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three feets, and also for all other seagoing forces -German planes made & fire-bomb attack on of the Navy.
Southampton. -The U. S. War Department combined the De Jan. 20—In Africa, the Italians continued their re
partments of Puerto Rico and the Panama Canal treat in Eritrea, pursued by Australian-British Zone and the Trinidad base command into the forces. The retreat from the Sudan is toward the Caribbean Defense Command, with headquarters Italian railheads. Their outer and inner defenses at Panama.
at Tobruk were penetrated Jan. 21 to a depth of Jan. In the midst of a German air raid, Harry five miles. Australian infantry captured the
L. Hopkins, special and personal envoy of Presi- place Jan. 22, and the British flag was hoisted 85 dent Roosevelt to Britain, arrived in London by miles inside Libya, after a campaign that began train from a Channel port. He had crossed the Dec. 9, 1940. German planes had taken part in Atlantic by plane.
the Italian defense. - British planes raid Messina, Italy.
Jan. 21--In Parliament' Labor Minister Ernest -The Free French" submarine Narval has been Bevin announced that the British Government sunk "by enemy action." It was the first unit had decided to register working men and women of the French Navy to rally to the cause of for drafting into war factories. Gen. Charles de Gaulle.
- The United States removed the moral embargo'' Jan. 10—German and Italian planes attacked a ban on exports to Russia of planes, parts and
British fleet in the eastern Mediterranean, sink- aviation gasoline, which dated from Dec. 2, 1939, ing the cruiser, Southampton, and damaging the when the Russians were fighting Finland. aircraft carrier Illustrious, the battleship Malaya, -Col. William J. Donovan has arrived at Sofia, and the destroyer Gallant. German planes Bulgaria, in his swing around Europe as one of raided Portsmouth, England. British planes made President Roosevelt's personal envoys in search a mass attack on Brest.
of basic information on the war. Jan. 11-The Italians evacuated Klisura in Albania. Jan. 22-Prime Minister Churchill assured the
British planes bombed Turin; German planes House of Commons that, including the Home showered incendiary shells on London. American Guard, Britain now had 4,000,000 men armed and fighter planes were reported in action on the uniformed. British front for the first time.
-In Central Albania & Greek bomb dislodged a Jan. 13–Sub-zero cold in Albania and sand storms boulder which rolled into the road, blocking a
in Libya stopped war activities in those areas. narrow mountain pass and enabling the Greek Britain and Germany made the usual reprisal air planes to bomb 100 trapped trucks. raids. Dusseldorf and Liverpool were the chief -The Admiralty disclosed that the Mediterranean sufferers.
Fleet had removed more than 54,000 Italian prisJan. 14-The stege of Tobruk by the Australians oners and many captured tanks from the Western
and British continued in Libya. Capture of Desert coast of Africa to main British bases. Francesco Argentino brought to 11 the number -Wendell L. Willkie left New York City on the of Italian generals seized in flight. British planes Yankee Clipper bound for London, accompanied in a raid on Catania, on the east coast of by Landon K. Thorne, banker, and John Cowles, Sicily, reported destruction of nine Junkers president of the Minneapolis Star-Journal. They planes.
arrived in London from Lisbon, Jan. 26. Jan. 15-Bombing planes made in the United -The British Admiralty announced the loss of the
States are now flying across the Atlantic from 1,340-ton destroyer Hyperion, by a mine or å Newfoundland to Great Britain (2,000 miles) in torpedo. ten hours, and from the New York City area to Jan. 23-In opposing the “lend-lease" bili, Col. Bermuda and thence to Britain in fast time. Charles A. Lindbergh, testifying by invitation - More than 1,391,000 foreign laborers are working before the House Foreign Affairs Committee, said: on German farms. These include: 650,000 Polish, "An air invasion across the ocean is, I believe, French and Belgian prisoners of war; 180.000 absolutely impossible at this time, or in any former Polish prisoners presently working volun- predictable future. He advocated a negotiated tarily in Germany: 469,000 Polish civilians, 47,000 peace. Italians, 32,000 Slovaks and lesser numbers of Jan. 24-In Rumania a four-day rebellion by a several other nationalities.
faction in the Iron Guard resulted in the setting -British planes in an attack on Wilhelmshaven up by Premier Ion Antonescu of a new military created a "lake of fire'" they reported.
regime with orders for reprisals. A communique Jan. 16-Secretary of War Stimson told the House
announced the death penalty for all persons Foreign Affairs Committee that the United States
possessing hidden machine guns unless the would be in danger of invasion by air if the
weapons were surrendered within 24 hours. Army British Navy were destroyed or surrendered. The control was extended over 52 additional indusnext day he warned the Committee of a British tries, including the Malaxa arms plants. crisis in perhaps 69 to 90 days if America failed -London reported that the British submarine to help.
