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SPECIFICATIONS OF RECENT ENGLISH PATENTS.
Neilson, had a full right to apply the hotblast to any coal. But, in point of law, the labour of thought, or experiments, and the expenditure of money, are not the essential grounds of consideration on which the question whether the invention is or is not the subject matter of a patent, ought to depend. For, if the invention be new, and useful to the public, it is not material whether it be the result of long experiment and profound research :
: or the result of some sudden and lucky thought, or mere accidental discovery.
Judgment for the plaintiff.
Court of Queen's Bench,
June 15. Sandiford v. Neild and others. This was an action for the infringment of the plaintiff's patent of June, 1838, for certain improvements in the art of block printing, and in the arrangements connected therewith.
The Attorney General, Mr. M. D. Hill, and Mr. Crompton, were counsel for the plaintiff ; Messrs. Kelly and Webster for the defendants.
The specification described the invention to consist in making light frames of wood or other material, to which moveable patterns were attached, by which means printing surfaces might be formed, having many times the area of the ordinary blocks, and large enough to print handkerchiefs, with border patterns, at one impression, and light enough to be easily managed by hand. The specification also described the invention to consist in a method of arranging the pattern on the blocks in several strips or portions at the same impression, and in completing the impression, by advancing the block forward at each impression by a distance equal to the width of one of these portions of the pattern, so that if the block contained three patterns, the whole impression or print on the fabric would be completed by three impressions of the block.
The defendants used a machine, the subject of a patent granted to Hampson in 1840, also for improvements in block printing, in which the blocks were solid heavy blocks, made in the same manner as the ordinary blocks, but sufficiently large to print a square equal to the width of the piece, and having the pattern cut and brassed on the face of the block, but arranged in six or more portions. A separate colour was transferred to each of these portions by a sieve of peculiar construction.
The block was counterbalanced over a palley, and moved by the hand, and gave the impression by the blow on its descent. The fabric to be printed was advanced by
machinery at each impression a space equal to the width of one portion of the pattern on the block, that is, if the face of the block had a pattern arranged in six divisions, the whole printing would be completed by six successive impressions.
The alleged infringement was, the using these large blocks, having the pattern so arranged as to print over the same portion of the cloth several times; the block at each descent overlaying, with a fresh colour and pattern, a portion previously printed.
The defendants, among other things, pleaded, that the invention, the infringement of which was complained of, viz., the arranging the pattern in a particular manner, and the printing over the same piece of cloth more than once, instead of completing each portion by one impression, was not a manufacture, or the subject of the patent laws.
The counsel for the defendants, at the close of the plaintiff's case, called on the learned judge to direct a verdict for the defendants on these points. They contended that the one part of such invention was a mode of arrangement which might have been the subject of protection by registration, but that any particular pattern, or set of patterns, cut and brassed on blocks in the usual man. ner, was no manufacture, and that the other part of the invention was a particular mode of using a block which, when combined with appropriate machinery, would be a manufacture; but, unless so combined, could not be considered in law an invention to be protected by letters patent—that in short it was a mere mode of using, which was not of itself a manufacture, though it might be rendered so.
The learned judge reserved these and some other objections, as there were several questions to be disposed of by the jury.
The defendants put in the specification of a patent of Mr. Applegath's, of November, 1836, from which, and the subsequent practice, it appeared that frames having the pattern or blocks fastened to them, so as to be moveable, had been used before the date of the plaintiff's patent; and in which the cloth was advanced in successive portions according to the number of patterns and colours to be printed.
The jury found a verdict for the defendants.
ABSTRACTS OF SPECIFICATIONS OF ENGLISH
PATENTS RECENTLY ENROLLED. WM. EDWARD NEWTON, OF CHANCERYLANE, C.E., for certain improvements in the production of ammonia. (Communicated by a foreigner residing abroad.) Petty Bag Office, May 9, 1842.
The present improvements in the production of ammonia, consist in producing it
by means of an apparatus of the form ordi faces, and coating them therewith-to the use narily used for distilling alcohol (an oblong of hyposulphite of soda for the silvering of chamber divided by horizontal diaphragms, metals and the employing a galvanic battery with valves opening upwards, &c.)
for obtaining thicker deposits of silver, gold The claim is to the application of any or platina, but only when used in conjuncapparatus whose construction and use are tion with one of the liquids before described such as to cause, by means of diaphragms, --and to the colouring of copper surfaces by liquid containing ammonia in a volatile state, exposing them to the chemical action of the and steam, to pass in mutual contact and in above-named substances. opposite directions, whereby a given quan. Josiau TAYLOR, op BIRMINGHAM, Brass tity of heat is made to liberate ammonia Founder, for improvements in the core from successive portions of ammoniacal li struction of lamps.-Enrolment Office, June quor.
