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three strong ditches, including a small area round such mounts; ando-such-plainly appear to have been the private habitations of the little petty chiefs of the several subordinate districts; and are allowed, by tradition, to have been so."* Such then were even the “private habitations of petty chiefs" in Ireland ! Such, therefore, were equally, whatever Mr. King may aver, « the private habitations of petty chiefs” in our own ifles, before the Romans fettled in it! And such, Mr. King comes most contradictorily to argue at last, was even Old Sarum, the Sorbiodunum of the Romans, a town and a fortress together, and a fortress-town of the Britons before !+" Mr. King has thus run the round of contradictoriness to himself, exalting his « fmall hovels” of the Britons into Irish castles, and raifing them, at last, into British towns. The absurdity of this conduct, however, is heightened by what immediately follows, in making the Badbury Rings of Dorsetshire another of such habitations; though confeffedly “Roman coins, urns, and a Roman (word have been dug up here in 1665." I

But Mr. King, who seems to set no bounds to his ideas, and combines things very diffimilar into one discordant substance, before he finishes this long and rambling chapter, thinks, that « after having thus endeavoured to form a clear idea of the nature of the fortresses, and of the mode of habitation of the antient Britons, we cannot but with to obtain, as far as is poffible, some little conception of the appearance of their persons, and of their manners."'$ Into this we shall hardly enter, as we confess ourselves heartily tired with a chapter of no less than ninety-fix pages in folio. Yet we cannot refrain from remarking, that he has half adnpted, and actually delineated, from the Archäologia, Vol. XII. the hook of the Druids, pretendedly discovered in Cornwall, when the hook was a fickle, and this is a crook, when the metal to this is only "a subItance resembling gold,” and the sickle was real gold itself; || that he finds the broad-sword of the Highlanders upon a Roman monument of London ; though the person, by whom the sword is held on the monument, is expressly declared, by an inscription below, to have been a soldier of ihe 2d Augustan legion; ** and that he has sunk " the antient British cars,” of which we have a fine representation on a British coin, ++ into a “ resemblance” with the modern Welch, little, low. built carts, $1 of which he kindly gives us a delineation at the end

* P. 81. Pp. 82-85. I p. 85. § P. 96.

Pp. 99, 100, Plate III. I P.104. ** Hemliey, No. 1, Middlesex. ++ Cainden's, Plate II. p. 30. Gibson and Stukeley's Britilh Coins, 11. 4. HF P. 107,

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ORIGINAL CRITICISM. trong ditches, including a small area round such mounts uch---plainly appear to have been the private habitations little petty chiefs of the several subordinate districts; allowed, by tradition, to have been so."* Such then en the “private habitations of petty chiefs” in Ireland! herefore, were equally, whatever Mr. King may aver, rivate habitations of petty chiefs” in our own illes, he Romans fettled in it! And such, Mr. King comes

tradictorily to argue at last, was even Old Sarum, the
inum of the Romans, a town and a fortress together,
rtress-town of the Britons before! +" Mr. King has
the sound of contradictoriness to himself, exalting his
ovels” of the Britons into Irish castles, and raising
latt, into British towns. The absurdity of this con- t
rever, is heightened by what immediately follows, in
he Badbury Rings of Dorsethire another of such ha-

though confeffedly “Roman coins, urns, and a
ord have been dug up here in 1665.”[
· King, who seems to set no bounds to his ideas, and
hings very diffimilar into one discordant substance,
inithes this long and rambling chapter, thinks, that
ing thus endeavoured to form a clear idea of the
he fortresses, and of the mode of habitation of the

ho seems to here in 166oins urns, anda.

King's Munimenta Antiqua. • 43 of his chapter.* On the fight of this we must perforce exclaim, that burlesque itself cannot possibly go beyond the attempt. But the erroneousness in all is nothing to the deviousness of all; the whole having no relation to " Munimenta Antiqua," no connection with aboriginal British fortresses," no union with either “hill-fortesses in general," or with a caves, and hiding places," but being a mere impertinence of digression from every one of them. The fluxe de plume must have been very strong indeed upon Mr. King, to have gone off in such a digression as this.