Parthian had torpedoed and sunk a 7,000-ton -London ordered compulsory evacuation of ill or Italian supply ship south of Italy. nervous children under 14 years of age.
-Marshal Petain announced in Vichy the forma-Rome said the British aircraft carrier, Illustrious, tion of a new advisory council of 188 to be drawn was again hit by plane shells, at Malta.
from all walks of French life and to sit only when Jan. 19-Britain granted to the United States land called by the Chief of State.
and cea plane bases on the West Indies Island of Jan. 25-The Italian High Command reported sinkSt. Lucia.
ing in the Atlantic the British auxiliary cruiser, - Marshal Petain of France appealed to the United Emmaeus,"loaded with troops.' States for food.
Jan. 26-Rome announced an air raid in "military -Harry L. Hopkins spoke at a public meeting in objectives at Salonika, Greece, hitting port works,
Glasgow and was introduced by Prime Minister gasoline depots, supply warehouses and the railChurchill as the personal representative of his way station. Vast fires have been started. famous chief", President Roosevelt, adding: "We Jan. 27- The U. S. Senate's Committee on Foreign don't require in 1941 large armies from overseas. Relations began its hearings on the lend-lease" What we do require is weapons, ships and air- bill by taking testimony in secret by the Secretary planes. All that we can pay for we will pay for, of State Cordell Hull. but we require far more than we will be able -Marshal Petain decreed all French Ministers and to pay for."
high officials subject to him personally. The act -President Roosevelt stated, as to his powers provides penalties for "failures'', and punishment
under the “lend-lease'' bill, that he did not may be retroactive on officials who served in the expect to transfer the United States fleet to any government as far back as ten years ago. nation.
-A Rome communique said: "The Minister of -In Africa the Italians abandoned Kassala, on Foreign Affairs, Galeazzo Ciano, Lieut. Col. of the Sudan border.
the Royal Air Force, has resumed command of a -Athens announced that questioning of Italian formation of bombers in the zone of operations. prisoners had revealed the torpedoing in the Jan. 28-'Free French" (de Gaulle) forces. from Adriatic of two large Italian liners, the Lom- Lake Chad in French Equatorial Africa, including bardia, 20,006 tons, and the Liguria, 15,345 tons, Tuareg warriors, after marching 825 miles, seized. both bound for Albania with troops.
they said, the isolated Italian outpost colony at Jan. 18-Men of 36 years of age were registered Marzuk, in the oasis of Fezzan, in Libya. Their
by Great Britain for military duty, bringing to next seizure was Gatrun, 100 miles to the south3,000,000 the total called to arms. About 2,600,000 east. had been registered previously.
-Suppression of the Daily Worker, Communist Jan. 19—At Valletta, Malta, three bombs from newspaper, was approved, 297 to 11,'by the House
German planes hit the 23,000-ton Illustrious, D. of Commons N B., official German news agency, said, but Jan. 29-Gen, John Metaxas, 70, Premier of Greece smoke and flames from other bomb hits on the and head of the military defense against Italian dock to which the carrier was moored and on forces, died and was succeeded by Alexander factories and an arsenal obscured the scene and Korizis, prevented an accurate estimate of the damage. -In Britain, by royal proclamation, the age level of those liable for military service was dropped Feb. 6-Col. Charles A. Lindbergh reiterated to from 19 to 18 and raised from 37 to 40. At the the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations same time Ernest Bevin, Minister of Labor, laid what he had said to the corresponding committee plans to draft into industry men and women, of the House, in opposition to the President's especially the latter, who for one reason or "Lend-Lease bill-namely: "I'm against apanother, cannot bear arms.
peasement, but I am more opposed to an unneces-In St. John, Newfoundland, 1,000 U. S. troops, sary war. I'm opposed to buying time by spend
the first to make the trip to guard the U. S. base, ing British blood. I oppose aid to England that arrived on a transport from Brooklyn.
would weaken us or carry us into war, I don't Jan. 30 Chancellor Hitler, in a broadcast speech believe the United States can or should police in Berlin on the eighth anniversary of "seizure the world. We are not changing the trend of of power" by the National Socialist party, said: the war by sending Britain aid-we're just pro"Whoever believes he will be able to help the longing it. Every nation that has depended on English must definitely know one thing: Every another nation for defense has failed. I don't ship, whether with or without a convoy, that believe the Germans think they can come over comes before our torpedo tubes will be tor- here, but if they tried, I believe in war to the pedoed." As to the British, he said: "What do uttermost." chey hope for? Outside help? America? I can Secretary of the Navy Knox announced that the only say one thing: We have taken every pos- British aircraft carrier Illustrious, surviving Axis sibility into our calculations since the beginning. air attacks that had cost her about 80 men killed Every one who does not wish to distort the truth and 20 bombing planes destroyed in one direct and who claims the opposite knows that the hit by a 1,000-lb bomb, had arrived at Alexandria, German people have nothing against the Ameri- Egypt, under her own power from Malta. can people. Germany has never had interests on Feb. 7-Still hurrying westward on the desert track the American continent unless it be that she south of the Jebel el-Achdar mountain range, fought along with this continent for its freedom."
