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No. I.

true spirii of Internal Improvement is abroad || You are rendering the public an important To the Editor of the Railroad Journal :

in the West, and will, beyond all question, service, by giving energy and character to Sir,-l asa leave, through ihe columns of make it the garden of the world.

the progress of laternal Improvement. You your valuuole Juarsal, lo address the citi.

have

my

heariy concurrence in the measure

Greenville, Bund Co., Illinois, Jan. 20, 1836. zens of New York on a suject of very great Dear Sir,- The Legislature of ihis Siate

of raising the subscripticn to five dollars. importance to their interests.

inclosed have five dollars, U. S. Bank have just adjourned, after passing several Hear! 0 Wall-street! and give ear! acis of incorporation, for the purposes of

note, sor my next year's subscription. Please Broadway !

send to Judge Breese, by mail, to Carlyle, Internal Improvement. The most impor. Have you a map of New York, Pennsyl.

Niinois, the whole of your Railroad Journal iant of these are, the Central Railroad bill, vin, and N-1v-Jersey? It is before you.- and the Wabash and Mississippi Railroad

from the commencement, and he will remit Very well. Piace one point of dividers

the amount of your bill. bill. The last commences at the terminaat Pileston, the mouth of the Lackawana, luon of the Muumee and Wabash Canal,

With the best wishes for the success of (29 miles below Carbondale,) in Luzerne and is to end at Alton, on the Mississippi,

your valuable publication, county; place the other point at the city of completing the line from the city of New

I reman your friend, New-York. Now measure the distance on

W. S. W. York to the Mississippi River, by the Newyour seale. Behold! the distance is only York and Erie Railroad.

D. K. Minor, Esq. one hundred and six miles! And what of The Central Railroad is to strike through

Buffalo, Jan. 12, 1836, that? Way, gentlenen, Piliston is one of the heart of the Siate, from the Illinois and MR. Minor,-A friend has just loaned the ti lest depustis of Aithra ile C.al there Michigan Canal to the Ohio River, running me your December No. of the Mechanics' is 1. the world. Numuruus mines are al midway between the Wabash and the Miss Magazine, in which I find ihe communicarealyo,e ... There are nune recher, purer,sissippi Rivers, through one of the most fer. Lion I sent you last September, for the Railor cisi iu be wrought in earth. It is irue, lule and delightful regions of the West. The Railroads. Í regret the necessiiy of vrou

road Journal, upon the plan of constructing the cry of New-York is within 106 miles of work will commence at or wear Ottawa, and bling you farther upon this subject, but as the very best anthrae.te coal mines. How pass through the counties of La Salle, Mc-|I have been so unfortonase as to be wholly importadt coal is to your city, tor fuel or Lane, Macon, Shelby, Fayette, Marion, Jef- misunderstood by you, I have little hopes cul nerve, I need not say. What quantity forson, Franklin, and Johnson, to the best

of beller fortune with your readers, without

tarther explanation. you use, or s.lip abroad, I cannot tell. This point on the Ohio River. These counties In your prelatory note to the article, you Ikaw, the number of tons is very great, liay in the most direct route, but the Com-/ say my plan of constructing Railroads will and anually increasing. Where does it missioners may vary it as the interests of | be found useful in many parts of the coun; come fruin? First, fron Mauch Chunki, byl libe public require. The southern termina- for passing softs or marshy reunden Rurved. Cuvai, and wide-water transporta-Irion is to be at or near the mouth of the answer for such ground, under any circum110.., vje.gadred and sixty miles. Second, || Obio River, and the northern at or near the stances, nor was it ever intended it should. a pari chinus tru: Carbondale, one hundred termination of the Illinois and Michigan The present method of building, upon such and W-ly-lour miles, to the Hudson, and Canal. From ihe northern point, a branch ground, wants no improvement; and if it

did, this structure could never be sustained the duwihuriver near ninely miles more, is contemplated, to strike the Upper Missis

upon

it. mici 214 m les. Thirdly, from Schuyl- il sippi at Galena. From the southern ex Again, you say it may be useful “ for the kill, and perhaps the largest quamuiy-iremity, or near it, a branch from the main construction of cheap ronds.". If the plan The disiajce by Rariar Canal:

stem, to cross the Ohio above the mouth of bas any merit, it is that of giving, at a me. Ruruau 10 Pulisville,

5 miles|he Cumberland, would communicate with dium price, a better road ihan any of the Conal to West Philadelphia,

plans now in use-whatever their cost of 106 The Nashville and New-Orleans Railroad.

construction. Rovudio Eust Puladelphia, 15

The distance from the Ohio River at thai In specifying the proper kinds of timber, Tu Burdentown,

23

point, 10 Nashville, being less than one hun- l you have printed • beach, cedar, and loCaua to Brunswick, 43

1 ust.” I wrote “red beach," &c., as some ired and thirty miles. It would cross Keo.

varieties of that wood will not survive a sin. Tide lu Ne-York,

40 cucky through Princeton and Hopkinsville. lvle year's exposure, without marks of de

The route ibrough Kentucky and Tennes cay. Respectfully, yours, 237 miles ee would intersect a fine tract of country.