We have diffected the first chapter thus fully through all its length, in order to exhibit Mr. King as he is, excursive in his ideas, unlimited in his reading, and ingenious in his specula. tions; but hasty in his assumptions, contradictory in his conclufions, and borne, at times, on the full flood of his notions, over all the banks set up by either Nature's hand or his own. But, having done this with one chapter, we can only tell the. contents of the others, of the fix remaining, that cover merely 231 pages in all. So disproportionately has Mr. King divided his materials! These, however, are upon stones of memorial ; circles of memorial; of observances, or of observation; sacred circles, with altars of oblation ; cromleches ; barrows, carns, or kistivaens ; logan or rocking stones; tolmen, and bason ftones. On these we have much to say, equally in commendation of Mr. King, and in opposition to him. But we withhold ourselves, remembering the brevity of a Review. Yet me must stop a moment or two, to make a remark upon his cromleches, and upon his logan ftones. That those were actual altars, is attempted to be proved by a long circuit of multifarious reading, that proves nothing except the industry of the author, the genius in the back of a German. Every mind that thinks must revolt at the suggestion of the covering-stone for a cromlech being made as a stage for offering up victims, the bunching back of a sharply inclined rock-stone, only “ eleven feet or more in every direction," + made the lofty scaffold for priests to flaughter bullocks upon it, and “a cavity, or rock bafon," in the stone, “ designed to receive part of the blood as it flowed down.” I This forms such a mafs of incredibility, as even the credulity of antiquarianism could have received only in its first efforts of inquiry, under the guidance of youth, inexperience, and fancy; all inflamed with ideas of Druidical worship, as the predominating signature of the British character ; forgetting, therefore, that the Britons must have had graves as well as facrifices; and fo: converting the

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cons, we cannot but wish to obtain, as far as is pof"ittle conception of the appearance of their persons,

manners."'S Into this we shall hardly enter, as ourselves heartily tired with a chapter of no less Fix pages in folio. Yet we cannot refrain from that he has half adopted, and actually delineated, ichæologia, Vol. XII. the hook of the Druids; . discovered in Cornwall, when the hook was a s is a crook, when the metal to this is only a subing gold,” and the sickle was real gold itself; }} ne broad-sword of the Highlanders upon a Roman

London ; though the person, by whom the on the monument, is expressly declared, by an ow, to have been a soldier of the 2d Augustan

that he has sunk" the antient British cars," of a fine representation on a British coin, tt into a

with "the modern Welch, little, low-built sich he kindly gives us a delineation at the end

+ Pp. 82-85. Į r. 85. & p. 96. : · Plate III. { P. 104. ** Hemliey, : +Cainden's, Plate II. P. 30. Gibson and Coins, 11. 4.

#1 P. 107,

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mpere tomb-stone of a British chief into a ridiculous altar for a. British Druid. Yet Mr. King has adopted this suggestion of childish fancy, and endeavoured to "huddle round" the folly “with a diversity” of learning; even while his very eyes must have withstood the delusion, and his very mind have rejected the imposition. As to the rocking-stones, adds Mr. King, “ whether” they “ were used for divination; as our poct, Malon, has finely imagined; and as Toland also thought; or whether they were idols, or else fraudulent means of impofing upon the vulgar, a pretended divine afsent on certain occasions; must be left to mere conjecture;"* and conjecture has wildly supposed them, in contrad. ction to common-fense, to have been used for fome, or all of these purpoles. They are not peculiar to Britain. They are noticed by the antients as in the east, as equally in the west too, of the old Continent; and as merely natural curiosities in both. t They are merely fuch curiosities in fact. Some of them are confeffedly too ponderous to be artificial; and, therefore, by analogy of argumentation, none of them are artificial at all. We have even a rocking-stone pointeci out to us by Mr. King himself, which was both made and un-made, by the hand of accident, within the present or last century; one of Stukeley's Trilithons at Stonehenge, the defcrined Trilothons universally of Mr. King, having fallen down, and its impoft having been thrown“ quite across” another stone that lay upon the ground; where, “in this position, it for fome year's remained, so nicely balanced, as to form a sort of rocking-siune.' | And we have what would have been a rocking stone in Yorkshire, if Nature had not thrust a large pebble between two mafles of stone, and prevented the one from riding on the other by the irremovable intruder. S