Australian troops in Libya, preceded by British -A Dutch submarine and a British trawler were
tanks, seized Benghazi, having cut the road from officially reported sunk.
there to Tripoli. -Derna, in Libya, was captured by British forces.
Among the Italian prisoners -There were British and German retaliatory air
was Gen. Annibale Bergonzoli (“'Electric Whis
kers") who had escaped when Bardia fell. He raids. In London they were experienced by Mr. had been a corps commander, Willkie and Mr. Hopkins.
Feb. 8-Denmark has turned over ten of her tor-The formation of a new political group called the
pedo boats to Germany. The Province of CobliezAfrikaaner party, to follow the outlines of Gen.
Trier on the Upper Moselle River, opposite the Hertzog's anti-war policy, was announced at Cape Town, capital of South Africa. This led to
former Grand Duchy of Luxemburg, has been
renamed Moselland by a decree of Hitler. rioting at Johannesburg, where there are many Feb. 9-A fleet of British warships, including the
of Dutch and German descent. Jan. 31-Anti-aircraft guns shot up a Dornier
Malaya, the Renown and the Sheffield, threw 300
tons of shells on Genoa, Italy. The Ark Royal (German) "flying pencil" bomber plane, as
attacked Leghorn and Pisa. Wendell L. Willkie stood and watched on the arm
-Prime Minister Churchill, in a radio broadcast, of a Jetty at Dover, on the English Channel, 20 miles across from German-occupied France.
declared Britain did not need American troops
He wore a white steel helmet Prime Minister
but only money, ships, planes, munitions. “Give
us the tools and we'll finish the job," he said. Churchill had given him.
-Wendell L. Willkie returned to New York from
England, by way of Lisbon, Bolama (Portuguese
--In France, Admiral Jean Darlan became Vice Feb. 1-The official Gazette in Rome published an
Premier and Foreign Minister in addition to order including the Italian Islands between Sicily retaining his Navy portfolio. In the Foreign and North Africa in the zone of war operations- Office he succeeded Plerre-Etienne Flandin, who Pantelleria, site of an Italian air base, and the resigned. three Pelage islands, Linosa, Lampedusa and German planes raided Reykjavik, the capital of Lampione.
Iceland. --In Washington, Secretary of the Navy Knox told
Feb. 10–Great Britain severed diplomatic relations the Senate Foreign Relations Committee it would with Rumania because it was charged Germany take "about five or six years to complete the was assembling an expeditionary force there. In
Navy's present national defense preparations. Bucharest blackouts were made permanent. In -German planes began raids on British sea com- Bulgaria train services were further reduced.
munications along the Egyptian and Libyan In Sofia diplomatic quarters said Russia had coasts, bombed Solum and Bardia.
notified Bulgaria that Russia would not interfere Feb. 2-Wendell L. Willkie explored the ruins of if Germany marched across Bulgaria to get to
Coventry, England, where German planes, ac- Greece or Turkey. cording to a radio broadcast by Joseph P. Ken- - Marshal Petain, in a Constitutional Act, named nedy, late U. S. Ambassador at London, destroyed Admiral Jean Darlan his successor as Chief of a city in one day. Willkie visited also Birming
State in case of death or disability. Laval held a ham, a cotton textile center, which had been similar position until he was ousted last Dec. 13 repeatedly bombed.
as Vice-Prernier and Foreign Minister. --British planes attacked docks at Brest, Boulogne -British forces occupied the Red Sea port of Mersa and Ostend.
Taclai in Eritrea. -- British planes from the Mediterranean fleet
- The U. S. House passed a bill raising the national dropped bombs on the Tirso Dam on the Italian
debt limit to $65,000,000,000. island of Sardinia. Feb. 3—Cheering crowds greeted Wendell L. Willkie
Feb. 11-Wendell L. winkie told the Senate Foreign
Relations Committee that this country should in Liverpool. In Manchester, students of the university paraded outside his hotel with a
send all its bombing planes, except those needed broken down Ford towing a horse cab, in which
for training, and five to ten destroyers a month and on which the students' band was performing
to England. Feb. Wendell L. Willkie flew from London to
-The British Home Fleet shelled Ostend from a Dublin and talked with Premier Eamon de Valera
distance of ten to fifteen miles. British planes --Italian forces quit Cyrene, the ancient Greek
raided Hanover and Calais, German planes "Athens of Africa" in Libya, and Australian and
shelled the English east coast, Malta and one New Zealand troops moved in.
port on the Cyrenaica coast, and, it also was -British planes made their 35th raid on Brest,
claimed, sank two merchant ships in the Suez French sea base held by Germans.
