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be encroaching on the valuable pages of mind, but by the judicious arrangement this literary Journal, were I to offer a de- of its several parts and cadences, the ear tailed account of the opinions of the vari. is prepared to accompany it through all ous authors who have written, by way of the variety of connecting notes and introduction to the subject which forms pauses, so the delivery of a well-conin part of the present series of Essays. The ceived oration will not only move and student will be sufficiently interested to affect the passions, but, by due obserprocced in the cultivation and improvee vance of inflexion, will better enable the ment-of his vernacular tongue, after a understanding to draw, from the progrescareful perusal of the valuable philologi. sive classification of qualifying thoughts, cal essays of Mr. Horne Tooke on the the suitable deduction. To this may be one hand, and the scientific speculations added, that if the artificial progress of of the late Mr. Thomas Sheridan on the sound lead us to expect the approaching other: disquisitions réplete with versa. cadence and final close in musical contility of proof, and fecundity of observa. position, how much must an equal artion. That the language of Great Bri- rangement of voice, as applied to speak. taiu tends to the promulgation of know- ing, be promoted by the mental assist. ledge, the advance of science, and the ance of words, in pointing out the proregulation of commerce, more than any gressional advance of thought in the other living language on the globe, is a protasis and apodosis of comparative fact not easily to be controverted; and phraseology. The student will iake ces we may dare venture to affirm, that what tice from this (as well as from what I was anticipated by Mr. Sheridan in his have already had occasion to advance, * British Education," in favor of the Eng- vol. 29, p. 38), that two of the most strik. lish language, has since been exempli. ing beauties in an oration, are gradational fied in the libraries of the Universities, variety of language on the one branch, and institutions of the kingdom, and is and correspondent suspension of voice now adequately authenticated in the vo- on the other. But, to unders and thocabularies of the present enlightened age. roughly the perfection of the WHOLE, it
We have already had occasion to ex- will be requisite first to perceive the plain, in as concise a form as was in our beanty of a part. We may be already power, the instrument of sound, and its aware, that in simple analogou.compact adjacent organs of speech; and have also sentences, the noun or substantire, and attempted to elucidate, by a philoso. its qualifying word or words, which fra phical analysis, the various modifications the subject of a proposition, and the verb of the human voice, dependent and inde. with its modificanons and object, are pendent of articulation, of which it is presented in the uniform manner in known to be susceptive. It remains for which it may be supposed they first us next to observe, and then to prove by occurred to the mind. As therefore the apposite exposition, that the tones of noun or subject, and the verb or active, voice, instituted by a uniform theory of with the object to which it refers, are inflexion, are to a certain degree modi- modified by every other word in a serfied by the passions or emotions of the tence, we may with the greatest promind. The mind, to a speaker, is the priety call these parts of speech, with 16 godlike spring of action." The anx. their several qualifications and modificaiety of man, when communicating his tions, the two capital divisions of a sinideas, is excited or appeased in propor. ple analogous compact sentence. «A tion as he may fancy the picture of them man seldom detecis a pleasing error." to be more or less adequately conveyed. We discover that the example placed This is most peculiarly discernible in that within the signs of quotation, conspecies of discourse called the argumen- veys to the mind but one complete tative; and, by the oratorical adaptation thought or idea. In the pronunciation of voice in the delivery of the syllogism, of such passages, we may have taken independent of the other operations of notice, that, according to the general the art of reasoning, are we enabled to principle of inflexion aid down in a discover this predominant character of preceding essay, suspension, or the turn expression. The law of association be- of voice which signifies incompletion, teen expression and SOUND, is also iin- discovers itself most particularly at the wotable: and, as a fanciful display of nominative case : the slide of voice which hiusical modulation, upassisted by artis intimates completion, appears the most Cated voices, will not only occasion, at discernible at the accusative, or object. slated intervals, certain emotions in the From this may be deduced, that the two
Capital divisions of an idea, whether sim- may be altered or improved; so, by the ple or complex, are marked with pro- study and practice of elocution, do we portionate distinction of sound in the perceive that though words, indepenpronunciation; the one wherein the train dent of each other, convey only certain of thought is partly discoverable, the limited ideas, by adunation their signifie other wherein the idea is perfectly known. cation may be either restrained or enIf the example above quoted be altered larged. The union of words conveys to thus, “ A man never detects a pleasing the student the true nature of accented error," the logical deduction of ihe pro- inflexion: the inost significant of the position appears false or doubtful; and words which are united, adopts the ac. the qualifying clause, “ 'till reflexion centuation; but the sounds of inflexion operates," is requisite to be added, that are governed by the progress, or comthe thought may be rendered just and pletion, of the sense. true. By this single instance, it must “Let us proceed then by recollection." appear evident to the most negligent ob. In the above sentence there are but two server, how close is the connexion be accents; and this at once illustrates the tween sense and sound, when, while adunation upon which we are now com. pronouncing the passage, the modifica- menting. The separate meanings of the tion of voice signifying completion on four first and the two last words, are the word “ error," as in the first instance, modified into distinct classes; the former, would entirely destroy the thought. The in point of accentuation and inflexion, student will perceive, that the distinction may with accuracy be termed a word of spoken of, will shift from the first nomi. five syllables; and the latter, a word of native to the division of clauses. “Aman six syllables : consequently, there can be
only two accents in the sentence. The
one indicates that the sense is to be conbever detects a pleasing error
tinued, the other that it is finished. This
pronunciation of the sentence appears to till reflexion operates."
