0. T. C. Reserve Officers Training Corps M. A. Master of Arts
R. S. V. P. Fr. Repondez s'il vous plait (Please Maj.-Gen. Major-General
answer) Math. Mathematics; Mathematical
Right Honourable (Member of Brit. M. B. Bachelor of Medicine
ish Privy Council) M. B. A.
Master of Business Administration Rt. Rev. Right Reverend
Royal Yacht Squadron
S. A. S.
Fellow Society of Antiquaries (U. S.) mdse. Merchandise
Bachelor of Science
Doctor of Science
Master of Science
Sculpsit (he engraved)
Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
Sine prole (without issue)
S. P. C. A. Society for the Prevention of Cruelty
to Animals Mus. B. Bachelor of Music
S. P. C. C. N. Y. Society for the Prevention of
Cruelty to Children
Sons of the Revolution
S. S. A.
Social Security Act
S, S. M. Society of the Sacred Mission
F Sainte (female saint)
S. T. D. Doctor of Sacred Theology
Let it stand
T. I. T.
Trinitrotoluene (high explosive) non seg
University 0. H. M. S. On His Majesty's Service
U. S. A. United States of America: Union of
South Africa: United States Army
Oblate of Mary Immaculate
United States Navy
U. S. N.
Praedicatorum 0. P.
United States Pharmacopoeia
the U. S. P. Order of Preachers (Dominican) v., vid.
Old Style in the Calendar (in Great Vice.-Adm. Vice-Admiral
Videlicet (namely) 0. S. B. Order of St. Benedict
Volume; Volunteers 0. S. F. Franciscan (Capuchin) Order
Victoria Regina (Queen Victoria)
toria Queen and Empress)
W. C. T. U. Women's Christian Temperance Union
Y. M. C. A. Young Men's Christian Association
Y. M. H. A. Young Men's Hebrew Association
Y. W. C. A. Young Women's Christian Association
Bishops of The Methodist Church
Source: Commission on Public Information of The Methodist Church Badley, Brenton Thoburn Delhi, India
Magee, J. Ralph
Des Moines, Iowa Baker, James C. Los Angeles, Calif. Martin, William C.
Omaha, Neb. Balloch, Enrique C. Santiago, Chile
McConnell, F. J.
New York City
Mondol. Shot K.
Hyderabad, India Chen, W. Y. Chunking. China
Moore, Arthur J.
Atlanta, Ga. Cushman, Ralph S. St. Paul, Minn.
Oxnam, G. Bromley Boston, Mass. Darlington, U. v. W. Louisville, Ky.
Peele, William W.
Pickett, J. Waskom Bombay, India
Charlotte, N. C.
Richardson, Ernest G. Philadelphia, Pa. Gattinoni, Juan E. Buenos Aires, Argen. Rockey, Clement K. Lucknow, India Hammaker, Wilbur E. Denver, Colo.
Selecman, Charles C. Oklahoma City, Okla.
Smith, Angie Frank Houston, Texas
Elisabethville, Bel. Con.
Straughn, James H. Pittsburgh, Pa.
Wade. Raymond J. Detroit, Mich.
Waldorf. E. L.
Chicago, Ill. Leonard, Adna Wright Washington, D. C.
Ward, Ralph A.
Shanghai, China Lowe, Titus Indianapolis, Ind.
Watkins. William T. Columbia, So. Car.
Keeney, F. T.
Leete, F. D.
De Land, Fla.
Mitchell, C. B.
Muller, George A.
Moore, John M.
Nicholson, Thomas Mount Vernon, Iowa
Nuelsen, John L.
New York City
Robinson, J. W.
New York City Hughes, Edwin H.
Washington, D.O. The Uniting Conference, held in Kansas City. Foreign, Home and Women's Work, at 150 Fifth Mo. (April 26-May 10, 1930) created The Methodist Ave., N. Y. City; Board of Temperance continues Church out of the Methodist Episcopal Church,
in Washington, D. C.; Board of Education, Nashthe Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and the
ville, Tenn.: Board of Pensions, 740 Rush St., Methodist Protestant Church.