9, 1842. William Henry Fox Talbot, or Lay These improvements relate solely to lamps COCK Abbey, Wilts, Esq., for improve. for burning wax, tallow, or other fatty mat. ments in coating or covering melals with ter. The improved construction consists in other metals, and in colouring metallic sur. having a vessel to contain the substance to faces.-Enrolment Office, June 9, 1842. be burned, and a chamber beneath it, for
These improvements are four in number : holding hot water, or hot metal to liquidate
The first consists in adding gallic acid to that substance. As the hot water, or metal the metallic solutions intended to be preci is only required to melt the tallow or other pitated. Any convenient solution of silver, fatty substance in the first instance, the tube gold, or platina is taken ; and to each of which supplies the inner part of the wick them is added a solution of gallic acid in with air, is furnished with two projections at water, ether or alcohol (the last being pre top, which turn into the flame, and by im. ferred). Into any one of these mixtures a parting heat down the tube, the tallow is clean bright plate of metal is immersed until kept for a continuance in a melted state. it becomes coated with silver, gold or pla The hot water is to be poured in before tina, as the case may be. A weak or dilute lighting the lamp. When pieces of heated solution is recommended to commence with, metal are used, the upper part of the lamp is and afterwards a stronger one. The acid to be taken off to admit of their being put in need not be pure.
the proper place. Outside of the tube for The second is a method of silvering me. supplying air to the interior of the fiame is tallic surfaces. Freshly precipitated chloride another tube, containing the wick, having of silver is dissolved in hyposulphite of soda several slits formed therein, through which or any other liquid hyposulphite. Into this the liquid tallow flows to the wick. There solution a clean bright plate of metal is is also another and larger slit in this onter immersed, and becomes very quickly coated tube, for the purpose of raising the wickwith bright silver coating. To obtain thicker holder, which is of the ordinary construction, coats of metal, a galvanic battery is em having a projecting stud which moves up ployed, using one of the liquids before de and down in the slit, and another stud which scribed, and taking for one of the poles a moves in a spiral round the air tube; so that piece of metal of the same kind as that in when the tube is turned round, the wick or tended to be precipitated.
cotton rises or falls as desired. On the upper The third is a method of ornamenting sur part of the tube are three projections, against faces of brass or copper by first gilding them which one of the arms of the frame of the partially, according to some pattern, and glass shade comes, and when that frame is then washing them over with a solution of moved round, the tube will also be mored chloride of platina, which gives a dead black round, and thus raise or lower the wick. appearance to the rest of the surface, and The claim is to the mode of constructing enhances the brilliancy of the parts gilt. lamps for burning tallow, or other fatty
The fourth is a method of colouring matters, or wax, by combining with a vessel polished surfaces of copper by exposing them to hold the tallow or other substance, a ves. to the vapour of sulphuretted hydrogen, or sel to contain hot water or heated pieces of of any of the liquid hydrosulphurets, or to metal. the vapours of sulphur, iodine, bromine, or chlorine, or by dipping the metal into li. (INTENDING PATENTEES may be supplied quids containing them.
gratis with Instructions, by application (postThe claim is to the use of gallic acid, or puid) to Messrs. J. C. Robertson and Co., any liquid containing it, or any analogous 166, Fleet-street, by whom is kept the only vegetable substance for facilitating the pre COMPLETE REGISTRY OF PATENTS EXTANT cipitation of metals upon other metallic sur (from 1617 to the present time).
LONDON: Edited, Printed, and Published by J. C. Robertson, at the Mechanics' Magazine Office,
No. 166, Fleet-street.-Sold by W. and A. Galignani, Rue Vivienne, Paris,
Machin and Co., Dublin; and W. C. Campbell and Co., Hamburgh.