Canal. Feb. 5-After a daylight survey of the wreckage
---Foreign diplomats are forbidden to leave Rome caused at Bristol by German planes, Wendell L. without a permit. Willkie left England by plane for Lisbon. On - British forces took Afmadu in Italian Somaliland. the way the pilot received wireless orders to enter Feb. 12-Italy asked the U. S. to shift the latter's the clouds and fly blind at a certain stage of the consuls in Italy from Palermo and Naples "to a journey. On leaving London he gave out a place as far north as Rome or farther north and message for broadcasting, referring to his Ger- to a place which was not on the sea coast." This man antecedents and his pride therein, adding: was done and the supervisory consulate general "I hate aggression and tyranny. Tell the German of the United States in Italy was established in people that my convictions are shared to the full Rome. On March 6, Mr. Hull requested that by the overwhelming majority of my fellow coun- Italy close her consulates in Newark, N. J., and trymen of German descent. They, too, believe in Detroit, Mich. This was done later. freedom and in human rights. Tell the German In the Atlantic, 500 miles west by south of people that free German-Americans reject and Lisbon and 190 miles due east of St. Maria hate the aggression and lust for power of the Island, Azores, German warships attacked a present German government."
British convoy bound for England. The Germans
said they sank 13 of the 14, leaving one to pick -Among the ships hit by German plane bombs
up survivors. London said only six were sunk. were an armed 12,000-ton merchant liner 310 Feb. 13-The Senate Foreign Relations Committee, miles west of the Hebrides; two cargo boats off
15 to 8, reported favorable an amended version the mouth of the Humber, east of England; two of the administration Lend-Lease bill which the armed freighters, north west of Ireland; two House passed on Feb. 8.
cargo ships, southeast of Harwich, Feb. 14-Premier Dragisha Cvetkovitch of Yugo- -German army engineers are building pontoon
slavia, and Dr. Alexander Cincar-Markovitch, bridges across the Danube between Rumania and his Foreign Minister, conferred today with Bulgaria--one at a point between Giurgiu and Reichsfuehrer Hitler and Foreign Minister
Ruschuk. Danubian traffic along & front of Joachim von Ribbentrop in Berchtesgaden.
about 60 miles between these ports has been sus-The U. s. Senate approved the bill raising the pended.
national debt limit to $65,000,000,000. President Feb. 21- German troops crossed from occupied Roosevelt signed the Act Feb. 19.
France into Spain at the invitation of the -In Italian Somaliland, British forces took Kis- Spanish Foreign Minister to give assistance to mayu.
the stricken population of Santander, which was Feb. 15-Kurmuk, in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan,
devastated by hurricane and fire. just west of the border, in the Blue Nile region,
---Retaliatory raids were made again by German was evacuated by the Italian forces.
planes in the south of Wales. British planes --Rhodes, Crete and Malta are daily objects of raided the Channel ports and also Italian posts retaliatory raids, also the Channel coasts.
in Africa. Feb. 16–Harry L. Hopkins returned to New York Feb. 22-The German High Command announced
from England and Africa by airplane and went that a Canadian freighter, the Canadian Cruiser, thence by train to Washington, where he told
had been sunk in the Indian Ocean, while the the President what he had seen and heard in
United States flag was painted on her side. his four-week survey of war conditions in Eng- -The British Admiralty announced that 150,000 land. He said the British are "desperately in
square miles of the Central Mediterranean was need of help."
"dangerous to shipping." -The British Government announced that, in -The German air force resumed daylight raids on defense of Singapore, an area of 80 by 50 miles,
London and Wales. covering part of the eastern coast of the Malay Feb. 23-According to Premier Mussolini, 14,000 Peninsula near the southern tip and several officers and 396,358 soldiers of two army corps islets in that vicinity, would be mined without the Fifth and the Tenth-including ten divisions further notice.
of Italians and Libyans, had made up the Italian Feb. 17-In Sofia and Ankara an official Turkish- forces. There were 1,924 cannon of all sizes,
Bulgarian "friendship declaration" which had many of the most recent models; 15,386 majust been signed, was proclaimed. It states chine guns, 11,000,000 rounds of shells, 1,344,that: "Bulgaria and Turkey consider as an un
287,275 rounds of small arm amunition. 127,877 changeable basis of their foreign policies to. tons of other materials, 779 tanks, some of them refrain from any acts of aggression."
heavy; 9,584 trucks and 4,809 motor cycles. At -German war planes ranged as far north as Ler- present Italy has about 2,000,000 men under arms.
wick, in the Shetland Islands, and Great Yar- Feb. 24-Chancellor Hitler, in a radio broadcast mouth.
