« ZurückWeiter »
the terror of the American border. The Senecas being the most popular of the Six Nations and farthest from the theater of war, their settlements on the Genesee became a necure retreat whence mnny expeditions were projeeted. The precise date wit h the Mohawks settled in the Seneca country is not positively known, bnt it is supposed that they came directly from Canajoharie at the time Johnson, Butler and Brant moved to F«rt Stanwix in 1775. They located near the Niagara River at Lewiston, and formed a considerable village along the Ridge on the present road between the old academy building and the mountain road leading up Indian hill to the Tuscarora reservation. Brant's residence was a block house that stood near "Brant's spring" on the former Isaac Cook farm. On their removal the Mohawks carried with them a bell taken from the church at Canajoharie. They built a log church at Lewiston and hung the bell on a pole suspended from the crotch of a tree. Fort Niagara was then the headquarters of the British, and there, and at Brant's Mohawk village, were concocted many of the schemes of rapine and carnage that devastated the distant borders of American civilization.
During Brant's absence in June, 1778, Col. Butler with his Tory Rangers and a detachment of SiFJohn Johnson's Royal Greens, marched from Fort Niagara to the Genesee castle at the confluence of the Genesee River and Cani.seruga Creek, where they were joined by 500 Indians under Gi-en-gwah-toh (He-who-goes-in-the smoke) a prominent Seneca chief. The expedition moved up the Canaseraga Valley, down the Conhocton and Chemung to Tioga Point, embarked upon the Susquehanna and landed about twenty miles above Wyoming which place was attacked and destroyed with terrible slaughter. The route pursued by Butler's expedition was the one usually followed by the British and their savage allies when making forays upon Eastern settlements, and on their return, with captives and plunder, to the Genespe and Niagara. Occasionally the northern trails were used between Canaseraga Creek and Lake Ontario, and war parties not unfreqnently crossed the site of Rochester. Butler's Rangers were at Irondequoit Bay several times, and their final exit from the lower Genesee was through the present boundaries of the city. "During the revolution," said Mary Jemison, who then resided at the Genesee castle, "my house was the home of Colonel Butler and Brant, whenever they chanced to come into our neighborhood, as they passed to and from Fort Niagara, which was the seat of their military operations. Many and many a night I have pounded samp for them from sunset till sun
rise, and furnished them with the necessary provisions and clean clothing for their journey."
The atrocities committed at Wyoming Cherry Valley and other frontier settlements, induced congress to attempt the destruction of all the towns of the Six Nations in the British interest. In 1779 Gen. Sullivan invaded their countrv, and on his march up the Chemung, near Elmira, encountered a large force of B-itish and Indians, under Col. Butler and Brant, which he defeated. On the arrival of the army at the head of ('one-us Lake, Gen. Sullivan sent a party, under command of Lieut. Boyd, to discover the Gruesee Castle. Boyd's party passed through the lines of Butler's forces, which la> in ambish near the western side of Conesus inlet, and reached a deserted Seneca town near the Cauaseraga Creek, undiscovered. On attempting to return the following morning Boyd was led into the ambush prepared for Sullivan's entire army, his party cut to pieces, and himself and Sergeant Parker made captives. Butler—knowing nothing of Boyd's presence in his rear— hearing the tiring, supposed that Sullivan had out flanked him, and at once retreated. Boyd had by some means learned that Brant was a Free Mason, and soliciting an interview with the chief, made himself known as a "brother in distress." The appeal was recognized, and Brant immediately, and in the strongest language, assured Boyd that his life would be spared. Brant, however, being called on to perform some service which required a few hours' absence, left the prisoners iu the charge of Col. Butler, who—upon their refusal to answer his questions—delivered them over to tbe Indians under Little Beard for torture. "Previous to the arrival of Sullivan's army" (at the Genesse Castle), says Peck's History of Rochester, page 71, "the Indians had sent all thpir women and children to Silver Lake, mid upon the first appearance of the American troops on the West side of the river the enemy tied precipitately. Brant, with his warriors and the British regulars, took the Moscow trail for Buffalo creek and Niagara, while the Troy Rangers went to the Caledonia springs. From that place Walker. the noted British spy was sent to Fort Niagara with instructions to obtain a sufficient number of boats to transport the Tories and meet them at the mouth of the Genesee River, The Rangers then came down the trail to Red Creek ford at the rapids in South Rochester, where they divided into two parties, one going directly to the lake by the St. Paul street route; the other over the portage trail to Irondequoit landing, thence across the country to the mouth of the Genesee, where the boats from Niagara found the entire party in a starving condition some days later"
Niagara remained the headquarters of the British, and at the close of the war the Mohawks were still residing on the ridge near Lewiston, At the cessation of hostilities, the Senecas offered them a tract of land in the Genesee Valley, but the Mohawks did not wish to reside within the boundaries of the United States, and eventually settled on the Grand River, in Canada, which enters Lake Erie about forty miles above the falls of Niagara. Here they received a crown grant of six miles breadth from each side of the river, beginning at Lake Erie and extending in that proportion to the head of the river, about proportion to the river, about 100 miles. This grant was doubtless intended solely for the Mohawks: but other Indians of the Six Nations, including some who had borne arms against the British ai d Mohawks, settled there. The great council fire of the Iroquois confederacy, which had been kept burning at Onondaga from time immemorial, was declared extinguished in 1777 by the Oneidas and Onondagas. Brant never resigned his station as principal war chief of the confederacy, and some years after the Mohawks settled in Canada: the council fire was declared rekindled and relocated at the Onondaga village on the Grand river reservation.
