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Vergennes and order of Congress,
329, 330; disclaims credit, 330; jus
tification of his behavior, 330 ; his
tenderness toward the soldiers, 331;
jealousy of Congress toward him,
332 ; warns Congress of danger of
further neglect of army, 333, 334 ;
takes control of mutinous move-
ment, 335; his address to the sol-
diers, 336; its effect, 336; move-
ment among soldiers to make him
dictator, 337; replies to revolution-
ary proposals, 337 ; reality of the
danger, 339; causes for his beha-
vior, 340, 341 ; a friend of strong
government, but devoid of personal
ambition, 342; chafes under delay
to disband army, 343; tries to
secure Western posts, 343; makes
a journey through New York, 343;
gives Congress excellent but futile
advice, 344 ; issues circular letter
to governors, 344; and farewell ad-
dress to army, 345; enters New
York after departure of British,
345 ; his farewell to his officers,
345 ; adjusts his accounts, 346 ; ap-
pears before Congress, 347 ; French
account of his action, 347 ; makes
speech resigning commission, 348,
349.

In Retirement. Returns to Mt.
Vernon, ii. 1; tries to resume old
life, 2; gives up hunting, 2; pur-
sued by lion-hunters and artists,
3; overwhelmed with correspond-
ence, 3; receives letters from Eu-
rope, 4; from cranks, 4; from offi-
cers, 4; his share in Society of
Cincinnati, 4; manages his estate,
5; visits Western lands, 5; family
cares, 5, 6; continues to have in-
terest in public affairs, 6; advises
Congress regarding peace establish-
ment, 6; urges acquisition of West-
ern posts, 7; his broad national
views, 7 ; alone in realizing future
greatness of country, 7, 8; appre-
ciates importance of the West, 8;
urges development of inland navi.
gation, 9; asks Jefferson's aid, 9,
10; lays canal scheme before Vir-
ginia legislature, 10; his arguments,

10; troubled by offer of stock, 11 ;
uses it to endow two schools, 12 ;
significance of his scheme, 12, 13;
his political purposes in binding
West to East, 13; willing to leave
Mississippi closed for this purpose,
14, 15, 16; feels need of firmer
union during Revolution, 17; his
arguments, 18, 19; his influence
starts movement for reform, 20;
continues to urge it during retire-
ment, 21 ; foresees disasters of con-
federation, 21 ; urges impost scheme,
22; condemns action of States, 22,
23, 25; favors commercial agree-
ment between Maryland and Vir-
ginia, 23 ; stung by contempt of
foreign powers, 24 ; his arguments
for a national government, 24 ;
points out designs of England, 25;
works against paper money craze
in States, 26 ; his opinion of Shaya's
rebellion, 26; his position con-
trasted with Jefferson's, 27 ; influ,
ence of his letters, 28, 29; shrinks
from participating in Federal con-
vention, 29; elected unanimously,
30; refuses to go to a feeble con-
vention, 30, 31 ; fipally makes up
his mind, 31.

In the Federal Convention.
Speech attributed to Washington by
Morris on duties of delegates, 31,
32; chosen to preside, 33; takes
no part in debate, 34; his influence
in convention, 34, 35; despairs of
success, 35; signs the Constitution,
36; words attributed to him, 36;
silent as to his thoughts, 36, 37;
sees clearly danger of failure to
ratify, 37; tries at first to act in-
differently, 38; begins to work for
ratification, 38; writes letters to
various people, 38, 39; circulates
copies of “Federalist,” 40; saves
ratification in Virginia, 40 ; urges
election of Federalists to Congress,
41 ; receives general request to ac-
cept presidency, 41; his objections,
41, 42; dreads failure and respon-
sibility, 42; elected, 42 ; his jour-
ney to New York, 42-46 ; speech at
Alexandria, 43; popular reception

at all points, 44, 45; his feelings,
46; his inauguration, 46.