in Munich before the National Socialist Old Eight Ministers or Under-secretaries have left Guard announced on the authority of Grand the Rome government to join the fighting forces. Admiral Erich Raeder, that, of 215,000 tons of They include Count Ciano. Foreign Minister; enemy shipping destroyed in the last two days, Renato Ricci, Minister of Guilds, and Alessandro German submarines had sunk 190,000 tons, inPavolini, Minister of Popular Culture (Propa- cluding a British convoy of 125,000 tons. "I can ganda).
mobilize hall of Europe and will so do," Hitler -British planes made raids as far away as Poland, said. Britain said her ship losses for the week Sicily, Tunisia and Ethiopia.
were 37,635 tons. -In Tokio, Kohishii, the government official -In Eritrea, British forces advanced toward Cub
spokesman, in a publi statement said: "Japa cub; in Ethiop they neared Amanit; in Italian is fully prepared to act as mediator and to take Somaliland, after taking Jelif, they spread east whatever action is calculated to recover normal of the River Juba. British planes, using Aden conditions not only in Greater East Asia but as a base, bombed Adis Ababa. anywhere in the world. Leading powers have a -The first night in Libya between German and great responsibility of restoring world peace and British mechanized forces occurred southeast of civilization. Such a responsibility can be ful. Agedabia, near the farthest point reached by the filled only by a wise and generous statesmanship
British advance from Egypt toward Tripoli; willing to listen to other claims and contentions. Berlin claimed a victory. That same day the Japanese Government -The U. S. Government, by executive order, took officially offered, in a note to London, to mediate priority control of production of aluminum and
among the belligerents. The offer was declined. machine tools. Warning also was given that Feb. 18-Australian troops debarked in Singapore. U. Ş. submarines were operating northeast of
The Japanese were reinforcing naval units in the Block Island.
the export licensing system immediately. Pilot -By a Presidential order, American air and sea trainers were defined as "trainers for ground
bases in the Pacific and the Alaska and Carib- instruction of pilots, student pilots and combat bean regions are to be isolated as naval defense crews for aircraft in instrument flying, navigaareas.
tion, bombing or gunnery.". Also, by his order, - Planes again raided the Suez Canal and Malta. effective March 10. he adds to the list for which -Guerrilla activities by the natives in Ethiopia export licenses must be obtained, belladonna,
have forced the Italians to evacuate Danghela atropine, sole leather and belting leather "in the and other points south of Lake Tana in the interest of national defense."
Gojjam area, of Ethiopia, the British announced. On the Somaliland coast, British forces took -A denial at the Vatican "that the Holy Father Brava.
blessed the arms of a single nation' refers to a --German planes raided Harwich, Ipswich, Exvisit that German and Italian soldiers paid to mouth and the London docks. The air attacks the Vatican, when they were blessed by the were concentrated on the key points of British Pontift. This was done, not because they were trade routes and ports, including Bristol and soldiers, it was stated, but because they were Hull. British planes bombed ports in Germany, Catholic individuals. The Pope would bless any occupied France and elsewhere on the Channel. soldier of any nation who came to him as an The Germans are also increasing their use of individual.
submarines in the more open seas. It is estiFeb. 19—The U. S. House passed a bill authorizing mated they now have more than 200. Those
the spending of $245,228.500 in expansion of dating from the war's start range from 250 to
Feb. 27-Commons gave Prime Minister Churchill -In Italian Somaliland. British-Australian forces an unanimous vote of confidence in passing a
crossed the Juba River. In southern Ethiopia bill to permit members who are sent to posts they captured Mega.
abroad ior "the duration" to retain their parliaFeb. 20--President Roosevelt appointed a Produc- mentary seats. Affected especially are Malcolm tion Planning Board and put Harry L. Hopkins MacDonald, the new High Commissioner to on it.
Canada, and in lesser measure the Ambassadors
in Madrid and Moscow, Sir Samuel Hoare and - British headquarters in Cairo announced that 16 Sir Stafford Cripps, respectively.
Axis bombers and fighter planes had been shot Feb. 28-A Greek General Headquarters communi- down over Malta during attack on that base by que stated that "British bombers shot down more than 100 aircraft. more than 30 Italian machines."
March 6-German forces advancing through Bul. -The British Government ordered all experienced garia reached the Greek border along the Strumia
shipbuilders not now employed in shipbuilding and Maritza rivers and at several points in the to register for "national service in the industry. Rhodope Mountains.
