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To draw of the allegorical veil from the early history of Greece, and thus represent objects in their true light, is the main design of the present work; and, “ in order to discover the certainty of things, it was necessary to reduce the Greek language to its clements, and to divest it of its ornaments.” But there was no hope of effecting much by the Greek language alone ; Mr. Allwood, therefore, had recourse to other and more ancient tongues. In the course of this disquisition, the author seems to have made pretty considerable deductions from the political consequence of the Greeks in remote antiquity. There was never, he thinks, a succession of monarchs over Argos, commencing with Inachus; over Athens, commencing with Cecrops ; or over Thebes in Bæotia, taking its rise with Cadmus. These lifts of fisvereigns, he is persuaded, rare fictitious, and their very names artificial; being compounds of Egyptian terms, and allusive chiefly to the rites of Sabianism and the hitory of the first Poft-diluvian patriarchs. From these, and a variety of other circumstances, he is of opinion, that the Helladians were not the original inhabitants of Greece; but strangers who came principally from Egypt. This opinion seems to be confirmed by the much greater affinity of the Greek Tongue with the Oriental than the European languages, excepting where the latter had their immediate origin in the East,
“ It is astonithing (fays Mr. Allwood, from whom we shall now quote a paragraph entire) how great an evidence, in behalf of the truth of Revejation, results from every part of this production. The primitive innocence and fall of man; the number of descents from Adam to Noah; the number of generations before the flood; the flood itself; the division of the earth in the days of Peleg; the first peopling of the isles of the Gentiles ; the difperfion of the Ammonians, and their adherents from Babel, and the confusion of their lip; as, also the universal famine which took place in the time of Joseph; are facts which strongly appear upon the face of many histories here detailed : and the proofs of these facts are, I believe, either entirely new, or placed in a light in which they have never yet appeared. Thus far, then, I hope, that my solitary labours may be productive of some utility to my country, in this day of blafphemy and infidelity, inasmuch as they certainly furnish some fresh evidences of the credibility and divine authenticity of the sacred writings."
In the first section of this elaborate performance, the author fets forth the defects of traditional history-produces instances, in which the mav be corrected by the facred writings; having proposed col. lateral history as the first ground of analysis. He then mentions, as the second ground of analysis, the monuments, religion, and language of the Cuthites in Egypt; as the third ground of analysis, the Greek Tongue; and, as the fourth ground of analysis, the means by which ancient history became obscured,
The second section respects the Helladians and the original inhabitants of Greece, as far as their history is necessary to furnish hints for an analysis of the Greek Tongue.
The third section contains an illustration of the plan of analysis for the Greek Tongue, according to the principles already laid down ;
in which is also considered, in a great variety of infances, how far an
accurate knowledge of the import of terms may become subservient to the developement of such paflages in the ancient history of Greece, as have never hitherto met with any satisfactory explanation.
In the fourth section, we are presented with some further observations concerning the Greek Language, in relation, chiefly, to the analogy it bears to some European and Oriental Tongues.
In the fifth section, the author enquires into the manners of the Mizraim, or native Egyptians, at the most remarkable periods of their history; to fhew, how far they might have been concerned in the introduction of Arts and Literature into Greece.
In the last three sections, the Titan history is displayed on a most extensive canvas.
The appendix contains some curious matter; particularly what relates to the Cadmians, the importers of letters into Greece.
We shall conclude our present article with an excerpt from that part of the first section which relates to the ambiguities of history; referring us, in particular, to Mr. Bryant's Differtation concerning the Siege of Troy.
with the learned writer (says Mr. Allwood) in expressing my belief, that the grounds which gave rise to the Trojan war--the extensive confederacy of the Grecian States, and the powerful armament they equipped in order to carry it on-the delay of nine years after the landing of the Grecians before Troy, during which both sides appear to have remained idle spectators of each others force—the preservation of the lives of the Grecian commanders for near ten years, and amidst the sweeping deftruction of peftilence and famine—as also, the very names and ancestry of many of thefe commanders—are circumstances incredible in themselves, and only introduced by the illuftrious writer to serve as embellishments, or to complete the plan of his Poem. But it does by no means follow, from these premises, that the history might not have taken its rise from some tradition existing in Greece in the time of Homer, of a war carried on by some of its maritime states against the people of Troy at a former period." _“Neither because the name of Troas or Troja was not taken notice of by Herodotus, Arrian, or Plutarch, have we any reason to infer, that it was not known amongst the Ilienses till the Greeks introduced it. It might have been the most ancient name of their city. It was certainly a term of high antiquity; for there was a very old city of the same name in Egypt ; and if, by any particular accident, a partiality bad been excited in the minds of the natives, in favour of the terni Ilium, it is little probable, that they would afterwards retain that of Troja. For the sottishness, the ignorance, and ftupidity of the Phrygians, are literally proverbial." _“In order to pay as high a compliment as possible to the prowess of the Grecians, the poet has certainly magnified the strength and fplendour of the city they captured. He has probably described it after the style of some of the finest cities of Greece in his own time, making little allowance for the greater fimplicity of an earlier age, and particularly among the Phrygians. It is on this account, that the ruins of Troy have, hitherto, been looked for in vain; for surely if these circumstances are taken into consideration, there can remain little wonder, that “ etiam periere ruina." [To be concluded in our next.]