President. His speech to Con-
gress,

48

; urges no specific policy,
48, 49; his solemn feelings, 49; his
sober view of necessities of situa-
tion, 50; question of his title, 52 ;
arranges to communicate with Sen-
ate by writing, 52, 53; discusses
social etiquette, 53; takes middle
ground, 54; wisdom of his action,
55; criticisms by Democrats, 55,
56; accused of monarchical lean-
ings, 56, 57; familiarizes himself
with work already accomplished
under Confederation, 58; his busi-
ness habits, 58; refuses special privi-
leges to French minister, 59, 60;
skill of his reply, 60, 61 ; solicited
for office, 61 ; his views on appoint-
ment, 62; favors friends of Consti-
tution and old soldiers, 62 ; success
of his appointments, 63; selects a
cabinet, 64; his regard for Knox, 65;
for Morris, 66 ; his skill in choosing,
66; his appreciation of Hamilton,
67; his grounds for choosing Jeffer-
Bon, 68; his contrast with Jeffer-

69; his choice a mistake in
policy, 70; his partisan character-
istics, 70, 71; excludes anti-Fede-
ralists, 71; nominates justices of
Supreme Court, 72; their party
character, 73; illness, 73; visits the
Eastern States, 73; his reasons,
74; stirs popular enthusiasm, 74,
snubbed by Hancock in Massachu-
setts, 75; accepts Hancock's apo-
logy, 75; importance of his action,
76; success of journey, 76; opens
Cougress, 78, 79 ; his speech and its
recommendations, 81 ; how far car-
ried out, 81-83; national character
of the speech, 83; his fitness to
deal with Indians, 87 ; his policy,
88; appoints commission to treat
with Creeks, 90 ; ascribes its failure
to Spanish intrigue, 90; succeeds
by a personal interview in mak-
ing treaty, 91; wisdom of his pol-
icy, 92; orders an expedition against
Western Indians, 93; angered at its
failure, 94; and at conduct of fron-

tiersmen, 94 ; prepares St. Clair's
expedition, 95; warns against am-
bush, 95 ; hopes for decisive results,
97 ; learns of St. Clair's defeat, 97 ;
his self-control, 97 ; his outburst of
anger against St. Clair, 97, 98;
masters his feelings, 98; treats
St. Clair kindly, 99 ; determines on
a second campaign, 100; selects
Wayne and other officers, 100; tries
to secure peace with tribes, 101 ;
efforts prevented by English influ-
ence, 101, 102; and in south by
conduct of Georgia, 103; general
results of his Indian policy, 104;
popular misunderstandings and crit-
icism, 104, 105; favors assumption
of state debts by the government,
107, 108 ; satisfied with bargain be-
tween Hamilton and Jefferson, 108;
his respectful attitude toward Con-
stitution, 109; asks opinions of cabi-
net on constitutionality of bank,
110; signs bill creating it, 110; rea-
sons for his decision, 111 ; sup-
ports Hamilton's financial policy,
112 ; supports Hamilton's views on
protection, 115, 116; appreciates
evil economic condition of Virginia,
116, 117; sees necessity for self-
sufficient industries in war time,
117 ; urges protection, 118, 119,
120; his purpose to build up nam
tional feeling, 121 ; approves na-
tional excise tax, 122, 123; does
not realize unpopularity of method,
123; ready to modify but insists on
obedience, 124, 125 ; issues procla-
mation against rioters, 125; since
Pennsylvania frontier continues re-
bellious, issues second proclamation
threatening to use force, 127 ; calls
out the militia, 127 ; his advice to
leaders and troops, 128 ; importance
of Washington's firmness, 129; his
good judgment and patience, 130;
decides success of the central au-
thority, 130 ; early advocacy of
separation of United States from
European politics, 133; studies situ-
ation, 134, 135; sees importance of
binding West with Eastern States,
135; soos necessity of good relations

son,

179;