March 7-Britain announced that all Italian 1941–MARCH
troops had been driven from Italian Somaliland: March 1-In Chancellor Hitler's presence, in the 12 Axis merchant ships had been seized or Belvedere Palace in Vienna, Bulgaria, by the
destroyed in the Somali ports of Mogadiscio and signature of her Premier, Bogdan Philoff, joined
Kismayu. the Military Alliance of Germany, Italy and
-British planes raided the Nazi-held Netherland Japan, which now includes, also, Hungary, Ru
seaplane base at en Helder. Raiding planes mania and Slovakia. The basic provision of the were heard or seen over Northeast Scotland, pact is that the signatories pledged mutual
Northeast and Northwest England, and East and support to each other in the event that any one West Midlands, East Anglia, South Wales and of them should be attacked by a power not at
South England Through low clouds, they the time involved in the European or Oriental machine-gunned some communities and disapwars. German land and air forces at once pro
peared into the clouds again. ceeded across the border into Bulgaria in massed - The U. S. Senate, 60 to 31, passed the "Lend
strength, accompanied by military supplies. Lease" bill; for it were 49 Democrats, 10 Republi-John G. Winant the new U. S. Ambassador to cans, and 1 Independent (Norris); against the
the Court of St. James's, arrived in Bristol, bill were 13 Democrats, 17 Republicans, and i England, by airplane from Lisbon, and, on his Progressive (LaFollette). Wagner, (D., N. Y.), way by train to London, was met at a by-station and Reed, (Ř., Kas.), were pairedThe House, and welcomed by King George VI.
317 to 71, passed the bill, including the Senate With the raising of the
American flag, construc- amendments to the original House bill, March tion was begun on the U. S. defenses on Tuck- 11, and on the same day, the measure was ers and on Mongans Islands in the Bermuda signed by the President; five minutes later he group.
approved a list of undisclosed quantities of war March 2-The Turkish Navy Ministry announced Inaterials to be transferred at once from the
that the Dardanelles Straits had been closed to American Army and Navy to the British and all ships except those having special permits and the Greeks. employing Turkish naval pilots.
-Rumania announced that Chancellor Hitler, March 3-Soviet Russia, in a formal note to Bul- Premier Mussolini and Reich Marshal Goering
garia which was officially broadcast to the world had been entrusted with full control of her Irom Moscow, said the agreement for the military foreign economic commitments, occupation of that country by Germany had been A London night club was hit by a bomb in a without Russia's knowledge or consent; more- mass raid on that city. over, it would extend the sphere of warfare, March 9-The armed Italian merchant ship Ramb involving Bulgaria therein; furthermore, "the I-sea raider-has been sunk in the Indian Soviet government, true to its policy of peace, Ocean by the British light cruiser, Leander. cannot render any support to the Bulgarian Among other sea losses made public were the government in the application of its present British destroyer, Dainty, the Furness merchant policy." The British Legation staff began to ship, Politician, and the New Zealand liner, depart from Sofia.
Rotorua. -British forces took Abruzzi, 80 miles northeast -British troops took Dagabur, 400 miles north of of Mogadiscio, in Italian Somaliland.
Mogadiscio, in Ethiopia. March 4-The British Cabinet announced in Par
-Speaking for the Vichy Government, Admiral liament that 50 industries would be required to Darlan stated that France has received from concentrate their manufacturing in a few plants Germany 220,000 tons of wheat, 25,000 tons of and turn over all the others and their labor to steel and iron, 30 tons of fuel oil, 25,000 tons of war work. The industries affected, such as cellulose, 500,000 tons of newsprint, 150,000 tons hosiery, pottery, the major textile industries, of coal and 100.000 tons of potatoes. shoes, gloves, corsets, furniture,, gramophones March 10-At Marseille, flying the Stars and and many others unessential to the war, already
Stripes and the Geneva Red Cross flag. the are operating under production limitations and
American freighter Cold Harbor of Philadelphia the rationing of war materials.
arrived with 1,500 tons of milk, vitamins and To the United States export control list, effective clothing for French children in the free zone: March 10, were added cadmium, carbon black,
March 11-The arrival in Istanbul of George W. cocoanut oil, copra, cresylic acid and cresols.
Rendel, the recalled British Minister to Bulgaria, fatty acids produced from vegetable oils under
was marked by the explosion of a time-bomb in export control, glycerin, palm-kernel oil and
the lobby of his hotel, the Pera Palace. No one palm kernels, pine oil, petroleum coke, shellac
was injured. and titanium. Effective March 24 there also
-Gibraltar was bombed by one plane; and several will be added jute, lead, borax and phosphates
atacked the Suez Canal where, the Germans say, The proclamation regarding plans becomes effec
tra Hc has been paralyzed by ships sunk in the tive April 15.
Channel. Malta and London also were raided. -Retallatory air raids are made daily (mostly nightly) by British and German planes, in
British planes concentrated on Cologne and
Tripoli. Britain, the Channel area, Germany and Italy.
-Air Secretary Sinclair told Commons that Britain --King George was host at the Palace in London to Col. W. J. Donovan and Gen. Charles de
had destroyed 4,250 German planes and 1,100
Italian planes, and had lost fewer than 1,800 01 Gaulle. -British war craft shelled an island in the
her own, Lofoton group, Off Norway.