“ It may be added, that, the word cromlech, in its very etymo. logy, really implies a place of fuperftitious devotion, by means of facrifice, and auspicy. For Rowland [Rowlands] has, with much learn. 'ing and judgement, observed, that the antient word cromlech, by which so many of these structures are now, by tradition, known, is derived from cæræm-lech-a devoted stone, or altar." (P. 230.)

Rowlands has thus deceived Mr. King again, by a temptation too strong to be refifted by the latter, an affectation of learning in the former. The true etymology of cromlech was much nearer hone, even in the very language which furnished the word. Thus cromlech, in Welch, is derived, by the Welch themselves, from crom, the feminine of crwm, crooked, bowed, bent; and ilech, a stone. This etyinon speaks for ititlf. The very view of the monument created the appellation; and all * P. 327. † P. 328. .. I P. 104. P. 339.,

could

45

r: 5-stone of a British chief into a ridiculous altar for Diuil. Yct Mr. King has adopted this suggestion h fani y, and endeavoured to "huddle round" the Il a diversity” of learning; even while his very eyes . Wititood the delusion, and his very mind have rei'mposition. As to the ruckingstones, adds Mr. whether” they “ were used for divination ; as our it, has finely imagined; and as Toland also thought;

they were idols, or else fraudulent means of impothe vulgar, a pretended divine aflint on certain ocuit be left to mere conjecture;" * and conjecture has e d them, in contradiction to common-sense, to

nud for fome, or all of these purpoles. They are 'to Britain. They are noticed by the antients as as equally in the west too, of the old Continent; yndíural curiosities in both. t They are merely ves in tiet. Some of them are confessedly too i be artificial; and, therefore, by analogy of argu

one of them are artificial at all. We have even 114 pointed out to us by Nr. King himself, which ce and un-made, by the hand of accident, within r last century; one of Stukeley's Trilithons at he defined Trilothons universally of Mr. King, fown, and its impoft having been thrown quite

Butler's Musuri carmen in Platonem. could see the inclination of the main stone, while not one in a thousand, probably, would know the devoted nature of it, even if it had been devoted. Mr. King, indeed, in P. 259,adopts this very signification at last, but jointly with his own,, : and distortedly in his own meaning. It “ still imports a stone" in Ireland, that was to be bent towards, or bowed to, or to be looked toward, as well as a stone placed in'a bent, or sloping position.” But all this is untrue. Crom, crum, is crooked, bending down in Irish; cromaim, is to bow or bend, and to to worship. The radical idea, therefore, is merely crookedness in Irish, as in Welch; and refers to the most striking part of a cromlech, the vast covering-stone inclined.

(To be concluded in our next.):

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Er Atme that lay upon the ground; where, “in t for fome years remained, so nicely balanced, as to rocking-Jiune.” I And we have what would have

Itune in Yorkshire, if Nature had not thrust a tween two mafies of stone, and prevented the 5 on the other by the irremovable intruder. S

deed, thai, the word cromlech, in its very etymoies a plice of fuperftitious devotion, by means of fay. For Rowland [Rowlands ] has, with much learn. lit, oblerved, that the antient word cromlech, by

thele {tructures are now, by tradition, known, is imelech-a devoted stone, or altar.” (P. 2 30.) - thus deceived Mr. King again, by a temptato be resisted by the latter, an affectation of -rmer. The true etymology of cromlech was ne, even in the very language which furnished 5 cromlech, in Welch, is derived, by the Welch (10m, the feminine of crwm, crooked, bowed, Stone. This etyinon speaks for itielf. The monument created the appellation; and all

P. 104. P. 339. P. 328.

could

Art. VIII. M. Musuri carmen in Platonem. Ifaaci Casauboni

in Josephum Scaligerum Ode. Accedunt Poemata et Exercitationes utriusque Linguæ. Auctore S. Butter. Appendicis loco Subjiciuntur Hymnus Cleanthis Strici; Clementis Alexandrini Hymni duo. Henrici Stephani Adhortatio ad Lectionem Novi Fæderis. Confcripfit atque edidit Samuel Butler, A.B. Coli. Div. Joann. apud Cantabr. Soc. 8vo. PP. 116.