a

with England, 137; authorizes Morris
to sound England as to exchange of
ministers and a commercial treaty,
137 ; not disturbed by British bad
manners, 138; succeeds in estab-
lishing diplomatic relations, 138;
early foresees danger of excess in
French Revolution, 139, 140 ; states
& policy of strict neutrality, 140,
142, 143; difficulties of his situa-
tion, 142; objects to action of Na-
tional Assembly on tobacco and oil,
144; denies reported request by
United States that England medi-
ate with Indians, 145 ; announces
neutrality in case of a European
war, 146; instructs cabinet to pre-
pare

neutrality proclamation,
147; importance of this step not
understood at time, 148, 149; fore-
sees coming difficulties, 149, 150 ;
acts cautiously toward émigrés,
151 ; contrast with Genet, 152 ;
greets him coldly, 152 ; orders
steps taken to prevent violations
of neutrality, 153, 154; retires to
Mt. Vernon for rest, 154 ; on re-
turning finds Jefferson has al-
lɔwod Little Sarah to escape, 156 ;
writes a sharp note to Jefferson,
156; anger at escape, 157 ; takes
matters out of Jefferson's hands,
157 ; determines on asking recall of
Genet, 158; revokes exequatur of
Duplaine, French consul, 159 ; in-
sulted by Genet, 159, 160; refuses
to deny Jay's card, 160 ; upheld by
popular feeling, 160 ; his annoyance
at the episode, 160 ; obliged to
teach American people self-respect,
162, 163; deals with troubles in-
cited by Genet in the West, 162,
163 ; sympathizes with frontiers-
men, 163; comprehends value of
Mississippi, 164, 165; sends a com-
mission to Madrid to negotiate about
free navigation, 166 ; later sends
Thomas Pinckney, 166 ; despairs of
success, 166 ; apparent conflict be-
tween French treaties and neutral-
ity, 169, 170; value of Washing-
ton's policy to England, 171 ; in
spite of England's attitude, intends

to keep peace, 177 ; wishes to send
Hamilton as envoy, 177 ; after his
refusal appoints Jay, 177 ; fears
that England intends war, 178; de-
termines to be prepared, 178; urges
upon Jay the absolute necessity of
England's giving up Western posts,

dissatisfied with Jay treaty
but willing to sign it, 184; in doubt
as to meaning of conditional ratifi-
cation, 184; protests against Eng
lish “provision order" and refuses
signature, 185; meets uproar against
treaty alone, 188; determines to
sign, 189; answers resolutions of
Boston town meeting, 190 ; refuses
to abandon his judgment to popular
outcry, 190 ; distinguishes tempo
rary from permanent feeling, 191 ;
fears effect of excitement upon
French government, 192; his view
of dangers of situation, 193, 194 ;
recalled to Philadelphia by cabinet,
195; receives intercepted corre-
spondence of Fauchet, 195, 196 ; his
course of action already determined,
197, 198; not influenced by the
Fauchet letter, 198; evidence of
this, 199, 200; reasons for ratifying
before showing letter to Randolph,
199, 200 ; signs treaty, 201 ; evidence
that he did not sacrifice Randolph,
201, 202; fairness of his action,
203; refuses to reply to Randolph's
attack, 204; reasons for signing
treaty, 205 ; justified in course of
time, 206 ; refuses on constitutional
grounds the call of representatives
for documents, 208; insists on in-
dependence of treaty-making by
executive and Senate, 209; over-
comes hostile majority in House,
210; wishes Madison to succeed
Morris at Paris, 211 ; appoints Mon-
roe, 216; his mistake in not ap-
pointing a political supporter, 212;
disgusted at Monroe's behavior,
213, 214; recalls Monroe and ap-
points C. C. Pinckney, 214; an-
gered at French policy, 214 ; his
contempt for Monroe's self-justifi-
cation, 215, 216 ; review of foreign
policy, 216-219; his guiding princi.