After the revolution Brant devoted his time principally to the interests of his people. From 1790 to 18O0 he was through the lower Genesee County many times. On his return from the Niagara River in 1798, William Uencher, of Charlotte, stopped at a camping ground, on the siteof ancient Teg-n-tainasgh-que, where the village of Cary or Oakfield now stands, and there found Brant with a whitescrvant. The chief who, well dressed after the fashion of white men; but before they parted he changed his dress entirely, putting on on Indian dress, and getting Tuscarora Charles (an Indian accompanying Uencher) to paint him like an Indian warrior: as he preferred to meet the Indians at Tonawanda like one of themhelves. Enos Stone, in his reminiscences in "Phelps and Gorham's Purchase," page 425, relates a similar incident. "In an early day," he says, "I was stopping with my brother. Orange" The latter lived u "The Rock and Tree'' East Avenue east of Brighton village. "Chauucey Hyde and ojself were out hunting cattle. We saw a smoke rising at the Irondequoit landing and went down to it. We found that it proceeded from an Indian camp: as we approached it two Indians rose up from a couch, one of whom especially attracted our attention. His camp equipage we thought rather
extraordinary for an Indian. He was also dressed—partly as a white man, and partly as an Indian—bid us good morning with great civility, and displaying a gold watch and trimmings, observed that being wearied he had overslept. He soon announced himself as Joseph Brant, on his way from Burlington bay to Canandaigua. Having arrived in a boat he had sent Indian runners to Canandaigua for horses, aud^was waiting their return. He accepted an invitation and came up with us to my brother's. His familiar conversation and gentlemanly manners soon convinced us that he was not the savage we had conceived him to be, from accounts we had heard and read of him, iu connection with the border wars. He quieted our apprehensions of any farther Iudion troubles by assuring us that RB the Senecas had sold their lands to the whites, the bargain should be carried out in good faith and the new settlements should not be molested. He manifested much interest in all that was going on in this region, and inquired where new settlements were commencing. The visit gave us great pleasure and quieted our fears. In person Joseph Brant bore a close resemblance to General Brady of the United States Army."
To return to the day and the occasion which brings me here, I can truthfully say that t his is the most notable gathering of the Six Nations since the revolution. There are here from Canada and the United States, several thousand delegates together with Crees, Bloods, Fiegaus and Bla>-kfeet from northwest territory under Col. McDonald and Interpreters F. Hourie and J. L. Heureux. Many distinguished Canadians and Americans are here. The procession at 1'2 o'clock marched through the principal streets to Victoria Square. It included the Dufferin Rifles, chiefs, warriors, Indian bands, the Brant Memorial Association, distineuished guests, Lieutenant-Governor Robinson, the Burford Cavalry, General Sir T. Middleton, president of the Memorial Association, the mayor, council, warden and county council. At the square prayer was offered by the Rev. Mr. Cochraue. After an address by the president of the association, the monument was unveiled by the sculptor and twelve chiefs. An address by the lieutenant governor who, follows l by the singing of the Brant memorial song. The Mendelssohn Society sang the memorial ode. Addresses were made by the chief o the Six Nations, and general superintendent of Indian affairs. The president of the association finally presented the monument, which is a magnificent work of art, to the mayor of Brantford.
