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Staff: At least those who were concerned in the Negotiation thought so. Henry the Emperor was ready to renounce this form of Investiture, provided it inight not prejudice his Prerogative; and that the Bishops and Abbots should hold their Feuds and Royalties of him, and take the Oaths of Allegiance to him, and pay him all those Dues to which they were obliged, by virtue of the Estates which they Possessed. But the Pope altogether insisted upon a general Prohibition of receiving any manner of Investiture or Ecclesiastical Benéfice from Laicks; to which neither the Emperor or any other Princes would consent. For the Princés pretended to these Three things, (1.) That no Election of Bishops or Abbots ought to be made without their consent. (2) That the Person Elected ought to receive Investiture from them with the Pastoral Rod and Ring, before he should be Consecrated. (3) That he should be oblig'd to take an Oath of Fealty to them and do them Homage for all his Feuds and Royalties which were dependent on them. ' At last therefore after much canyassing and disputing they came to this accommodation, whereby it was granted to the Emperor and German Princes, (1) That the Election of the Bishops and Abbots should be made in their presence, and consequently by their consent. (2) That in Germany the Bishop Elect should be, Invested with the Royalties, (that is all the Estates holden of the Crown) by the Scepter before his 'Confecration. (3) It preferves to them all the Dues and Services to which the Bishops were obliged, by virtue of their Feuds. So that all the alteration it made to the ancient Custom of Princes consisted,


(1) In

ad ditolart thes which

(1) In that it took away the Ceremony of Investițure by the Pastoral 'Rod and Ring. (2) That it restrained the Ceremony precisely to the Royalties, and such Feuds as the Bishops held of the Crown. (3) That it permitted the "Consecration of Bishops out of Germany, before they received Investiture, yet upon condition that they should receive it within Six Months after.' This accommodation was made about the Year 1120.

I do not find that there was any great Controversie upon this Subject, either in France or Spain : The Pope found Work enough about this matter in Germany and England. However, it seems all Princes did in some Measure conform themselves to this Agreement between Calixtus IĮ. and Henry V. And left off the Ceremony of Investiture by the Ring and Staff, tho' they still continu'd to nominate or at least to recommend whom they thought fit to be elected to Bishopricks: For after all they parted with little of their prerogative, but only with a Form or Ceremony not very material. Indeed the Pope by this means did so order the matter as to make himself a Judge of the validity of Elections, and has thereby often imposed upon weak “Princes, and endeavoured to draw all Bishopricks and great Abbeys into his own 'Patronage ; but he could never effect his Design as he would do. And tho’Princes have since this Accommodation suffer'd the Chapters to Elect'; yet it has been generally such Persons as they have nominated or recommended to 'em, and Elections have been little more than matter of Form.

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Of the Contests about Investitures in

CNgland no less than Germany had very sharp

Contests with the Pope about Investitures. This was first begun between King William Rufus and Anselm Archbishop of Canterbury, who for his Zeal to the See of Rome was afterwards Sainted. This Anselm was the Son of Gundulphus and Hermerberga, a Lombard by Birth, as * Radulphus de Diceto informs us, . Deci Script. p. and born at Aosta or Augusta on the Alps. 493. Having been bred up in Learning, he passed the Alps into France, and going into Normandy, he remained with Lanfranc Prior of tne Abbey of Bec, and Governour of the Publick Schools under the Abbot of Harlewin, who was the † Ipid. p. 2330, Founder of the Monastery, and from a Soldier,

a li 1.44. became the first Abbot there. Lanfranc being first made Abbot of Caen, and after that Archbishop of Canterbury left Anselm his Successor in the Priory of Bec: And soon after, by the Consent of the Abbot Harlewin he was made Abbot of the same House. About Four Years after the Death of Lanfranc, William II. , who (according to his usual Custom with Bishopricks) had so long kept this See vacant, being taken very ill, and (as it was thought, not likely to recover, was at last perswaded to nominate an Archbishop to the See of Canterbury. No Person was thought so fit for that high Station as Abbot Anselm of Normandy, at that time mightily famed for his Extraordina

• Eadmer. Hift. ry Piety. * He was very unwillingly brought Nov.p. 170

into England: And being by the King and Lords very much pressed to accept the Archbishoprick, he stify refused it, and would by no means be brought to take the Pastoral Staff. However the Bishops and other Lords which were present, drew him by Force to the King's Bed-side, and because he shut his Hand that the Staff might not be put into it, they held the Staff close to his Hand, and declared him Invested, and so carried him away to the next Church to perform the accustomed Ceremonies. Being out of the King's Presence, he turned to the Bishops and told them, - That

they knew not what they did, to joyn a weåk

Sheep Emeaning himself] in the Yoke with cá wild Bull (meaning the King 7. by which < means the Church-plow could never go well. Notwithstanding (after a great Contest with the King, who having foon recovered his Ilness, forgot the good Designs and Promises of his Sickness, endeavouring to annex the greatest part of the Temporalties of that See to the Crown, but Anfelm would have 'em restored entire) he was at last Confecrated at Canterbury, Dec. 3. A. D. 1093. All the Bishops of England being present, except Worcester and Exeter, who were detained by Sickness. After his Cónfecration he returned to Court, and was kindly received and entertained by the King and Nobility. .

But the King at that time endeavouring to take the Dutchy of Northandy from his Brother Robert, raised Money for that Purpose by all the Means be could contriye. Anselm, by the Advice of some of his Friends, made him an offer of Five Hundred Pounds towards this


Expedition : But this was rejected with Scorn, and a Thousand Pounds demanded, which Anfelm refused to give. Hereby he first fell under the King's Displeasure, and Petitioning to go to Rome, to receive his Pall from Pope Urbane, he was denied.: * The King alledging Mat, Paris, o that no Archbishop or Bishop of this Realm 19. should be Subject to the Court of Rome, or to the Pope. Anselm was hereupon Charged with High-Treason, and all the Bishops of England except Gündulphus of Rochester refused to pay him Canonical Obedience. The King also declared that he would not acknowledge Vrbane for Pope. : . But in a few Days after this, Walter Bishop of Albany brought Anselm the Pall, and did also reconcile the King to Orbane. Anfelm having received the Pall again desired Leave to Rome : At last the King told him he might go if he pleased, but he must never hope to return to England. Soon after the Archbishop embarked at Dover and went to Rome where he was exceedingly caressed by

Urbane, of who honoured him with the Title + Dec. Scripto home of Alterius Orbis Papa. ini . “ Po 1327. 62.* Then in a Council held at Rome, by his . Mat. Par. po

Advice it was decreed that Such Laicks as afrer 19. o!" 10), the ancient Manner should confer Churches by In

veftitures, and those who should receive them from lely Laicks, should be excommunicated. ' " ! vom i of Upon the Death of William and Succef- + Mat. Par. p. $8.

fion of Henry I. to the Crown, Anselm was

called home. An. 1102. He assembled à Coun250 cil in St. Paul's Church London, about Michael

mas, at which the King himself was present.

Here in a plain Discourse, he acquainted the fel King with the Decree of the General Council MAC, at Rome, concerning Investitures : How that

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