agree with the general meaning deduced Every word of more than one syllable,
from the construction of its parts; but if, individually pronounced, is accompanied by the context, there be an opposition with a peculiar stress, called accentu implied, and some more of its words ation. If the accent be placed after the are intended to convey particular mean. first syllable of a word, each single word ings, they must be introduced to the ear exemplifies the two inflexions of voice, with suitable force of utterance. This altering at the “accentuation.” If we
change of stress, however, does not at all advert to the pronunciation of the forego
affect the general principle of adunation; ing example, we shall find that it natu
for, certain single words, forming distinct rally adopts first the rising, and then classes of themselves, are liable to the the falling, inflexion.
same alteration of accent, when placed in the manner of contradistinction. This
additional stress on words, is termed " Accentu - ātion,
EMPHASIS: but, as we have not yet tho
roughly defined the more subordinate But if the same word,
class of accented inflexion, we will dismiss for the present the subject of contrariety.
33, Bedford-street, Covent Garden. Accentuation
For the Monthly Magazine. be made the subject of a verb, the ac
ON COUNTRY BANKS. sented vowel as naturally adopts a diffe. AND pray, sir, (said I,) what do yout rent inflexion; the modifications of voice, A think of the odium lately thrown therefore, are determined by the propor- upon country bankers? tions which they bear to the beginning Why, (said he,) it is ungenerous, and I or conclusion of the period. * As our think, in many respects, unfounded. senses convince us that certain bodies, But do you not, (I observed,) consider used separately, are only of comparative such an overflow of paper-currency as utility, but, by admixture, their efficacy bighly dangerous ?
• Independent of the sontrary figures of Sounds as to high and low; indexion rising haboris
BE By no means. The increased trade of off the charge (as to their raising the the country requires it.
markets) from the latter, but leaves the But would not Bank of England notes poorer bankers to shift for themselves, be a much belier substitute?
Now, I contend, that a note issued by a Perhaps, (said he,) they inight; but the house not worth 30,0001. no more condemand for their sipall notes has of late tributes to advance the necessary articles years increased so much, that they have of life, than a similar bit of paper issued been under the necessity of re-issuing by a firm worth 300,000!. them; and their concerns are already so As home-made money “ rag's," are not extensive, I presume, they are not desi- scarce articles in this district, I suppose, rous of more work. To degrade a re- (said I, that those of the Lordon fabric spectable body of inen, on account of the will not be much in circulation? misfortunes or indiscretions of a few No, sir, the people here, in general, individuals, is vile. It is ungenerous. prefer the produce of their own country.
Then you imagine, (said I,) that pro. The good people in Lancashire admire, vincial notes do not raise the markets, like the cockneys, the old lady in Thread so as to oppress the poor?
