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Our Author begins the second Part, by shew. ing, that in antient Times the Kings, Princes, and well-regulated Common-wealths, had nothing, after Religion, so much at heart, as to render the High-ways both safe and agreeable to Travellers. Sémiramis is said to have been the first that took particular care of the Highways; and the Carthaginians the first that paved them. Diodorus Siculus * mentions a Bridge fix hundred and twenty five Feet long, and thirty broad, built by Semiramis over the Euphrates, for the Conveniency of Travellers'; and adds to that the famous Obelisk, which was counted a. mong the seven Wonders of the World, was erected by her as an Ornament to a Road she had made. Xerxes, if we give credit to the Greek Historians, levelled Mountains, filled up Valleys, and laid Bridges over Arms of the Sea, to shorten, and render more convenient the publick Roads. The Lacedemonians deemed it so honourable a thing, to be charged with the Care of the High-roads, that they allowed no body, excepting their Kings, to meddle with them 1. At Aibens, none but Men of the first Rank were employ'd to look after the Roads, provide the City with Water, and cause the , Streets to be kept clean. King Solomon took particular Care, as Josephus acquaints us S, of the High-ways; for he caused all the Roads leading to Hierufalem, to be paved with a beau.' tiful black Stone, and Chariots to be kept always ready, in the Cities that stood on the Road, for the greater Convenience of Travellers, &c.
In the second and third Chapters our Author treats of the Magiftrates who were charged with
Dd2 ... ; the : • Diodor. Sicul. Lib. 11. Bibl. c.8. * Id. ibid. c. xi. Herodotus Lib. vi. c. 57. $ Fofeph. Lib, viii. 6.7. AA
the Care of the High-ways, and Streets among · the Romans. It was the Office of the Censors to keep the High-ways in good repair ; and of the Ædiles Curules to look after the Streets. The Author Thews here, how punctual and exact these two Magiftrates were in the Discharge of their Duty. In the fourth Chapter he sets forth the Magnificence of the Romans, which in no other thing appeared greater, than in the vast Expences they were at to render the High-ways both convenient and agreeable. All the publick Roads' were drawn in a strait Line, and most beautifully paved with a square Stone. In Italy they were but thirty feet broad, having been made before Chariots were much in use, but in the Provinces, for che most part, three times broader.”: They were paved with such Art, and the Stones so closely joined together, that to this day, that is, after two thousand Years, in some Places, there is scarce room between them for the Edge of a Knife. Under the Pavement the Earth was dug up, as the Antiquaries have observed, and its room filled up with Gravel, to an extraordinary depth. This is what * Statius infinuates in the following Verses on the Domitian Way: in
- Hic primus labor inchoare sulco
Egestu penitus cavare terras,
Ne nutent fola, ne maligna sedes
Et presis dubium cubile saxis. The Distances from one Place to another were carefully measured, and each Mile marked on a so',
imian w primus. we limites are terraforas,
stase Lib. iv, syku. 3. v. 40.
Column set up for that purpose near the Road. These Columns were round or square, and about eight Feet high. These Columns were erected, says Quintilian telegantly, because exhausti laboris nosle mensuram volupiati eft, & hortatur ad reliqua fortius exsequenda scire, quantum fuperfit: nihil enim longum videri neceffe eft, in quo quid ultimum. fit, certum eft. Besides the Columns, there were on all the High-ways certain stone Steps, at small distances, for the Conveniency of mounting on horse-back. For the use of Stirrups was not introduced before the fourth Century of the Chriftian Æra. S. Hierome is the first that mentions them, saying, that certain Letters were delivered to him while he was on the point of departing, having already his Foot in the Stirrup to get up on horse-back; accepi litteras, cum jumentum confcenfurus jam pedem habui in Bistapia. The following Epitaph, found at Romne, wherein mention is made of Stirrups, * is by the Learned thought to be of the fourth Century: Dum virgunculæ Durmioniæ placere cuperem, casu defiliens equo, pes basit Stapia, tratus interii. In rem tuam mature propera, Vale. From the barbarous Word Stapia is, no doubt, derived the Italian word Staffa, signifying a Stirrup. The three remaining Chapters of the second part treat of the Quatuorviri, Duumviri, and other Magistrates, who had the In. spection of the High-ways in Italy, as well as in the foreign Acquisitions..?