Gkokok H. Harris.
AHORIUINAI, STONE IMPLKMKSTS.
Some A rcliu'ologlcal Notes of Wyoming and l.Hckawaiina Valleys, l>y Dr. H. Holllnt«r, of Srranton, whose Cabinet EmbraceH 20,000 Specimen*. When the whites first entered the solitude of the Wyoming and Lackawanna wilderness in search of homes in 1762 they found the occapants representing the true stone age. No iron, steel or brass otensils were here; few bone and fewer copper implements had fonnd their way into the hands of the self reliant and ingenious aborigines. Whether the Indian drifted along the Susquehanna in his canoe or sought the wigwam he had planned upon its banks for repose, he looked to his flintpointed arrow and spear point, his slingstone and hi* sturdy stone tomahawk for the sustenance, independence and supremacy he enjoyed. They served his purpose well. The forest swarmed with game as yet nnstartled by the sound of the gun or the hound, and the streams, unvexed with the subtlety of seines, abounded with shad and trout.
Along the Upper Lackawanna four Indian villages stood one hundred and twenty-four years ago; the two principal ones were Capoose at Scranton and As«erughney at the forks of the Lackawanna with the Susquehanna at Pittston, while from Nanticoke to this point were several.' On the Pittston side no evidence appears of the presence of the tribal rac until Port Blanchard is reached. Here Miner describes an ancient fortress with its debris, which was probably built and used by some people prior to the occupancy of the country by the red man. Upon the Shawnee flats and on the spot where Wilkes-Barie now stands as well as upon the opposite lands, the wigwams diversified the plains with their smoke when Zinzeudorf. in 1742, visited Wyoming as a missionary and as the first white man. to look upon the wild luxuriance of the fascinating valley.
The Mousey tribe inhabited the La-hr-hana Valley, whilr the Nanticokes, the Shawnees, the Delawares, with Teedyuscuug as chief, and other clans patrolled Wyoming. These tribes all belonged to the confederation of the Six Nations, formed by the union of the Mohawks, Senecas. Onondagas, Oueidas, Cajugas and the Tuscaroras, whose council fire* illumed the great lakes of New York, and whose stone contrivances were of a similar character to those found here.
No section of country, however, furnished the student of archaeology greater reward for his time and labor than that strip of land lying at the junction of the Lackawanna with the Susquehanna. The Indian village of Asserughney stretched from Falling Spring to the mouth of the Lackawanna, a distance of half a mile. Here, under the shadows of Campbell's Ledge, whose summit served as a lookout for miles, he fashioned his tent and lived in the deep solitude of his forest home, in plenty and safety.
Around this and other deserted villages a vast amount of stone implements have been found, after each spring's freshet, during the last half century. Hon. Steuben Jenkins, of Wyoming—than whom there is no greater archaeologist within the State — whose magnificent collection of Indian relics is only surpassed by my own of over twenty thousand pieces, has gathered from the east bank of the Susquehanna every known implement of peace and every weapon of warfare once owned and used by the warriors. It is the most fruitful archaeological field within the two valleys.
The sling stone—which some have mistaken lor sinkers—found here in great abundance, was an oval flat stone with an indentation in its side for a thong of deer sinew or twisted grass, which was thrown with great force and precision against rabbits, pheasants, squirrels, turkeys and lesser game upon all sides. Throwing this stone made no noise like the report of a rifle and the result was that all wild animals were comparatively tame, because they were unconscious of fear. The weight of these stone was from an ounce to three pounds.
The arrow point was the principal weapon of offense and defence. Uf these a hundred or more varieties, and some of the most exquisite and rare workmanship, hnve been washed from the graves and found in perfect condition. The common arrow points, constructed from the flinty stones found on the banks of our rivers, were affixed to the shaft of the arrow, about one foot and a half in length, so that they could be pulled out and used again if not broken. The serrated or saw arrow point was used for making ugly wounds and lacerating blood vessels. There being no surgeons among the tribes these skillfully notched points could not be extracted and would of course produce a lingering death. The sharp war point, always built from silex, was so shaped and affixed to the arrow that the stem could be taken from the victim, leaving the point to irritate and Droduce inflammation and death.
A blunt point was used by the young bucks to practice with. They were fashioned blunt for obvious reasons Long and slender points were used for shooting fish and for penetrating the vitals of moose, bear and deer. Smaller ones were need for killing birds.