Benson's Vindication of the Methodists.
(Concluded from P. 160.) AVING, in justice to the reverend reporters, established the
correetness of their statement relative to the Class-Meetings of the Methodifis, (which is ail uiled with a tone of triumph and confident affertion, sufficient to impose on readers less intimately acquainted with their proceedings) we resume the examination of Mr. Benson's look. In this, however, we shall endeavour to be as concise as our conviction of the great points at issue between the Church and these felf-willed fchifmatics will allow us; more especially, as we have been already drawn into much greater length than the article before us, either from its size, or any merit of its own, may seem to deserve. We much doubt whether the mode of refutation, by which Mr. B. fabours to repel the serious charge of immorality brought against his brethren, will be satisfactory to all his readers. He appeals to the rules of their Society, as containing “evident demonstrative proof," in their favour, because, forsooth, they forbid drunkenness, lewdness, di honesty, and the like. By the same argument, there could not exist a crime in Christendom; for the Divine Author of our Religionen joins his disciples to abstain from the very appearance of evil : yet we know there are many who live in as continual violation of his commands, as if they were strangers to their enactment, or unconcerned in their oh. fervanice. But, says Mr. Benfon, such an objection will not have any force against the eicet. “ They not only are constantly inculcating religious duties, but do not so much as receive into, or keep in, their focieties, any person who lives in the neglect of them." They have been doing for thele fifty years, what the Established Clergy are only beginning to do now; viz. teftifying against, and opposing all profane vicious practices wherever they come.” Were it necessary to pollute our pages by the disproof of lo impudent a fallhood, we night easily refer to many well attefied specimens of Methodist morality. We might instance more immediately the unchaste enormities, and the blaiphemous impieties of their teachers in the neighbourhood of Middleham*. We might appeal, without fear of confutation, to the scandalous excesses at Langham Row, where Mr. B. boasts of such a numerous attendance of the goly, who, no doubt, must have been greatly edified by the devout gefticulations of the Yorkshire colliers, and their very improve mode of " inculcating religious duties.” But we refrain from trespassing further on the feelings of our readers, because we understand, that a strong and connected chain of evidence will thortly be produced, for the information of those who may be inclined tot ink with Mr. B. that “this can only be faid ad movendam invidiam, there being certainly ro ground for it," and which will abunGandy ihew, whether this champion of Methodism, or his accusers, have most reason to “ fear being confronted by facts.” Before we
* Authenticated by the Dean of Middleham, in a letter, addrefled about a twelvemonth ag%, to the most respectable society in London.
wholly dismiss, however, this part of our subject, we will give Mr. Benton an opportunity of speaking for himself, left we should be suspected of mirepresenting to the public this preacher of piety, this pattern of perfection, this model of morality and meekness.