March 12-In unoccupied France, factories are March 5-Panama announced it had agreed to making barges for invasion of Britain, airplane let the United States build air defense stations
parts, tank equipment, aluminum_fittings for to strengthen the bulwarks of the Canal, with armaments, and munitions; the Renault and the stipulation that the bases would be occupied
Citroen automobile works are now working for by the United States only for the duration of the
the Germans, having been authorized to do so European war, and that Panama would be com
by the Vichy Government. Shipments of cereals pensated.
and other foodstuffs, oil, copra and large quanti-A native uprising in Ethiopia led to the capture ties of phosphates have been received by German
of the Italian fort of Burye, 160 miles northeast and Italian interests maintaining headquarters of Addis Ababa.
in unoccupied French ports -In Sofia, George W. Rendel, the British Minister, -Russia and Thailand exchanged notes establishcalled on Bulgarian Premier Bogdan Philoff and ing diplomatic relations. formally broke off diplomatic relations between March 13-British massed air attacks on Berlin, the two countries. Relations between Bulgaria Bremen and Hamburg, were marked by their first and Britain's allies-Poland, Belgium and Hol- considerable use of a new long range heavy land-had been broken March 4 when the Bul- bombers received from the United States. Gergarian government asked representatives of those man bombers raided Liverpool, the River Mersey countries to depart with their missions. The areas, Glasgow and London London also anBritish Minister handed Philoff a note declaring nounced that a bomber of the Coastal Command that by sanctioning the presence of German had torpedoed a German destroyer in the Skagtroops on Bulgarian soil the Bulgarian govern- errak, between Denmark and Norway, Premier ment was co-operating with Britain's enemy in a Mussolini, the Greeks asserted, had made his move directed against Britain's ally, Greece. The first appearance in Albania, directing the openBritish Minister and staff quit Sofia March 10. ing of the spring drive of the Italian forces.
--In Ethiopia, native forces under British leader- United States the "storehouse and arsenal of ship took the Italian base at lavello.
democracy': 231 Democrats, combined with 104 -British planes bombed the Island of Rhodes, for Republicans and 1 Farmer-Laborite for the bill,
the third night. Crete's naval base was shelled with 45 Republicans, six Democrats, three Proby Italian fliers.
gressives and only one American-Labor member March 14-The U. S. House passed the $3,446,585,- against it. The bill was passed by the Senate
144 Navy supply bill for 1942 and sent the and was flown by plane, on March 25, to the measure to the Senate.
President, who was on a navy ship on a fishing -German planes that raided English cities ob- cruise Cfl Florida.
served that they were met by enemy fliers March 20 German air raiders shelled Plymouth equipped with searchlights, also "beacon fires" and eight districts in Greater London; British on the ground, set to deceive. At Plymouth, they airmen attacked Cologne and the submarine dropped a bomb on a famous beauty spot-the base at Lorient. Hoe --where Sir Francis Drake played bowls while-Fighting in Marda Pass, along a winding he awaited the time to attack the Spanish mountain road, was reported by British headArmada.
quarters at Nairobi, Kenya. British patrols were -The Norwegian freighter Benjamin Franklin, said to have made their first contact with the
carrying several $100,000 Douglas bombers and Italians about eight or ten miles west of Jijiga. a cargo of foodstuffs from Los Angeles, has been In Libya, Tripoli harbor was attacked by British sunk off the British coast by a German torpedo planes. with the loss of 31 lives.
The 31,100-ton battleship Malaya, escorting a March 15-President Roosevelt in a world-wide convoy, was pierced near the waterline in mid
broadcast (short-waved in English, German, Atlantic by a German submarine torpedo; a Italian, French, Turkish, Greek, Norwegian, boiler was put out of commission. Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, Albanian, Serbian, March 21--German planes attacked Plymouth and Czech and Slovak) declared that aid to the London, also the port of Clacton-on-sea. The "embattled" democracies "would be increased communique added: "Submarines operating off and yet increased until total victory has been
the West African coast sank 69,000 tons of shipwon.' TO Britain and Greece the President ping space out of a strongly protected convoy pledged ships, planes, food, guns, tanks, ammuni- headed toward England.' tion and supplies" of all kinds. To China he -The British announced capture of Jarabub (an said that aid would come.
oasis in Eastern Libya), and Hargeisa, in Somali-The next March 16) Chancellor Hitler, in land.
the Arsenal Museum, Berlin, in a talk to a gath- -In Yugoslavia, opposition to the proposed proering of naval and army, government and party Axis pact caused the resignation from the Cabileaders, said: “No power and no support coming net of Mikhail Konstantinovitch, Minister of from any part of the world will change the out- Justice; Dr. Srdjan Budisavljevitch, Minister of come of this battle in any respect. England will Social Welfare, and Dr. Branko Chubrilovitch, fall. The everlasting Providence will not give Minister of Agriculture. victory to him who, merely with the object of March 22-The German High Command reported ruling through his gold, is willing to spill the that its battleship squadron in the North Atlantic blood of men,"
(this is the first news of such a squadron in that March 16 The British Labor Minister, Ernest part of the world) has sunk 22 armed mechant
Bevin, announced drafting girls 20 to 21 and men men totaling 116,000 tons bound for England inof 41 to 45 for work in war industries,
volving the saving of 800 suvivors of the crews. -Belgrade reported the landing in Greece of a The squadron, under command of Admiral Luet
new division of British troops. On the Albanian zen, is said to include the Scharnhorst and the front fighting slackened.
