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The inferences drawn from these in With regard to the exhibition of the teresting and important facts are as fol- acids, particularly the muriatic acid, in low:
order to dissolve the phosphates, Mi. B. That calculi formed in the kineys, and admits, itat, during the use of this acid, immediately voided, are alınast always the phosphates are either dammshell, or composed of uric acid, and that the disappear altogether; and even the urine phosphates are very frequent ingredients acquires sometimes an additional acidity, in calculi of the bladder. They are unin and therefore a solution of that part of formly deposited upon extranenus sub- the calculus, which consists of the phose stances introduced into the bladder, but phates, may be expected; but even then never form small kidney calculi. In the nucleus of uric acid wouid remain, what is comiponly called a tit of the grade and thus a great deal of time would be vel, a sipall uric calculus is forined in lost without any permanent advantage. the kidney, and passes along the ureter lle is also dec.dediy against the injechan into the bladder. For, some tiine after of these solients into the bladiler, at a stone ha passed from the kidney, the once, bv ineans of instruinents; because urine is generally unusually loaded with in every case that has come under his uric acid, and deposits that substance observation, it has always aggravated the upon the nucleus now in the bladder. surlerings of the patient. Ile concludes, Alier this, the subsequent additions to the that as the nuclei of calcui eriginale in calculus consist principally of the phos- the kidnies, and that of these the greater plates.
number consist of uric acid; the good Where the disposition to form uric effects so frequently observed during the acid in the kidneys is very great and per- use of an aikati, arise not from any acmanent, the calculus found in the blade tual' solution of calculous matter, but der is principally composed of uric acid; from the power which it possesses of dibut where this disposition is weak, the minishing the secretion of urine acid, nucleus only is uric acid, and the bulk of and thus preventing the enlargement of the stone is composed of the phosphates. the calculus; sotiat, while of a very small When the incrcased secretion of uric form, it may be voided by the urethra. acid returns at intervals, the calculus is In a following number we shall give an composed of alternate layers of uric acid account of Mr. Home's observations on and the phosphates. There are besides the same subject. these many variations in the formation
NATIONAL INSTITUTE. of the calculi.
In speaking of the solvents, Mr. Messrs. Gay Lusac and Thenard have Brande admits, that the internal exhibic given an account of the method which they tion of the alkalies often prevents the adopted in decomposing the boracic acid, formation of the uric acid, and of course They put equal parts of potassium,and pure an increase of a calculus in the bladder, vitreous boracic acid, into a copper tube, as far as the uric acid is concerned; but to which a bent glass tube was fitted. that its action will not proceed any far. The copper tube was placed in a small ther; because from his experiments he furnace, and the extremity or the glass finds there is at all times a quantity of tube plunged into a bason of quicksilver. uncombined acid in the urine; and hence as soon as the temperature was raised it tollows, that, aliiwugh the alkali may to 1500 (Reaumur, we presume), the may arrive at the kidneys in its pure mixture becaine suddenly red, imuch heat stale, it will there unite with the un- was produced, the glass broken, and alcombined acid, and be rendered incapamost the whole of the air in the appable of exerting any action upou the cal- ratus was driven out with great force. culus in the bladder. Mr. B. alsu ob- Only atmospheric air was disengaged, serves, that whenever the urine is de- and a few bubbles of hydrogen. All the prived of a portion of the acid which is potassium disappeared, altijough it only Datural to it, the deposition of the triple decomposed a part of the acid. These phospoate and phosphate of Time more substances were changed by their rereadily takes place, which is effected ciprocal action into an olive grey subby the exhibition of the alkalies; and, stance, which is a compound of porasti, therefore, though alkaline medicines and of the basis of boracic acid. The olien tend to diminish the quantity of boracic ratlical was separated from it uric acid, and thus prevent the ardition by washing it with hot or cold water. of that substance in its pure state to a "That which does not dissolve, is the rise calcu us in the bladder, they favour the dical ilgell, which possesses the following di position of the plusphates.
properties: this " radical is greenish
brown; fixed, and insoluble in water. oxygen, and the whole placed over quickIt has no taste, nor any action on tinc- silver, a mcst rapid combustion cook ture of litmus, or on syrup of violets. place, and the quicksilver rose to about Being inixed with oxynuriate of potash, the middle of the jar. The boracic raor nitrate of potash, and projected into dical exbibits the same phenomena with a red-hot crucible, it entered into vivid air as with oxygen, only that the con. combustion, of which the boracic acid bustion is less rapid. Hence it follows, was one of the products. The most that the boracic acid is composed of oxycurious and most important of all the gen, and a combustible body: and that phenomena produced by the boracic ra- this substance is of a peculiar nature, and dical when placed in contact with other ought to be classed with phosphorus, bodies, are those that it presents with carbon, and sulphur. It requires a great oxygen. When four grains and a balf of quantity of oxygen to change it into boracic radical, were projected into a boracic acid, and it previously passes into silver crucible covered with a jar, con- the state of a black oxyde. taining a little more than a quart of
LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS IN MAY.
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ARTS, FINE. THE Manures most advantageously applie Ornamental Groups, descriplive of Flowers,
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TEE EXHIBITION OF THE ROYAL business of the present allotment of this ACADEMY of LONDON 1809, THE
department of the Monthly Magazine, FORTY-FIRST.
shall be to point out what is most worthy
of attention in the present academical Ooris per a oraLETL Tüy Zwypalay adines
exhibition ;-to select the beauties of 7MY 'Amrelay, a donet og ma. cxpoczy 01CT¿s
established wames of well earned repuΠοιητας η'κει, φορα γαρ ίση αμφοιν ες τα των 'Herwy éton xat egya.
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" ed and increasing reputation of the E opening of the exhibition of the Britisu SCHOOL OF THE FINE ARTS; T Royal Academy, forms an epoch whose power and energy " has increased, in the annals of British Art. It af- is encreasing, and oughi" not • to be difords the critic a scale, whereby to esti- minished." mate the progress of the Fine Arts, and This year's exhibition is superior to any to measure the improvement or retrogram that has been seen for many years, the dation of our native artists.
great room, in particular, beams with The Fine Arts of a nation are certainly inore talent, and shews much improvethe grand criterion by wbich a philoso- ment of the British school, in tone of pier can judge of the progress of mental colouring. So much perfection and just. refinement; and as perfectibility of that ness of colouring perhaps, was never species of refinement assuages the horrors scen coalesced together in the walls of of barbarism and anarchy, and makes the Royal Academy, man more resemble what his great ar Academical drawing, or knowledge of chetype and creator intendent him to be; the humav figure, scenis to be more at. so a warchful eye towards the progress tended to than formerly; though not yet of die tme Arts, is not the Icast useful quite to tbe requisite degree. Certainly nuc of a philosophical observer. · Tlie the junior artists, from whom expectation