222;

ple national independence, 216 ; and
abstention from European politics,
217; desires peace and time for
growth, 217, 218; wishes develop-
ment of the West, 218, 219; wis-
dom of his policy, 219; considers
parties dangerous, 220; but chooses
cabinet from Federalists, 220 ; pre-
pared to undergo criticism, 221 ;
willingness to bear it, 221 ; desires
to learn public feeling, by travels,
221, 222; feels that body of people
will support national government,

sees and deplores sectional
feelings in the South, 222, 223; ob-
jects to utterances of newspapers,
223 ; attacked by “National Ga-
zette," 227 ; receives attacks on
Hamilton from Jefferson and his
friends, 228, 229; sends charges to
Hamilton, 229; made anxious by
signs of party division, 229; urges
both Hamilton and Jefferson to
cease quarrel, 230, 231; dreads an
open division in cabinet, 232; de-
sirous to rule without party, 233;
accomplishes feat of keeping both
secretaries in cabinet, 233 ; keeps
confidence in Hamilton, 234 ; urged
by all parties to accept presidency
again, 235; willing to be reëlected,
235; pleased at unanimous vote,
235; his early immunity from at-
tacks, 237 ; later attacked by Fre-
neau and Bache, 238; regards op-
position as dangerous to country,
239; asserts his intention to disre-
gard them, 240; his success in
Genet affair, 241; disgusted at
“democratic " societies, 242; thinks
they fomented Whiskey Rebellion,
242; denounces them to Congress,
243; effect of his remarks, 244 ;
accused of tyranny after Jay
treaty, 244 ; of embezzlement, 245 ;
of aristocracy, 245 ; realizes that
he must compose cabinet of sym-
pathizers, 246 ; reconstructs it, 246 ;
states determination to govern by
party, 247 ; slig? by House, 247;
refuses a third term, 248 ; publishes
Farewell Address, 248 ; his justifi.
cation for so doing, 248; his wise

advice, 249; address attacked by
Democrats, 250, 251; assailed in
Congress by Giles, 251; resents
charge of being a British sympa-
thizer, 252 ; his scrupulously fair
conduct toward France, 253 ; his
resentment at English policy, 254 ;
his retirement celebrated by the
opposition, 255; remarks of the
“Aurora,” 256; forged letters of
British circulated, 257 ; he repudi-
ates them, 257 ; his view of opposi-
tion, 259.

In Retirement. Regards Adams's
administration as continuation of
his own, 259; understands Jeffer-
son's attitude, 259; wishes generals
of provisional army to be Fede-
ralist, 260; doubts fidelity of oppo-
sition as soldiers, 260 ; dreads their
poisoning mind of army, 261 ; his
condemnation of Democrats, 261,
262 ; snubs Dr. Logan for assum-
ing an unofficial mission to France,
263-265; alarmed at Virginia and
Kentucky resolutions, 266; urges
Henry to oppose Virginia resolu-
tions, 267 ; condemns the French
party as unpatriotic, 267 ; refuses
request to stand again for presi-
dency, 269; comments on partisan-
ship of Democrats, 269; believes
that he would be no better candi-
date than any other Federalist, 270,
271 ; error of statement that Wash-
ington was not a party man, 271,
272; slow to relinquish non-parti-
san position, 272; not the man to
shrink from declaring his position,
273; becomes a member of Feder-
alist party, 273, 274; eager for end
of term of office, 275; his farewell
dinner, 275; at Adams's inaugura-
tion, 276 ; popular enthusiasm at
Philadelphia, 276; at Baltimore,
277 ; returns to Mt. Vernon, 279;
describes his farm life, 278, 279;
burdened by necessities of hospital-
ity, 280; account of his meeting
with Bernard, 281-283 ; continued
interest in politics, 284; accepts
command of provisional army, 285;
selects Hamilton, Pinckney, and

