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of the Contests about Investitures in


Ngland no less than Germany had very sharp

. This was first begun between King William Rufus and Anselm Archbishop of Canterbury, who for his Zeal to the See of Rome was afterwards Sainted. This Anselm was the Son of Gundulphus and Hermerberga , a Lombard by Birth, as * Radulphus de Diceto informs us, • Deci Script.p. and born at Aofta or Augusta on the Alps. 493. Having been bred up in Learning, he passed the Alps into France, and going into Normandy, he remained with Lanfranc Prior of tne Abbey of Bec, and Governour of the Publick Schools under the Abbot of Harlewin, who was the † Ipid. p. 2330. Founder of the Monastery, and from a Soldier, became the first Abbot there. Lanfranc being first made Abbot of Caen, and after that Archbishop of Canterbury left Anselm his Successor in the Priory of Bec: And soon after, by the Consent of the Abbot Harleroin he was made Abbot of the same House. About Four Years after the Death of Lanfranc, William II. who (according to his usual Custom with Bishopricks) had so long kept this See vacant, being taken very ill, and (as it was thought, not likely to recover, was at last perswaded to nominate an Archbishop to the See of Canterbury. No Person was thought fo fit for that high Station as Abbot Anselm of Normandy; at that time mightily famed for his Extraordina



Nov. p. 170

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• Eadmer. Hift. ry Piety. * He was very unwillingly brought

into England: And being by the King and Lords very much pressed to accept the Archbishoprick, he stify refused it, and would by no means be brought to take the Pastoral Staf. However the Bishops and other Lords which were present, drew him by Force to the King's Bed-lide, and because he shut his Hand that the Staff might not be put into it, they held the Staff close to his Hand, 'and declared him Invested, and so carried him away to the next Church to perform the accustomed Ceremonies. Being out of the King's Presence, he turned to the Bishops and told them, “That

they knew not what they did, to joyn a weak Sheep Emeaning himfelf] in the Yoke with á wild Bull (meaning the King ] by which means the Church-plow could never go well. Notwithstanding (after a great Contest with the King, who having soon recovered his illness, forgot the good Designs and Promises of his Sickness, endeavouring

to annex the greatest Part of the Temporalties of that See to the Crown, but Anselm would have 'em restored entire) he was at last Confecrated at Canterbury

, Dec. 3. A. D. 1093. All the Bishops of Eng

. land being present, except Worcester and Extter, who were detained by Sickness. After his Confecration he returned to Court, and was kindly received and entertained by the King and Nobility.

But the King at that time endeavouring to take the Dutchy of Normandy from his Brother Robert, raifed Money for that Purpose by all the Means be could contrive. Anfelm, by the Advice of some of his Friends, made him an offer of Five Hundred Pounds towards this

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Expedition : But this was rejected with Scorn, and a Thousand Pounds demanded, which Anfelm refused to give. Hereby he first fell under the King's Displeasure, and Petitioning to go to Rome, to receive his Pall from Pope Urbane, he was denied. . * The King alledging. Mat. Paris. po that no Archbishop or Bishop of this Realm 19. should be Subject to the Court of Rome, or to

Anselm was hereupon Charged with High-Treason, and all the Bishops of Engl'and except Gundulphus of Rochester refused to pay him Canonical Obedience. The King also declared that he would not acknowledge Vrbane for Pope. But in a few Days after this, Walter Bishop of Albany brought Anselm the Pall, and did also reconcile the King to Urbane. Anfelm having received the Pall again desired Leave to Rome At last the King told him he might go if he pleased, but he must never hope to return to England. Soon after the Archbishop embarked at Dover and went to Rome where he was exceedingly caressed by Urbane, of who honoured him with the Title + Dec. Scripto of Alterius Orbis Papa.

* Then in a Council held at Rome, by his • Mat. Par. po Advice it was decreed that Such Laicks as after 19. the ancient Manner should confer Churches by Inveftitures, and thoso who should receive them from Laicks, should be excommunicated.

of Upon the Death of William and Succes- + Mat. Par. p. 58. fion of Henry I. to the Crown, Anselm was called home. An. 1102. He assembled a Council in St. Paul's Church London, about Michaelmas, at which the King himself was present. Here in a plain Discourse, he acquainted the King with the Decree of the General Council at Rome, concerning Investitures : How that

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no Prelate of the Church, whether Bishop or Abbot, or other Clergy-man should receive Investiture of any Ecclefiaftical Dignity, from the Hands of a Layman. Hereupon the Archbishop also degraded some Abbots, who had obtained their Abbeys from Lay-men, by giving of Money. He also refused to consecrate Bishops, to whom the King had given Investitures, or to communicate with them. At which the King being angry, commanded Girard Archbishop of York to consecrate 'em : But William Giffard the Bishop Elect of Winchester despised the Consecration of Girard, for which the King banished him the Realm. And Reinelmus the Bishop of Hereford, because he had received his Investiture from the King, resigned his Biloprick to

The next Year, Anselm with the King's Leave, went to Rome and was received by Pope Paschal II. the Successor of Urbane. And upon the Day appointed for the Hearing this Matter, William of Warenast a Clergy-man, the King of England's Proctor, opened the Cause: And declared that The King his Master would as foon part with his Kingdom, as the Right of Investitures. And the Pope replied, that He would

not suffer him to retain 'em uncensured [impune] * Eadmer. Hit. tho it were to save his own Life. * However

the Pope by the Advice of his Council did forbear to send this Answer to the King in such harsh Terms, allowing him to enjoy some ancient Priviledges, but notwithstanding interdicted him the conferring Investitures to Churches, yet withal, declared him free for a time from the Excommunication, which he was supposed to have incurred by acting confrary to the Canons; Nevertheless, those


Nov. p. 73.

who had received Investitures from him were continued under that Censure 'till they had made Satisfaction for their Faults, and then Anselm was Empowered to absolve them. Then his Holiness wrote a Letter to the King, wherein after a great many Complements, he desires him to recal his Pastour and Father Anselm, and promises that If any thing was done Contrary to his Prerogative in the Matter of Investitures, he would moderate that Affair according to his Majesties Pleasure as far as the Law of God would permit him to do.

Anselm also wrote to the King his Master at the same time, and lets him know, that He had acquainted the Pope with his Cause; and that his Holiness said he could not but follow the steps of his Predecessours, and commanded him not to come municate with those who had received Investitures of Churches from his Majesty since their knowledge of this Prohibition, unless they reperited and quitted their Preferments without any Hopes of regaining them: Neither could he Communicate with any such, except they referred themselves to the Judgment of the Apoftolick See. After this he tells him, That He was told by William Warenast his Majesties Agent at Rome, that before he presumed to enter the Kingdom, he should promise to Suffer his Majesty to enjoy quietly those Customs which his Father and Brother had enjoyed before him. But desires to be excused in this Matter, for that he could not pay Homage to him, nor Communicate with those who received Investitures from him.

The King upon the Return of William and Receipt of these Letters, immediately Seized upon all the Temporalties of the Archbishoprick. Anselm the mean while staid at Lyons with Hugh the Bishop of that City. From


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