Chicago, and 506 Olive St., St. Louis, Board of The first General Conference of The Methodist Chicago and Nashville: Board of Hospitals and
Lay Activities, Chicago, Ill.; Board of Publication. Church was held April 24, 1940. It was followed Homes, Columbus, Ohio; Commission on Evanby six Jurisdictional Conferences.
gelism, Nashville, Tenn.; Commission on Public The headquarters of the organized activities of
Information. N. Y. City: Commission on World The Methodist Church were located as follows- Peace. Chicago: Commission on Courses of Study. Board of Missions and Church Extension, including Nashville, Tenn.
Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor
Source: Headquarters officers of the Organization President. Rev. Daniel A. Poling. D.D.; Honorary nominations, and in practically every country on Vice-president, Rev. William Hiram Foulkes, D.D.; the globe. Vice-presidents, Harry N. Holmes, Mrs. Helen Lyon
Most of the societies are formed in local churches Jones, Rev. J. Gordon Howard, D.D.,
and exist as a part of the activity of the church. Rev.
Some, however, exist in unusual places, as in Norman Vincent Peale, D.D., and Rev. Lawrence
hospitals, aboard ship, in army camps, in public W. Bash; Executive Secretary and Treasurer, institutions, in prisons, in schoolhouses, and in Carroll M. Wright; Associate Secretary, Rev. homes where no church building is available. Stanley B. Vandersall, D.D.; Field Secretary,
The purpose of the society is, as expressed in Ernest s. Marks.
its constitution, “to promote an earnest Christian The headquarters of the movement is in the
life among its members, to increase their mutual World's Christian Endeavor Building, Mount Ver
acquaintance, to train thern for work in the non and Joy Streets, Boston, Massachusetts. This
church, and in every way to make them useful in building was erected in 1918 by the contributions the service of God and their fellow men." It is of one hundred thousand young people throughout the church training the young, and its motto is the world.
“For Christ and the Church." Its cardinal prinThe first society of Christian Endeavor was
ciples are stated thus: (1) Open confession of formed on February 2, 1881, in the Williston Con
Christ. (2) active service for Christ, (3) loyalty to gregational Church, Portland, Maine, by
Rev. Christ's church, (4) fellowship with Christ's Francis E. Clark, pastor, for the purpose of train- people. ing a large number of young people in the duties The International Society of Christian Endeavor of church membership and the activities of the
is the clearing-house for all forms of Christian En. Christian life. The early societies were for young deavor activity. It publishes and circulates vari. people approaching maturity, but on March 29, ous literature, including the Christian Endeavor 1883, the first Junior Christian Endeavor society World, the official organ of the movement. was organized, and in 1891 the first Intermediate The International Society is supported by volsociety had its birth. Now, under graded Christian
untary gifts, bequests and annuities from individ. Endeavor, there are societies adapted to all ages, uals and the sale of literature, badges, etc., albeginning with Juniors and including adults and though the latter feature is largely a service rengraduate members who are called Alumni.
dered to the societies and unions. There are about 80,000 Christian Endeavor so- The World's Christian Endeavor Union comcieties, with more than 4,000,000 members. So
prises all the national unions throughout the cieties are found in eighty or more religious de- world, the number being more than fifty.
Flags of 90 Governments Displayed in U. S. Owned Chapel
Source: The Rev. Gustav Stearns, D. D., Chaplain, National Soldiers Home Chapel National flags of ninety foreign governments, Gustav Stearns, chaplain, with the approval of each flag actually procured in and mailed from or Col. Charles M. Pearsall, manager, Veterans Adbrought from the country or government it repre- ministration. The collection was started in 1936 sents, have been assembled for the U. 8. govern- and the first flag of the collection received from a ment-owned National Soldiers Home Chapel, foreign country was displayed in the chapel, Nov Veterans Administration, Wood, Wis., by the Rev. 8, 1936.