A javelin, or large spear point, nine inohes in length and five inches in width, of red flint, was found in Capoose Monnd in Scranton- It had been used and the tip was broken in some conflict. Its immense size would indicate a chief a* its possessor at the time of its bnrial.
A long slender arrow or spear point, seven inches in length and one and a half in width was need for killing animals requiring great penetration of thrust to reach the vital parts.
For agricultural purposes the savages had a vast quantity of implements, sometimes rudely made, but always serving the required purpose. A pick, or grubbing hoe, twelve inches in length,with a depression for a withe handle, served the tiller of the soil in every exigency. The squaws planted the corn, hoed the tobacco and vines, and did all manual labor with patience and ease. A flat stone hoe, with its sides notched for the handle, could be used in the sandy soil of the river banks to great advantage. A pick ten inches in length was employed in digging and planting deeper in the grornd. It was a strong tool and it had great power of resistance. Its weight was about five pounds.
One great source of -imusement of the brave was the pitching of quoits. It not only Bfforded him amusement, but by long, steady habit, made him proficient in throwing the sling stone and the tomahawk.
Their four weapons of warfare were the arrow, the battle ax, the death manl and the tomahawk. A single and a double edged tomahawk with the wooden handle was fastened in the deep groove with deer skin. In the strong hands of the Indian they were a for midable instrument to defend their wigwams or to meet a foe. They fought from face to face and the victory was a matter of the strongest blows.
A scalping or skinning stone could have a single or a double edge. These stones, found in all Indian localities, were used for skinning purposes, and they were rubbed or ground down to an edge sharp as a knife. I nave several hundred in my collection.
Two death mauls, constructed with singular ingenuity and labor, weighing fifteen pounds, with a deep depression entirely around them for the reception of th« handle, used for killing their captives, were found at Pittston in l&r>7.
An Indian mortar or grist mill, for grinding corn into na-samp or spmp, was the primitive mode of pulvervizing corn. This mortar has a capacity of about two quarts and weighs about sixty pounds. A few miles east of Scranton on Bald Mount are several holes in the projecting rock, holding two or three quarts, which were once used by the Indians for grinding corn.
Pestles varying in length from six inches to two feet were used for pounding corn. These were always used by females as no male deigned to do manual labor. Warfare and hunting were his only pastime. Sometimes they were made from burned clay, but generally from stone. The largest one in my collection weighs ninety pounds and was used for crushing the corn by rolling. This was found at the mouth of the Lackawanna, while a small one, a foot in length, about the size of a broom-handle was picked up at FallingSpring in 18(52, by Dr. Sturdevant, of Wilkes-Barre. Some of these have an indenture upon one end by which they were affixed to a bending sapling when used, and could thus be carried upon the person of the owcer. All these corn pounders, some two hundred in number, exhibit great skill, use and age.
Amulets made from dark seamless stones, from four to six inches in length, generally with a hole through them were worn by chieftains for personal ornament, and an emblem of authority, and to ward off disease and propitiate the gods to send the tribes good luck. The holes were made for transportation purposes.
A stone bird, so constructed that it could be carried by the owner, neatly carved from gray stone, was found at Throop, above Scranton. It was worn like the amulet by the virgin daughters of the chiefs as evidence of royalty, and for the purpose of charming away danger and insuring good crops of corn and tobacco. It is about four inches in length.
A string of xvampun and heads were exhumed from Capoose Mound some years ago. They were manufactured from bone and small shells. In Connecticut, in 1607, a certain number of blue and black beads was made a legal tender for a penny. In 1(171, this law was repealed.
A ceremonial stone, shaped like a hatchet, dull on its edge, about six inches long, with a large hole through the centre for the handle, was carried upon the occasion of a war dance or marriage, as we carry the American flag as a part of the ceremony.
Stone rings with a small hole drilled throueh the upper portion, weighing about an ounce, were also worn as decorations suspended by the neck or from the ear.
No article of luxury, however, was constructed with more care, cherished with holier memories, loved with more constant fervor than the Indian's pipe. Their calumet or pipe of peace was among their most prized and sacred articles of all stone implements of the wigwam. How long the red man had smoked his pipe along the Mohawk or the Hudson before the discovery we know not, but the white man was not cursed with the knowledge of tobacco until Sir Walter Raleigh introduced it into England from America. A black stone pipe with representations of a wolf on one end and a bear upon the other, the bowl upheld by a warrior Dpon either side, ana a large log underneath the whole, is in my possession with many others, and it gives the Indian's idea of astronomy.