needle.street; but, in this county, the Why, sir, (he replied,) you might as men love her 'pretty-faced cousins far well argue that our good roads raise the better, though not quite so wealtby. prices ot food and raiment. What would And the reason is obvious_Not one man you think of a man who should say, in a hundred dares trust his own eyes “ The multiplicity and fineness of our wben he sees one of these Londoners. roads will ruin us! They facilitate trade He knows not whether it is really herself,
the farmer can carry his goods to mar- or merely her shadow ; or some base ket from remote places he can give born bantling, pretending alliance to more rent-he raises the produce of his Harry Hase, esq. and yet no more a-lin land--the markets advance-()! this na- than you are; pretending to be what tion will be ruined by the goodness of she is not; tempting him, by her good its roads! Besides, smooth roads tempt words and specious appearance, to take people from home-they set off in finisy her, and be hanged. But the pretty whirligius, like Don Quixotte, in search creatures, born and bred in this our of adventures, and drive like Jeliu till neighbourhood, he knows and loves. they break their necks!” Just so our Their features ase not easily counterfeited. alarınists cry out, “ This provincial trash Of all paper currency (be added), na facilitates commerce-encourages the spe- doubt, Bank of England is the best; and culator--enables the farmer and fore. the next to it, bills of exchange, because stalter to raise the niarketthey grow they can be negotiated to all parts, and rich--they dash off in great style; till the security increasing with the endorsers. some of them, in a monient unlooked for, Now let me ask you one question, meet with a rugged place, over which Where one pound has been lost by they cannot steer, and down they fall !" couvtry-notes, do you not suppose one But waving this nonsense : Did you ever hundred has been lost by bills of exknow a poor man pay one farthing more change? Yet it would be very old-wifish for any necessary article of life, because to say, “I have lost so much by bad of his offering in payment a provincial bills, I'll take no more." note? Would it not be thought a niost Bills drawn by needy men, and by impertinent question if any retail trades. swindlers, are very mumerous, and very man was to ask his customer, " Pray, sir, troublesome, but this does not prove the what kind of stuff do you intend to pay system (so abused) is bad. Can you me with?" No doubt some would reply, find a bank, where the establishment • Do you suspect me of putting off bad was ineant to deceive the public? Their notes ?" And, supposing a person should failures, in general, arise from their libee pay a trifle nuore for this reason, though rality to those whom they considered unknown to blinself), would he not, on their best friends and customers. The discovery, think this an imposition, and merchant sends too many goods to a bad say, “I took the note as cashi, and will market. At the sear's end, the mandpav it as such, or return it." I wonder facturer must be paid-ihe merchant that a respectable banker, in a late pub- borrows of his banker, depositing the lic sperch, should make such a distince best security he can fresh claims come tion as he does betwixt what is called no reinittances-lie again flies to his shubby and respectable notes. He wards bankers, who, to save a valuable house
frotas from ruin, advance more than they ought. mise to pay," from all countries, to be Instead of cargoes arriving, failures are compared with the bother he formerly announced. Bills as security, consi- had in weighing light guineas. In short, dered last week perfectly good, prove I am persuaded, that thousands of tradesbad. Loss upon loss involves the mer- men who now are well thought of, owe chant, the banker, the manufacturer, their success chiefly to the country the shop-keeper, the journeyman, all in banks. one chain of poverty and distress! Do you imagine, (says 1,) that govern.
I allow, (says he,) that bankers ought ment are hostile to them, as report would not to risk other people's property in fain persuade us ? What! treat their trade, upon any account, nor assist good friends like a culprit! No; they blame-worthy speculators.
know hetter than put hand-cuffs upon But, (I remarked,) are not banks now cominerce. Do noi they love those who too numerous ?
pay them money? It is natural-it is It may be so; but remember, (said grateful. Let us just calculate the good he,) the greater their number, the greater stuff these paper vendors consuine. Put the competition, and of course the pub- down 600 in Great Britain, and say each hic obtain better terms. Besides, the has 25,0001. a-travelling from house to circulation of their notes becomes more house. For this privilege, every one confined, and the risk to the country pound pays four-pence, and every five proportionally diminished. As they pounds one shilling. Estimate the former inaltiply, trade increases. It is asserted, at 50001. and the latter at 20,0004, upon very good authority, that when or 4000 at 1s. and we raise about banks were first established in Glasgow, 170,000l, and the larger of these must be its trade was doubled in fifteen years! repeated every three yenrs. Besides, (Encycl. Perthensis.)
every new bank must take out for this We bear much, (he continued,) of the purpose an annual license of 201. for mischief which hankers have done, and themselves, and every agent. Is this it is odd, very odd, that no friend can money of no consequence to the revenue ? open his mouth, or lift up his pen, to tell But calculate ayain : reckon that 700 the good they have done. What must banks draw bills of exchange every day, become of the country manufacturer upon an average, fifty, and as they are when he receives a large bill from his from one shilling and sixpence to ten agent, if he could not get it discounted shillings, place them all down as if drawn into provincial notes? The Bank of on three shilling stamps, and see what is England knows nothing of him. They the expence in one year, allowing fifty. cannot supply every body. He cannot five holidays ?--Auswer 1,627,5001.! Is pay wages with it. All his machinery this of no importance in the national ex. must therefore stand still, and all his hands be turned off a-begging, unless he Kirby Londsdale,