Bishops of the Protestant Episcopal Church
Most Rev. Henry St. George Tucker, Bishop of Virginia, Presiding Bishop: Secretary of the House
Wash.; John Boyd Bentley. Suffragan, Nenana, helmer, Rochester. Albany: G. A. Oldham, Al-
bany. Long Island: Ernest M. Stires, Garden Arizona-Walter Mitchell (miss.), Phoenix.
City. John I. B. Larned, Suffragan, Brooklyn. Arkansas--R. Bland Mitchell, Little Rock.
North Carolina--Edwin A Penick. Raleigh, North
Western California-Karl M. Block, Coadjutor, San Fran
Carolina: T. C. Darst, Wilmington.
North Carolina, Robert Emmet Gribbin, Ashecisco. Sacramento: A. W. Noel Porter, Sacra
ville. mento. Los Angeles: W. B. Stevens, Los Angeles, Ohio Beverly D. Tucker, Jr., Cleveland. Southern: Robt. B. Gooden, Suffragan, Los Angeles. San Joaquin: Louis C. Sanford, Fresno.
H. W. Hobson, Cincinnati. Colorado-Fred Ingley, Denver.
Oklahoma Thomas Casady, Oklahoma City. Connecticut--Walter H. Gray. Suffragan Bishop of Oregon-Benjamin D. Dagwell, Portland. Eastern: Connecticut. Harttord: Frederick G. Budlong,
W. P, Remington (miss.), Pendleton. Hartford.
Pennsylvania-Francis M. Taitt, Philadelphia. Dakota, North--D. H. Atwill (miss.), Fargo.
Pittsburgh: Alexander Mann, Pittsburgh, BethleDakota, South-W. B. Roberts, Sioux Falls.
hem: Frank W. Sterrett, Bethlehem. Harrisburg:
Wyatt Brown, Harrisburg. Erie: John C. Ward, Delaware -A. R. McKinstry, Wilmington,
Erie. District of Columbia--James E. Freeman.
Rhode Island-J. De W. Perry. Providence; G. G. Florida--F. A. Juhan, Jacksonville.
Bennett, Suffragan, Providence. Florida, South-John D. Wing, Orlando.
South Carolina-Albert S. Thomas, Charleston. Georgia--Middleton S. Barnwell, Savannah. At- Upper South Carolina: J. J. Gravatt, Columbia. ianta: Henry J. Mikell, Atlanta.
Tennessee--J. M. Maxon, Memphis, Edmund P Idaho- Frederick B. Bartlett (miss.), Boise.
Dandridge, Coadjutor, Nashville. Illinois-Wallace E. Conkling. Bishop of Chicago, Texas--Clinton S. Quin, Houston. Dallas: H. T. Chicago; E. J. Randall, Suffragan, Chicago. Moore, Dallas. W. Texas: William T. Capers, Quincy: W. L. Essex, Peoria; John C. White. San Antonio. No. Tex.: E. C. Seaman (miss.). Springfield.
Amarillo. Indiana --R. A. Kirchhoffer, Indianapolis, North- Utah-Arthur W. Moulton (miss.), Salt Lake City.
ern Indiana: Campbell Gray, Mishawaka. Vermont--Vedder Van Dyck, Burlington. Iowa--Harry S. Longley, Davenport.
Virginia-H. St. George Tucker, New York City. Kansas--Shirley H. Nichols, Bishop of Kyoto, in F. D. Goodwin, Coadjutor, Richmond, Southern:
charge of Salina. Salina: Goodrich R. Fenner, William A. Brown, Norfolk. Southwestern: H. Topeka, Salina.