Payne.' 1797M R. BUTLER seems to have sent this volume of MiscelII lanies into the world, as a sort of precursor to a projected edition of Æschylus; to explore the public opinion of

his classical abilities. . The first piece, in this collection, is the poem of Musurus on Plato, accompanied with the poetical version of Zenobias Acciaioli. ..

Musurus was born in the island of Crete; and was one of those learned Greeks who had the honour of being patronized by Leo the Tenth. His poetry was censured by Erasmus for it's obscurity and affectation. But the poem before us affords no proof of the juftness of Eraimus's criticism. Not that it pofleffes one sublime or beautiful thought, or one strikingly poetical expreslicn. The purity of the language is its chief recommendation. It is only calculated, therefore, for the perural of the curious scholar.

The second piece is liaac Casaubon's Greek Ode in Memory of Joseph Scaliger ; to which are subjoined two epitaphs on Scaliger, in Greck and in Latin, hy Daniel Heinsius. We are next presented with some of Mr. Butler's own compositions. His. Greek Odc, entitled " Præftantia Græcæ Poeseos," has, doubtless, more poetical merit than the pieces either of Mururus, Calaubon, or Heinsius.

- plă

" lã do ayeis ue, Mãou; Teív mélahe

Πίσα τ'"Αλιδός τε κλεεννον άλσος.
Χρυσές νύν βάλλε τεάς φαρέτρας

ni'NAAPON i.
"Os på ytujuappes worauós tis dori,
'Εξ όρευς λάθροις επί μας καταρρεί,
Κύμασιν, κοίλαι δε τε ταλόθεν βρυ-

-Kürti yagádęzi." The “ Britanniæ Gloria Navalis" runs in the same strain of poetry.

The Latin Ode, “ Astronomize Laus,” opens with a grandeur, worthy, we had almost said, of inspiration:

" In lucis æternæ penetralibus
Jehovah præsens conspicitur Deus,
Terrasque cæleftesque tractus

Suftinet et moderatur auctor,
Insana primo qui maria halitu
Amavit, undis sæva tumentibus,
Noctisque commovit profunda

Imperium, omnigenamque molem
Turbavit. Exin, fic voluit, filent
Informium certamina seminum
Compôsta, nec discordia ultra

Triste cient elementa bellum.” Of the poetical trifles that follow, the Latin version of Dr. Beattie's · Hermit” is the most pleasing. Though they may not recognize in it Bourne's happy manner, yet our readers (to whom the original must be familiar) will thank us for transplanting it into these pages : “ Undique cùm pagus filet atque oblivia spargens

Dulcia, pervadit lumina fessa quies,
Solaque per nemora, abrupti de vertice faxi,

Atthis ad effusas admodulatur aqua),
Exesi latere in montis, gelidaque fub umbra,

Ad scopulos senior cæpit et antra queri.
Flebile carmen erat, neque enim sentire pudebat

Quid pietas esset pura, quid esset Homo.
Cur tenebras inter mediæque filentia noctis

Sera cies mastos fic, Philomela, modos?
Non æterna tua est, tua fi qua eft caufa doloris,

Et cum purpureo vere redibit amans.'
Sed tamen , tibi fi pectus mortalia tangunt,

Lugubre funde melos, lugubre, chara comes :
Illi chara comes, cui non revocanda voluptas

Quam cito, me miserum ! ceu tua, præteriit!
En ubi pallentes cæli in regione remota

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