W. can get the needful at the neighbouring October 19, 1810.
K. - Le bank, to oil his wheels. Ask the people
W. of any market-town, if they would not ra. ther have a bank. Ask the retail trades. For the Monthly Magazine. man how it fares with him. Formerly REMARKS on a plan for ABOLISHING he kept his receipts accumulating till the
POOR'S-RATES. manufacturer came, and after all, per. UITHOEVER has the good of his laps, fell shori-welt a-dunning-orV Y country at heart, ought to reborrowing, and of course, a-sorrowing. member, that it is not suicient to be Or perhaps a dishonoured bill bounced apprehensive of danger from foreign in upon him, like a Philistine, with an enemies and mal.contents at home: no arrest tagged to the tail of it. Where less caution is requisite to watch the could he raise the good stuff, when no conduct of those to whoni no suspicion body made any? The nakedness of his can attach, but who, in the heat of their business was exposed. Now he can de. zcal to do some great good, may, through posit his receipts at the bank, and receive error of judgment, do some great evil." four or five per cent. interest. He dreads He only is worthy to be styled an able neither manufacturer nor protest; he can politician, who possesses foresight to dis. at the “paper-office" be supplied in a cern both the immediate and the most minute. Nor is the plague of “I pro. reinote consegucices which may ensue from the plans he devises. Regular me- such good fortune fall to the learned prgdical men are aware, that by hastily fessions in rotation, and the sons of healing a diseased limb, they may en- Esculapius become priine ministers, se. danger the whole body; but an empiric cretaries, &c. it may seriously be apprewill apply his nostrunis to procure an bended that on this favourite principle apparent soundness at the hazard of the of legislation, the wbole nation might be patient's life.
put on a spare diet. As “the knowledge of the danger of If the legislating doctors pronounce letting off projects" is not sufficient to that one ounce and a haif of meat, half deter men, any more than the know- a glass of wine, very little bread, and but ledge of the danger of playing with gun- a small measure of water, are, in legis, powder prevents boys, from letting off lative wisdom, for the people's own goud: squibs and crackers: the project has “ the principle of legislation is to compel been let ott': I therefore beg permission them to consult it." I should entertain to point out the futility of the plan, and no apprehensions under the present conthe unsoundness of the reasoning em- stitution of British government; but ployed to support it.
the wurd compel alarmis me. What do • Or the practicability of abolishing we witness-a plan already brought for. the poor's-rates.”—The subject bespeaks ward to act on a system of tyrannic rio. attention; all who feel the burden of them lence. If the subjects give an example rejoice at such a discovery; they who of their disposition to arbitrary measures, never reflected on the state of the poor the fabric of British liberty will be so uobecome inquisitive; even avarice finds dermined, that any lawless friend in the it may step forward to promote the de- capacity of a premier, will be able to sign of such benevolence without dimin effect its overthrow. nishing its hoards. In a description of Aumit all the advantages that can be certain persons nearly two thousand allowed to benefit-clubs, (much depends years ago, it was said, "they bind heavy on their regulations), the proposed di. burdens, and grievous to be borne, and rection of the principle of legislation is to lay them on men's shoulders, but they compel all those who might possibly be. themselves will not move them with one come paupers to enter themselves as of their fingers." Persons of such dis. members of those associations: the propositions will perceive that, on Mr. Fos- position tends to introduce a vexatious brooke's plan, they may be generous, interference with private conduct, sube yet give nothing; lay clain to gratitude versive of that manly spirit of indepen. without deserving it; and prove the in• dence which has exalted the name of struments of promoting human happi- Briton, and will ever prove the best sale ness, by depriving men of their rights, guard against the invasion of a foreign and the characteristic of their nature enemy, or the usurpation of a domestic as intelligent beings.
tyrant. “The principle of legislation is to compel . The opulent landholder is to give pien to consult what is in fact their own notiee, that is, to command his tenants to good." It appears a curious coincidence, employ no one who has not enrolled himthat the Rev. T, D, Fosbrooke's plan, self in the benetit society. The manuand Buonaparte's decree respecting sere facturer is to refuse employinent to any varts, were communicated at the same workman who is not so registered. Day time. The reverend gentleman and the labourers, unmarried men, and servantFrench einperor, differ only as plants of maids, are by the same detestable prin the sanie species, reared in different ciple, to be “ coinpelled to seek their soils; they determine for others wherein own good." Shallow policy! Who does man's own good consists, and then act not perceive that whilst men breathe the on the principle of legislation to compel air of liberty, they will spura at such a them to consult it. It matters not by proposition Suppose them to be dise whom the proposed plan is brought for- inissed from service, for instance, in Mr. ward; it is French policy in an English Fosbrooke's own parish, they will be disguise: the object is delusive, the plau compelled to consult their own good, by sibility deceptive, and the means pro- removal to another: will he also legis. posed, irrational and degrading.
late to compel them to leave their knowThe present administration is remark- ledge of the manufacture, &c. behind able lor the oumber of lawyers which it Suppose the plan partially adopted, it D is associated in offices of state. Should would drive manufacturers, labourers,