“ I do not pretend (says he, in allufion to fome yery heavy charges of the wildest enthufiasm brought against his feet) to justify such proceedings, as every thing in the worihip of God, particularly thould be done decently and in order. But there certainly was an apparent irregularity, wherl, on the day of Pentecost, thai tbonfand being pricked in tbeir beurts, Jaid to the Apostles, Mien and breibren, wbat fall we do "
So much for Mr. Benton's piety; which, for the evide ntpurpose o endeavouring to vindicate what the moment before “he pretends not to justify,” can calmly contrast the ravings of Methodism with the descent of the Holy Spirit on the Day of Peritecost.—But he proceeds, “ Be this as it may, I know of no Methodists who pretend to exorcisms, and practise capricious forms and modes of it, utterly inconsistent with morality and decency—that rafhly pronounce on the falvation and damnation of particular persons; frequently of whole viilages-and publicly execrate the churches, as being nothing but a heap of ftones, &c.” So much for his veracity! We will now indulge our readers with some proofs of the charity and candour of this lamb-like Me. thodist, who arrogates to himself and his brethren the praile of apoitolic meekneis and forbearance, " For being reviled, (iaith he bless; being defamed, we intreat; being perfecuted, we luifer it." In proof of which he acquaints us, p. 10 and 11, that “
many of the clergy, in various parts of the kingdom, are openly wicked: and many that are not so, instead of preaching the great doctrines of the Gospel, of the Reformation, and of our * Church, do openly and continually contradict theiı; while others are immeried in' fecular concerns, and are hunting after preterment, or are in continual pursuit of amusements and pleasure.” “ If (again in p. 12,) the ciirgy preach repentance, while they themselves remain impenitent--if they preach juftification by faith and a new birth, while they themselves are neither JUSTIFIED, nor born again, &c.” It is clear, from this paffage, that Mr. B. did not underttand what our reformers meant by the word “ justifi d,” and that his ignorance of the doctrines of the Church is at least equal to his malignity againit its ministers. But tu proceed with one or two more instances :
“ If," he says, (and his if; feldom seem to speak doubtingly.) the rector, or vicar, or curate, appointed by authority as a firitual phyfician, to cure their spiritual diseates, be as much difordered as the people themteles, ( which is too often the case,) the meaning of these clergymen freies to be, that no Metbudist Preacher, nor Dijjenting liinifter, nor any rivus and intelligent person, thould be permitie. to thew any compa cut there fouls, thus perifhing for lack of knowledge fave their parith minitter, who is, perhaps, little dif:ofed as he is prepared, for such an office. In other words, the infernal wolf has got potle : on of all the threep, (having taken advantage of the insensibi ity', carilefsess, or indolence, of iheir appointeil fhepherd, ! and to attempt to rescue any of them fp;,? nie vo er irould be n aniteit bor Church, read Conventivie.'
robbery--so I doubt not Ajrollyon thinks and says."
6. We cannot approve (fays this fpiritual censor, in another part of his libel against the clergy) of the conduct of persons, who, profeifing to be ministers of Christ, meet together at visitations, or on other occasions, to settle ecclesiastical matters, and remedy disorders, and yet intoxicate ibemselves before they separate, &c."
Lastly (though it is to be feared we have already fufficiently tried the patience of our readers by the extracts which we have made speaking of a fuggestion of the reporters, that, if it should be thought desirable to encourage meetings, limilar to the class meetings of the Methodists, they should, in every parish where they are instituted, be made subject to the inspection and super-intendance of the regular minifter, Mr. B, insultingly insinuates a doubt on the part of the people “ of the zeal and ability of such an one to direct them, and the probability that he would more frequentiy lead them into error and fin, than into the ways of truth and righteousness;" observing, with a (neer, “ that if the parilh minister should enter one of these meetings at a time when his mind has been dislipated by pleasure, or his body heated by wine, bis conduct as president might poflibly neither be to his own credit nor to the people's edification." It seems, however, that the clergy have free permifli .n given them by Mr. B. in another part of this pamphlet, to attend these class meetings; where " they may, if they pleate, fpeak their own experience in the grace of God, and tell what God has done for their souls'; or if they rather desire it, the leader of the class will let them pass, and neither examine nor say any thing to them; although if they be permitted to hear the characters of others, it would be bui juft that their's also should come under scrutiny.". The clergy will doubtless express all proper acknowledgments for this indulgence, though we suspect they will feldom use their privilege, and not fhew much eagerness to consult these father-confeflors who have follies and experiences enough of their own to amuse or terrify (as may best answer their purpose) an ignorant assemblage, and to aflift them in crceping into houses, and leading captive filly women laden with sins, and led away by divers lufts.
Mr. Benion next blows aloud the trumpet of loyalty, and oftentatiously proclaims the large and liberal contributions of the Methodifts towards any charitable institution; and among other instances he mentions those of Sunday schools, and what are termed their benevolent funds. With regard to the first he shall be allowed to produce his own case of the town of Manchelier, where he says, tew years ago the collection for the Sunday schools amounted to 1141. But of late the collections at our chapels in fome places have been truch larger, especially where we have schools of this kind entirely under our own management.' This is the great end which they propofe. This is also the object of their benevolent fund which might more properly be called a fund for profelytism. For we speak from personal knowledge of the fact. It is composed of weekly, monthly, or quarterly contributions of all their members in proportion to their means; and placed at the disposal of certain elders of the fociety who visit the fick poor, and invariably measure the quantum of relief, by