D. Phillips, Roanoke. Kentucky-Charles Clingman, Louisville. Lexing- West Virginia---Robert E. L. Strider, Wheeling. ton; Henry P. A. Abbott, Lexington,
Wisconsin--Benjamin F. P. Ivins, Milwaukee. Louisiana-John L. Jackson, New Orleans.
Fond du Lac: Harwood Sturtevant, Fond du Lac. Maine-Oliver L. Loring. Portland.
Eau Claire: Frank E. Wilson, Eau Claire. Maryland--Edw. T. Hellenstein, Baltimore. Eas- Washington-Olympia: S. Arthur Huston, Seattle: ton; W. McClelland, Easton.
Spokane: Edward M. Cross, (miss.). Spokane. Massachusetts-Henry K Sherrill, Boston. Ray- Wyoming--Winfred H. Ziegler (miss.), Laramie.
mond A. Heron, Suffragan, Boston, Western: Africa-Liberia: Leopold Kroll, Monrovia. William A. Lawrence, Springfield.
Brazil-Southern: William M. M. Thomas (miss.), Michigan-P. W. Creighton, Detroit. Marquette: Rio Grande do Sul. (See Northern Michigan.) Western: L. B.
China --Shanghai: William P. Roberts (miss.), Whittmore, Grand Rapids,
Shanghai, Hankow: Alfred A. Gilman, Hankow. Minnesota-Frank A. McElwain, Evanston, Ill.: Anking: Lloyd R. Craighill, Bishop of Anking.
Stephen Edwards Keeler, Coadjutor, Minneapo- Wuhu.
lis, Duluth; Benjamin T. Kemmerer, St. Cloud. Haiti-H, R. Carson (miss.), Port au Prince. Spence Mississippi-Wm. Mercer Green, Jackson.
Burton, Suffragan, Port au Prince. Missouri--William Scarlett, St. Louis. West; Robert Panama Canal Zone Harry Beal (miss.). Ancon, N. Spencer, Kansas City.
Cuba--Alexander H. Blankingship, Havana. Montana-H. H. Daniels, Helena. Coadjutor, Helena. Virgin Islands C. B. Colmore, in charge. Nebraska --Howard R. Brinker, Western; George A.
Dominican Republic--H, R. Carson in charge. Beecher (miss.), Hastings.
Japan-North Kwanto, C. F. Reiisnider, Tokio. Nevada--Thomas Jenkins (miss.), Reno.
Shirley N. Nichols (miss.), Kyoto, Tohoku; NorNew Hampshire-John Thomson Dallas, Concord.
man S. Binsted (miss.), Sendai. New Jersey-Wallace J. Gardner, Trenton. Newark: Hawaiian Islands--Honolulu: Samuel H. Littell,
Benjamin M. Washburn. Orange: Theodore R. (miss.), Honolulu.
Mexico --Efrain Salinas (miss.), Mexico D. F. New Mexico
Philippines - Norman S. Binsted, Bishop of ToNew York-Wm. T. Manning, New York City: hokus, in charge of Philippine Islands, Manila;
Charles K. Gilbert, Suffragan, New York City. Robert F. Wilner (suffr.). Manila.
RETIRED BISHOPS Julius W. Atwood, Washington, D. C.; Samuel P. Johnson, Minneapolis, Minn.; Paul Jones, YelG. Babcock, Marblehead, Mass.: Theodore D. Brat - low Springs, Ohio; William Lawrence, Boston, ton, Jackson, Miss.; Chauncey B. Brewster, Hart- Mass, ; Paul Matthews, Princeton, N. J.; Robert ford, Conn.; Robert E. Campbell, St. Andrews, H. Mize, Salina, Kan., William H. Moreland, AlTenn.; George W. Davenport, Auburndale, Mass. bany, N. Y.; James Craik Morris, New Orleans,
Edward T. Demby, Cleveland, Ohio; Frank Du- La.; Herman Page, Ann Arbor, Mich.; Rt. Rev. Moulin, Locust Valley. N. Y.; Davis L. Ferris, Edward L. Parsons, D.D. California. Rochester, N. Y.; Charles Fiske, Baltimore, Md.; Logan H. Roots, New York, N. Y.; Edwin W Herbert H. H. Fox, Billings, Mont.; William L. Saphore, Syracuse, N. Y.; Ernest V. Shayler, Los Gravatt, Charleston, W. Va.; Robert L. Harris, Angeles, Calif.; Wilson R. Stearly, Montclair. N. J.: San Diego, Calif.; Rt. Rev. Daniel T. Huntington, Arthur C. Thomson, Portsmouth, Va., Theodore D.D., Anking: Robert C. Jett. Roanoke, Va.