Gneisenau. The High Command also stated that -In Italian East Africa, British forces advancing the previously reported attack by German sub
north from Italian Somaliland neared the town marines on a British convoy off the West African of Jijiga, outpost protecting the Addis Ababa- Coast had lasted for several days and had reJibuti railway.
sulted in 11 ships of 77,000 tons being sunk from A British Treasury spokesman announced the the convoy. The submarines followed the convoy sale of the $100,000,000 British-owned Viscose for several days and attacked it repeatedly. The Corporation, producer of rayon thread, to an convoys do not stop when assailed, but keep American syndicate to obtain dollar exchange right on going, leaving the accompanying warfor the purchase of munitions,
ships to pick up survivors. -A German mass air raid on Bristol caused March 23--British planes raided Berlin. When civilian fatalities, and other damage.
they had gone the German Army's "der Tag" March 17-The port of Berbera British Somaliland was celebrated, in a blizzard; 100,000 persons was recovered from the Italians. English bomb- gathered and cheered the Compiegne armistice ers raided Eastern Ethiopia and Tripolitania in car which was hauled through the Brandenburg North Africa. British forces besieging Cheren Gate and down Unter den Linden by a company
took new heights on the outskirts of the town. of sappers and placed in a corner of the LustIn Europe, reprisal air attacks went on as usual garten, where it remained throughout the day. with the customary declarations from both sides March 24-The U.S. Senate, 67 to 9, passed, after in the conflict, emphasizing the civilian fatalities less than two hours discussion, the $7,000,000,000 and minimizing militaty damage.
appropriation which President Roosevelt had -The U. S. State Department was notified by the requested for the financing of Britain and her
British Ambassador that a German submarine allies. The Senate approved also legislation was attacking enemy ships off Southern Green- authorizing the Federal Housing Administration
land, within the 300-mile U. S. neutrality zone. to insure up to $100,000,000 worth of housing March 18-In London, at the Pilgrims luncheon, mortgages certified as essential to accommodate
Prime Minister Churchill said to U. S. Ambassa- workers in defense industries. It would create dor John G. Winant: "Not only German U-boats & revolving fund to be started by a loan of but German battle cruisers have crossed to the $10,000,000 from the Reconstruction Finance CorAmerican side of the Atlantic and have already poration, out of which the FHA would insure sunk some of our independently routed ships not mortgages, up to 90 per cent of the principal, in sailing in convoy." adding "they have
sunk ships areas which have become overcrowded by the as far west as the 42nd meridian of longitude." establishment of defense works. -The fighting between British and Italian forces -British planes shelled German troops on parade
around Cheren, in Eritrea has resulted in the in Cherbourg; they had dropped on Berlin 10,000 death of Gen. Orlando Lorenzini.
incendiary bombs, and many heavy explosives. March 19-German planes made a six-hour attack -German air attacks have blasted the roof and on London. Hull also was raided again. British walls of the ancient All Hallows Church, Tower aircraft shelled the German naval bases of Kiel Hill, London. and Wilhelmshaven, the petroleum stores at Rot- -Carrying 480 soldiers and other passengers, the terdam, the docks at Emden, and the airfields in 8,799-ton steamer, Britannia, was sunk by a the Netherlands.
German warship 500 miles off the African coast: -President Roosevelt formed a National Defense there were 77 survivors. Many others were
Mediation Board of 11 members to mediate seized by sharks. strikes involving defense industries when SO March 25-Yugoslavia joined the Axis, when, in the requested by the conciliation service of the De- Belvedere Palace, Vienna, in Chancellor Hitler's partment of Labor. The new group headed by presence, Premier Dragisha Cvetkovitch and the Selective Service Director, Clarence Dykstra, Foreign Minister Alexander Cincar-Markovitch, includes three members representing the general as representatives of the Belgrade government, public, four for union labor and four for em- signed a protocol of adherence to the Tripartite ployer groups.
Pact. This protocol is identical in content with - The U. s. House, 337 to 55, passed and sent to those signed previously by Hungary, Rumania. the Senate the $7,000,000,000 appropriation bill Slovakia and Bulgaria. Germany and Italy, recommended by President Roosevelt to imple- however, delivered notes of identical text to the ment the aid-to-Britain program and make the Yugoslav Government declaring, first that th