YOUNG AND DELCAMBRE'S TYPE-COMPOSING MACHINE. The type-composing apparatus we are and the keys are so arranged that the about to describe to our readers is similar letters and characters most in request are in principle to that which was brought placed at one side, where the compositor out about a year and a half ago, by the is seated, and those least wanted furtbest same parties, and excited at that time a off. Attached to these keys are an equal considerable sensation ; (see Mec. Mag. number of upright steel levers, A A, vol. xxxiv. p. 319) but so wonderfully which are connected at top with a series simplified and improved in all its details of long brass channels, BB, filled with as to be in effect quite a new machine. types, each of the sort corresponding with With a spirit and perseverance deserving that marked on the key of the lever in of the highest praise, the patentees, connection with it. The office of the leMessrs. Young and Delcambre, have ver is to abstract from the channel above, gone on surmounting difficulty after diffi one type every time it is acted on by culty, till at length they have produced the depression of the key; and to cbeck a machine which effectually accomplishes the precipitating tendency of the types nearly all they had in view, while it is which might interfere prejudicially with wholly free from that multifariousness the action of the lever, the channels are and complexity, which were said, not un placed in a position considerably inclined, truly, to characterize their first attempts. and the lever made to act sideways in The machine of itself will not set up detaching the lowest type of the column. types in a state fit for printing from, for Behind the channels, and at right angles that is not what the inventors ever pro with them, there is an inclined plane, C, posed it should do ; but it it will so faci which has a series of curved grooves, cut Iitate the art of composition as to enable out in its surface, corresponding in numthat to be done by the labour of females ber to that of the channels, and commuand children, which is now performed by nicating with them—all leading to one the hands and heads of able-bodied men general reservoir, or receiving spout, as of good education, and done, too, a great it is called, at bottom, D, and all so deal quicker. Some things there may nicely curved and graduated, in respect be to which it is not equal, with manual to one another, that work as fast as aid of any sort; as, for example, the set the compositor may, when a type is ting up of pages in a number of different once liberated from its channel, and discharacters, as Roman, Italic, Greek, &c., patched down one of these grooves, it is or the setting up of algebraic calculations impossible (except from some accidental
- but after so much has been already obstruction) for any subsequently liberaaccomplished by it, we should be hardly ted type to reach the goal before it. warranted in considering these as more So much being premised as to the gethan a few remaining difficulties, which neral construction of the machine, let us the mechanical genius of the country is now suppose that it is to be set to work. sure ultimately to overcome.
The first thing to be attended to is to see The accompanying engravings repre that the channels are all duly and prosent the machine as it may be now daily portionally filled. This is done by boys, seen at work at the premises of Messrs. who set a quantity of each letter up in Young and Delcambre, 110, Chancery wooden sticks, (a process exactly similar lane. Fig. 1 is a front view of it; fig. to that followed in type fouodries) and 2 a back view. It very much resembles transfer them from the sticks to the chanin its general appearance a cottage piano,
nels—the former part of which operation divested of its case. Like that instru. they do with astonishing rapidity. A ment it has a set of keys, at which the machine in constant work will require compositor is seated, when about to the services of two boys for this purpose. compose, (instead of standing, as usual.) The channels being filled, and the comOf these keys there are as many as there positor seated at the instrument, she (for are letters of the alphabet, and varieties in the case of the machine exhibited it of these letters likely to be required, with is a young lady who officiates,) begins a due accompaniment of numerals, spaces, with repeating on the keys the letters of doubles, &c. Each key has one particu the manuscript before her; and, as sbe lar letter or character engraved upon it; depresses the keys one after another, she
sends corresponding letters down to the passed forward along a horizontal brass receiving spout—the action of the levers rail, E, to the justifying box F, where they on the columns of types being so adjust are placed in lines, and spaced out, or, ed that only one type can be detached at as it is technically called, justified, by an a time. The spout is curved downwards assistant composer. This justifying-box towards its termination for about 10 or answers in every respect to the ordinary 12 inches, and when the machine com composing-stick, and is used with equal, mences work, is filled with quadrats the if not greater facility. When the proper whole length of such curve, which serve number of lines have been justified, they as a support for the letters to fall on, till are taken out and placed in a galley, in a sufficient number of letters have accu the same way exactly as a composing mulated to furnish an abutment for those stick is usually emptied. With the subwhich follow. Each type as it reaches sequent processes of imposing, or arrangthe termination of the straight part of the ing the set-up matter in chases for printspout is pressed forward by a small vibra ing from, the present invention docs not ting beater acted upon by an eccentric, interfere, which is put in motion by a small train After types have been printed from, the of wheels driven by a boy (as shown in present practice is for the compositor to fig. 2) From the spout the types are distribute them, that is, return them to