P. Thurston, San Diego, Calif.; Frank H. Touret, Frederick F. Johnson, Newtown, Conn.; Irving Tryon, N. C.: James R. Winchester, Chicago, III.
Volunteers of America
Source: An Official of the Organization The Volunteers of America is a religious and During the past year 643,226 lodgings were prophilanthropic organization administering to the vided; 2,036.795 free meals were given to deserving many needs of the unfortunate and destitute in needy persons; 10,670 were provided transportation; large urban centers of the United States. Head- while upwards of three million persons came under quarters address is 34 W. 28th St., New York, N. Y.) the direct influence of the spiritual program,
The National Catholic Welfare Conference
Source: An Official of the Organization The National Catholic Welfare Conference was Edward Mooney. Archbishop of Detroit, chairman organized in 1919 as a common agency acting under of the Administrative Board and episcopal chairthe bishops to promote the welfare of the Catholics man of the Executive Department; Most Rev. John of the United States. The Conference has for its B. Peterson, Bishop of Manchester, vice chairman incorporated purposes “unifying, coordinating and
of the Administrative Board and episcopal chair
man of the Department of Education: Most Rev. organizing the Catholic people of the United States in works of education, social welfare, immigrant secretary of the Administrative Board: Most Rev.
Francis J. Spellman, Archbishop of New York, aid and other activities," The Conference com- Francis C. Kelley, Bishop of Oklahoma City and prises the following departments and bureaus: Tulsa, treasurer of the Administrative Board and
Executive - Bureaus maintained: Information, episcopal chairman of the Department of Lay OrImmigration, National Center Confraternity of ganizations; Most Rev. John Gregory Murray, Christian Doctrine, Publications, Business and Archbishop of St. Paul, episcopal chairman, DeAuditing, and Catholic Action, monthly publica- partment of Catholic Action Study: Most Rev. tion, N. C. W. C.
Hugh C. Boyle, Bishop of Pittsburgh, episcopal Youth-Facilitates exchange of information re- chairman of the Legal Department, Most Rev. garding the philosophy, organization, and program- Edwin V. O'Hara, Bishop of Kansas City and content of Catholic youth organizations, promotes episcopal chairman of the Social Action Departthe National Catholic Youth Council, the federating ment; Most Rev. John Mark Gannon, Bishop of agency for all existing, approved Catholic youth Erie, episcopal chairman of the Press Department: groups: contacts and evaluates national govern- and the Most Rev. John A. Duffy, Bishop of mental and non-governmental youth organizations Buffalo, episcopal chairman of the Department of and youth servicing organizations.
Youth; and Most Rev. John T. McNicholas, O.P.. Education ---Divisions: Statistics and Informa- Archbishop of Cincinnati, member of the Board tion, Teachers' Registration. Library.
without portfolio. Press-Serves the Catholic press in the United Assistant Bishops. Administrative Board--Most States and abroad with regular news, features, Rev. Emmet M. Walsh, Bishop of Charleston; Most editorial and pictorial services.
Rev. Richard O. Gerow, Bishop of Natchez: Social Action-Covers the fields of Industrial Most Rev. Karl J. Alter, Bishop of Toledo; Most Relations, International Affairs, Civic Education. Rev. Thomas K. Gorman, Bishop of Reno: Most Social Welfare, Family Life and Rural Life.