A large number of stone relics nre in my hands whose name and use I know nothing about.
The collection of Mr. Jenkins is far superior to mine in pipes and pottery.
Upon every cheek that ever bloomed and smiled beauty will fade, but these mementoes of another day and another race, neglected by many and treasured by but few, will ever remain in the hands of the archaeologist perfect in their simplicity and beautiful in their silence. H. Hollihteb.
Valuable Archaeological Collection.
[Bethlehem Times. | The Lehigh University ha' been presented with a valuable archaeological collection of from 1,500 to 2,000 specimens by Chas. H. Cammings, of Mauch Chunk. The collection illustrates the weapons and utensils of the Indian tribes formerly living along the Susquehanna and in the eastern part of Pennsylvania. It is particularly valuable because, instead of being a collection from all over the country, with but one or two specimens from a single locality, it is a very complete collection from a single locality, and its hows very fully the habits and local peculiarities of the Indians of this locality. The collection contains from 50 to 75 perfect specimens »l stone axes, both grooved and ungrooved: a tine lot of stone mortars and pestles; net sinkers, banner stones, picks, pipes cooking pots, etc. The banner stone* are curiously cut stones, which the old Indian chiefs would carry on the ends of long sticks. These stones were to the Indians what our Hags are to us. Accompanying the collection are the fragments of an old mound builder's skull, found at Durande Wis. There sre also water jogs found in a mound near St. Louis, Mo., on which were trees having 1,000 annular rings, which indicates that the jugs are over 1,000 years old. The collection comprises several hundred very fine arrow heads, and spear heads, and a great deal of shell wampum. Mr. Cummings purchased the collection from Dr. Stnbbs. of Oxford, Pa., an enthusiast on the subject, who has made the gathering of this collection a part of his life work. The doctor was getting old and so looked about him for somebody who would buy his collection as a whole and keep it together. The dealers were very anxious to get hold of the collection and break it up in small lots, but the doctor refused all
offers until Mr. Cummings offered to buy it for Lehigh Uuiversity. Prof. E. H. Williams has charge of the collection and he is very proud of Mr. Cummings' very fine donation. It will be known as the Cummings archaeological collection.
Mr. Wilson's Recollections.
Mt. Vebnoh, O., Oct. 1, 1886.—Editob Recobd: I was much interested, among your other historical matter, in the reminiscences of Sam. Wright. Sam commenced business sellingsmall beer and baking on River Street, in an old building on the ground where now stands the John N. Conyngham homestead. There were three old buildings there, and River Street was the business street of the town 05 years ago. The old building was said to have t>een washed across the river in the great pumpkin freshet and landed down on the flat near the residence of Jabez Fish (the site of W. L. Conyngham's residence) and was afterwards moved up to where it stood on River Street. There were really three houses: the first my mother lived fn, the second was occupied by Sam. Wright with his cake and beer shop: and Jacob Rudolph occupied the third as a shoe shop. The old shoe shop now stands on the Conyngham farm and you can tell it to-day by a large square window in the south end, where Rudolph did his cutting.
Sam Wright was a good old man. But I may think so from tbe fact that he kept me we'l supplied with good sweet cakes for doing small errands for him, and he gave me the first oyster I ever ate. I will never forget it. It did not stay with me long. The old man was the friend of all the boys, and some f the toniest boys in the town thought it a great favor to go and sleep with the old man. The next house north was old Jacob Cist's stone house, and the next Mr. Cist's old yellow store: and there is where I saw the first Indian pot I ever saw. It was sitting on the shelf with a hole through the shelf to make it stand up, and it is now in the Wyoming Historical and Geological Society. Next buildinv was Henry Young's gunsmith shop, and the next the Arndt hotel, and then the Hollenback store on the corner of South and River. Across the street wa« the Richardson hotel: on up River Street was Howe <fe Dennis' copper ai d tin shop, and above George Flakes' wagon shop and tire patterns. So you see that River Street was the business street of the town many years ago. H. C. Wilson.
The Media .4 meriean publishes in its issue of (Ictober 13, a valuable article by Philip Leunon on "The Doanes—the notorious outlaws in Bucks County," a centsry and more ago.