Knox as major-generals, 286; sur-
prised at Adams's objection to
Hamilton, 286 ; rebukes Adams for
altering order of rank of generals,
286, 287 ; not influenced by in-
trigue, 287; annoyed by Adams's
conduct, 288 ; tries to soothe Knox's
irritation, 289; fails to pacify him,
289; carries out organization of
army, 290 ; does not expect actual
war, 291 ; disapproves of Gerry's
conduct, 292; disapproves of Ad-
Ams's nomination of Vans Murray,
292; his dread of French Revolu-
tion, 295; distrusts Adams's at-
tempts at peace, 296 ; approves
Alien and Sedition laws, 296 ; his
defense of them, 297 ; distressed by
dissensions among Federalists, 298 ;
predicts their defeat, 298 ; his sud-
den illness, 299-302; death, 303.

Character, 304-395 ; misunder-
stood, 304 ; extravagantly praised,
304 ; disliked on account of being
called faultless, 305 ; bitterly at-
tacked in lifetime, 306 ; sneered at by
Jefferson, 306; by Pickering, 307;
called an Englishman, not an Ameri-
can, 307, 308; difference of his type
from that of Lincoln, 310; none the
less American, 311, 312; compared
with Hampden, 312; bis manners
those of the times elsewhere in
America, 314; aristocratic, but of a
non-English type, 314-316; less
affected by Southern limitations
than his neighbors, 316 ; early dis-
like of New England changed to
respect, 316, 317; friendly with
people of humble origin, 317, 318;
never an enemy of democracy,
318; but opposes French excesses,
318; his self-directed and Amer-
ican training, 319, 320 ; early con-
ception of a nation, 321 ; works
toward national government dur-
ing Revolution, 321 ; his interest in
Western expansion, 321, 322; na-

tional character of his Indian pol-
? icy, 322; of his desire to secure free

Mississippi navigation, 322; of his
opposition to war as a danger to
Union, 323 ; his anger at accusa-

tion of foreign subservience, 323;
continually asserts necessity for
independent American policy, 324,
325; opposes foreign educational
influences, 325, 326; favors founda-
tion of a national university, 326 ;
breadth and strength of his national
feeling, 327 ; absence of boastful.
ness about country, 328 ; faith in it,
328; charge that he was merely a
figure-head, 329 ; its injustice, 330;
charged with commonplaceness of
intellect, 330; incident of the death-
bed explained, 330, 331; falsity of
the charge, 331 ; inability of mere
moral qualities to achieve what he
did, 331 ; charged with dullness
and coldness, 332; his seriousness,
333; responsibility from early youth,
333; his habits of keen observation,
333; power of judging men, 334; abil.
ity to use them for what they were
worth, 335; anecdote of advice to
Hamilton and Meade, 335; deceived
only by Arnold, 336; imperfect
education, 337 ; continual efforts to
improve it, 337, 338; modest re-
garding his literary ability, 339,
340; interested in education, 339 ;
character of his writing, 340 ; tastes
in reading, 341 ; modest but effect
ive in conversation, 342; his manner
and interest described by Bernard,
343-347 ; attractiveness of the pic-
ture, 347, 348; his pleasure in soci-
ety, 348 ; power of paying compli-
ments, letter to Mrs. Stockton, 349;
to Charles Thompson, 350; to De
Chastellux, 351 ; his warmth of
heart, 352; extreme exactness in
pecuniary matters, 352; illustrative
anecdotes, 353, 354 ; favorable opin-
ion of teller of anecdotes, 356;
stern towards dishonesty or cow-
ardice, 357 ; treatment of André
and Asgill, 357, 358; sensitive to
human suffering, 357, 358; kind and
courteous to poor, 359; conversa-
tion with Cleaveland, 359; sense of
dignity in public office, 360; hospi.
tality at Mt. Vernon, 360, 361 ; his
intimate friendships, 361,362; rela-
tions with Hamilton, Knox, Mason,

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