Rev. Francis P. Keough. Bishop of Providence: Legal Serves as a clearing house of information Most Rev. Walter A. Foery, Bishop of Syracuse: on Federal, State and local legislation.
Most Rev. Bartholomew J. Eustace, Bishop of Lay Organizations-Includes the National Coun- Camden, and Most Rev. Charles Hubert LeBlond, cil of Catholic Men and the National Council of Bishop of St. Joseph. The Right Rev. Msgr. Michael Catholic Women, which maintain at N. C. W. C. J. Ready, General Secretary: Rev. Howard J. headquarters permanent representations in the in- Carroll, S.T.D., Asst. Gen. Sec. terests of the Catholic laity. These councils func- Under the N.C.W.C. Episcopal Committee on tion through some 4,700 affiliated societies Motion Pictures (Most Rev. John T. McNicholas, national, State, diocesan, district, local and parish; O.P., Archbishop of Cincinnati, chairman; Most also through units of the councils in many of the Rev. John J. Cantwell, Archbishop of Los Andioceses.
geles; Most Rev. Hugh C. Boyle, Bishop of PittsCatholic Action Study-Devoted to research burgh; Most Rev. John F. Noll, Bishop of Fort and reports as to pronouncements, methods, pro- Wayne, and Most Rev. Stephen J. Donahue, Auxilgrams and achievements in the work of Catholic iary Bishop of New York) there functions the Action at home and abroad.
Legion of Decency, organized for the purpose of The N. C. C. M. maintains at its national head- securing for the public wholesome screen enterquarters a Catholic Evidence Bureau and a Catho- tainment. One of the means towards the accomlic Radio Bureau; and sponsors a weekly nation- plishment of this end is the publishing of a weekly wide radio Catholic Hour over the network of the classification of current films. The Legion of De National Broadcasting Company.
cency has its National Office in the Archdiocese The N. C.C. W. maintains in Washington, D. C.. of New York--Address: 485 Madison Ave., New the National Catholic School of Social Service. York City. N. Y. The executive secretary is Rev.
N. C. W. C. Administrative Board-Most Rev. John J. McClafferty.
The Ten Commandments
Source: The Holy Bible; Exodus 20: 2-17 The Ten Commandments-known also as the Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work; Decalogue-according to Exodus XX:19, were pro- But the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord claimed by God to the Israelites at Mount Sinai thy God; in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor and afterward inscribed on two tables of stone thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor (Exod. XXXI:18).
thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger In the King James Version (1611) of the Bible that is within thy gates: the Ten Commandments are:
For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of seventh day wherefore the Lord blessed the Sabbondage.
bath day, and hallowed it. Thou shalt have no other Gods before me. Honor thy father and thy mother that thy days
Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God image, or any likeness of any thing that is in giveth thee. heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or Thou shalt not kill. that is in the water under the earth:
Thou shalt not commit adultery. Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor Thou shalt not steal. serve them: for I the Lord thy God am a jealous Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the neighbour. children unto the third and fourth generation of Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's house, thou them that hate me;
shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife, nor his man. And shewing mercy unto thousands of them that servant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his love me, and keep my commandments.
ass, nor anything that is thy neighbour's. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy The Douay version of the Bible, published in God in vain; for the Lord will not hold him guilt- 1609, and the King James version, are in substantial less that taketh his name in vain.
agreement as regards the Ten Commandments, Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. although there is a variation in verbiage.
The American's Creed Written by William Tyler Page, Clerk of the Committee on Publication. Accepted by the House 0. S. House of Representatives, in 1917, and of Representatives, on behalf of the American adopted and promulgated by the Government's People, April 3, 1918.
I believe in the United States of America as a Government of the people, by the people, for the people; whose just powers are derived from the consent of the governed; a democracy in a republic: a sovereign Nation of many sovereign States; a perfect union, one and inseparable; established upon those principles of freedom, equality, justice and humanity for which American patriots sacrificed their lives and fortunes.