: The Author begins the third Part, relating to the Laws touching the Safety of the Highways, by explaining an Edict of the Ædiles Curules related by Ulpianus, and Paulus,which forbids any one to keep near the High-way, wild :D d. 3.
Boars, + Quintil, Lib. iv. Inft. Orat. C.5:
the fecondi. The three remolata, fignifvino
Boars, Wolves, Bears, Lions, Panthers, or any other Animal whatsoever, which may hurt or frighten Travellers. By virtue of this Law, if any Person happened to be killed on the High-way by a wild Beast, the owner of it was to pay twenty thousand Sefterces. This Law was very neceffary at Rome, where the Men of Distinction maintained such vaft Numbers of wild Beasts for the publick Sports. Scaurus, in his Ædilship, brought into the Theatre an hundred and fifty Leopards ; Pompey five hundred and twenty * ; Domitius Abenobarbus an hundred Bears of Numidiat ; Nafica and Lentulus forty Bears, and as many Elephants . In the Reign of the Emperor Trajan, sometimes a Thousand, and sometimes ten Thousand wild Beasts, if we believe Dio Calous, were killed in the Circus on one Day. Petronius elegantly describes what pains the Romans took to catch, and bring so many wild Beasts to Rome.
Quæritur in sylvis Maurifera, & ultimus Ammon
In 'the third Chapter the Author shews, that the abovementioned Edict did not extend to the
Dogs, which the Romans used to keep at their · Gates, tied with a long Chain, and his Picture
on the Wall with this Inscripcion, CAVE CAVE Canem, Beware of the Dog. To this Custom, probably alluded the Words of S. Paul to the Philippians (Cap. iii. p. 2.) Baénete TSS Kúras,
Beware * Plin. Hiftor. Natural. Lib. viii. c. 17. t. Idem ib. ; cap. 36. Livius Lib. xliv. c. 18. | Petrom. cap.119.
Beware of Dogs. The fourth Chapter treats of the Laws that have been enacted by divers Nacions against the Owners of such Animals, as : kill, wound,, or occasion any Mischief in the? Grounds of their Neighbours. The Laws of Solon and Plato, command not only the Owner to be severely punished; but moreover, the Animal itself, that sheds human Blood, to be put to death ; which is agreeable to what we read in Genesis (c. 9. vs. 5.) And surely your Blood of your Lives will I require : at the band : of every Beast, will I require it. In the remaining Part of this learned Work, the Author proposes and explains severalantient Laws against Thieves, Robbers (so called because they stript the Travellers of their Robes, or Garments) Pirates, &c. He observes how inquisitive, and troublesome to Travellers, were the Gatherers of Taxes, and Officers of the Custom-house, even in the Time of the Romans ; and to this purpose tells us, that Theocritus being asked, which of all the wild Beasts were the most fierce and cruel, answered ; On the Mountains the Bears and Lions; in the Cities the Officers of the Custom-house. Tartes TENWray, TÁVTEŚ CIO IN åpwayes, say the Greeks ; and hence by Plutarch (in Lucullo) they are compared to the Harpies. Nonius describes them thus : Portitores funt Telonarii, says he, qui portum obfidentes omnia sciscitantur, ut ex eo ve&tigal accipiant. A very severe Law was enacted (which our Author here explains,) to curb the Impudence and Temerity (as Ulpianus styles it) of these rapa. cious Animals. Besides the great variety of Eradition this learned Work contains, it will prove very useful, for the right understanding of several obscure Passages in the antient WriDd4