I therefore believe it is my duty to my country to love it; to support its Constitution; to obey its laws; to respect its flag, and to defend it against all enemies.
Roman Catholic Hierarchy of the United States
Source: Apostolic Delegation, Washington
Archbishops Cons. Baltimore, Md...... Michael J. Curley 1914 Newark, N. J... Thomas J. Walsh
. 1919 John McMamara (AUX.). 1928
Thomas A. Boland (Aux.). 1940 Boston, Mass... .W. O'Connell Cardinal... 1901 New York. N. Y....F.J. Spellman...
.1932 R. J. Cushing (Aux.).. 1939
Stephen J. Donohue (Aux.) 1934 Chicago, Ill........ Samuel A. Stritch.
J. F. A. McIntyre (Aux) 1941 Bernard J. Shiel (aux.).... 1928 Philadelphia Pa....D. J. Dougherty, Cardinal. 1903 William D. O'Brien (Aux.).1934
Hugh L. Lamb (Aux.).....1938 Cincinnati, Ohio....John T. McNicholas, O. P.1918
Portland, Ore.... Edward D. Howard
1928 St. Louis, MO John J. Glennon, George J. Rehring (Aux)...1937
.1896 Detroit, Mich..... Edward A. Mooney
George J. Donnelly (Aux.).1940 St. Paul, Minn, John Murray
1920 Stephen Woznicki (Aux.)..1938 San Antonia, Tex.... Robert E. Lucey.
1934 Dubuque. lowa..... Francis J. L. Beckman. 1924
San Francisco, Cal..John J. Mitty.
1926 Los Angeles John J. Cantwell. .1917
Thomas A. Connolly (Aux.) 1939 Louisville, Ky ..John A. Floersh.. 1923 Sante Fe, N. M.... Rudolf Gerken.
. 1927 Milwaukee, Wis....Moses E. Kiley...
Sidney M. Metzger (Aux.).1940 New Orleans, La....Joseph F. Rum mel. 1928 Washington, D. C.. Michael J. Curley..
Cons, Alaska...... .Joseph R. Crimont, S. J... 1917 Little Rock, Ark.... John B. Morris.
1904 W. Fitzgerald, S. J. (Coad).1939
A. L. Fletcher (Aux.). 1940 Albany, N. Y.. Edmund F. Gibbons.
Manchester N. H., John B. Peterson
1927 Alexandria, La. Daniel F. Desmond. 1933 Marquette, Mich... Frances J. Magner
1941 Altoona, Pa.. .R. T. Guilfoyle.. 1936 Monterey-Fresno ... Philip G. Scher..
1933 Mobile, Ala Lawrence J. FitzSimon
Thomas Toolen. Amarillo, Texas.
1927 .1941 Nashville, Tenn. William L. Adrian.
1936 Baker City, Ore ....J. F. McGrath..
1924 Belleville, Ill... Henry Althoff
1936 Belmont Abbey, N.C. Vincent G. Taylor, Abbot. 1925 Oklahoma, Okla Francis C. Kelley
1924 Bismarck, N. D. Vincent J. Ryan..
1940 Omaha, Neb
1933 Boise, Idaho. . Edward Kelly. . 1928 Owensboro, Ky Francis R. Cotton
1938 Brooklyn, NY..... Thos. E. Molloy.
1920 Paterson, N. J. Thos, H, McLaughlin 1935 Raymond A. Kearney Peoria. I.
Joseph H. Schlarman 1930 Aux.). 1935 Pittsburgh, Pa. Hugh C Boyle.
1921 Buffalo, N. Y.. John A. Duffy
1933 Ponce, P.R...
Aloysius J. Willinger, Burlington, Vt. Matthew Brady
1929 Camden, NJ B. J. Eustace.
1938 Portland. Me.. ..Joseph E. McCarthy. 1932 Charleston, 8. C.. Emmet M. Walsh
1934 Cheyenne, Wyo.. .P A. McGovern.
1912 Raleigh, NC Eugene McGuinness 1937 Cleveland, Ohio..... Joseph Schrerbs 1911 Rapid City, S. D.... John J. Lawler..
.1910 James A. McFadden(Aux.) 1932 Reno, Nev.
Thomas K Gorman.
1931 Columbus, Ohio....J.J. Hartley 1904 Richmond, Va. Andrew J. Brennan,
1920 ('oncordia, Kan... Frank A. Thill.
Peter L, Ireton (Coad.). 1935 Corpus Christi, Tex. Emanuel B. Ledvina. 1921
Rochester, N. Y..... James E. Kearney
1932 Marion G. Garriga (Co-ad) 1936 Rockford. TI). Edward F Hoban.
1921 Covington, Ky.... Francis W. Howard. 1923 St. Augustine, Fla..Joseph P. Hurley.
1940 Crookston, Minn...John H. Peschges.
1910 Dallas, Tex .Joseph P. Lynch.
St. Joseph, Mo. Charles H. LeBlond. 1933 Davenport, Iowa... Henry P. Rohlman.
1929 Denver, Col. Urban J. Vehr.
1938 Des Moines. Gerald T. Bergan.
1937 Duluth, Minn, Thomas A. Welch
1936 El Paso, Tex. A. J. Schuler, S. J
1925 Erie. P&... J. M. Gannon
.1929 Fall River, Mass.. James E. Cassidy
1325 Fargo, N, D.. Aloysius J. Muench
Seattle, Wash Gerald Snaughnessy. 8. M.1933 Fort Wayne, Ina Jonn F. Noll
1925 Sioux City lowa
1919 Gallup, New Mex. . Bernard Espelage.
1939 1 Galveston, Tex C. E, Byrne
192 + Grand Island, Neb., Stanislaus V. Bona.
1921 Grand Rapids, Mich. Joseph C. Plagens.
1928 1 Great Falls, Mont... William J. Condon
Vacant Green Bay, Wis..... Paul P. Rhode.
1937 Harrisburg, Pa..... George L. Leech..
1935 Toledo, Ohio..
1931 Hartford, Conn..... Maurice F. McAulife 1926
Trenton, N. J William A. Grin.
.1938 Henry J. O'Brien (Aux.) 1940
D. J. Gercke..
1933 Helena, Mont..
1923 Honolulu, Hawail . James J. Sweeney
1933 Indianapolis, Ind.... Joseph E. Ritter.
Edmond J. Fitzmaurice
1925 Kansas City, Mo... Edwin V. O'Hara,
1899 La Crosse, Wis..... A J. McGavick
1026 Francis M. Kelly
.1932 William J. Grinth (Aux.). 1935 Military Vicar. ...... J. Spellman. Lafayette, La. .J. B. Jeanmard.
John F O'Hara, Delegate.. 1940 Lansing, Mich Joseph H. Albers.
1931 Ruthenian diocese (1) Basil Takach (Pittsburgh).1922 Leavenworth, Kan. , Paul C. Schulte.
(2) Constantine Bonachevsky Lincoln, Neb....... Louis B. Kucera..
The doctrine of the Immaculate Conception is thus defined by the Catholic Dictionary-
"The Blessed Virgin Mary was preserved from the stain of original sin in the first instant of her conception in the womb of her mother. This was a singular privilege and grace of God, granted in view of the merits of Jesus Christ. By her conception is meant not the act or part of her parents in it, nor the formation of her body, nor the conception of Christ later in her own womb; from the moment her soul was created and infused into her body it was free from original sin and filled with sanctifying grace. Her scul was neve: stained by original sin, nor by the depraved emotions, passions and weaknesses consequent on that sin, but created in a state of original sanctity, innocence and Justice. She had at least the graces of the first Eve before the Fall, and more."