R. W. HASKINS. Being an average distance of iwo hundred vhere the inhabit:ints are enterprising and

Note.-I requested that two or three and ove miles. And yet the richest coal intelligent, and alive to the subject of In- copies of the article miglit be sent me, mollis in ine country are within one hunternal Improvement.

when published, but none have come to

hand. 'I should still be glad of them, as al. drei ad s.x miles of your city.

This splendid undertaking, therefore, will l-o, of such remarks, if any, as you may 13 noi this a matter of inverest to you: | complete a grand line of internal commu- || publish thereon, from other penis. Did the May it not be turned to very great account: lication from the great Lakes through the article appear in the Railroad Journal

, for Miy 001 a Ruilroad be made from your city.vhole length of Illinois, across Kentuchy, live readers of that work, more particularly,

which work i: was sent you? It was for 10 inse inines, un which cars of cual can | Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi and Lou that I designed it, &c. R. W. H. cono easily in a day? Even supposing, toisiana, 10 the Gulf of Mexico, running near

We feel grateful to those who contribute aro.d monuins, the Railrond must windly parallel to the Mississippi River, at the

lescriptions of useful inventions, in relation its way so as iu a id 20 m.les, suill the dis- medium distance of a hundred miles.

1o Railroads, and therefore give the above canc. would be little more than half that 'The names embraced in the act of incor ||-xplanation, as a matter of justice to our your cual now iravels which comes from the porat on include a large portion of ihe mosi

correspondent with the remark that, from Szroylill Vastly important as ! regardll intelligent and influential men in the State this, it is but ole vie .v of a subject taill The name of the Hon. Sydney BREES:

1 single perusal of his first article, we form.

d the opinion expressed. If it was erro. weirs another aspect of deep interest to should be remembered among the earlies

neous, our readers would surely not be led your wivie community, which I shall treal projectors of this undertaking. He was the || istray by it, as they usually form their own of in my next. CLINTON. first man who recommended it to public no

pinion from !he facts, without regard to ours. tice; and we are indebted to his persevering | We regret exceedingly that he did not see We are indebted to a friend for the fol efforis for the early maturiiy of the scheme

he number of the Journal in which it was lo ving interesting lerter in relation to the I cannoi close my leiter without express

vublished, and can apologise for the omisprocesed works of Internal Improvement illing my satisfaction at the acceptable man

on only by saying to all who require ex. the youthful yet giant State of Illinois. The per with which your Journal is conducted

tra copies of the Journal, that we are tog

In designating the above proposed routes poor to pay for the engraving, and then cities in the valley of the Mississippi, with send duplicate copies of it to gentlemen who those on the Atlantic coast, a great nation-of Railrvaus, Úhave endeavored to dovest

al object would be effected, the advantages mysli of all sectional parualities, prejutunk ewwag vi' the wors to desire their of which, as respects personal convenience.ecs, and interest, and to have my eye fixed piais and inventions to appear in iis co- and comfort in travelling, the advancement only io promule the general cuierestui every lunos, yet not enougli to aid in sustaining of privaie property, the general circulation section of the Uniun; and therefore you will it by subscribing for it. When they shall,

of intelligence and useful kubwledge, and find they pass ihrough almost every Staie in

its political bearings and influence to bind the Union; and smuld these works i ver be as we, have devoiel all their leisure hours together the several States of this Union by constructed, they can be su licated as oue so. for four years, a il expended three thou. inuissoluble bonds, thai of self-interest, the, It can admit of no doubt, it'iliese improves snil dollars, over and above u entir-r means of security and safety, they woulu menis were made, the public interest would ceipts in return, to establish a work which ail urd each other in times of difficulty and be greatly promoted, and it is an object, shall aid and promote the works of Inter. danger, whether of a foreign or domestic therefore, which the ciuzens of every sec?

nature, it is utterly impossible to calculate. tion of our Union must desire to see accomnal Improvement of the country, without There are certain great leading routes which plished. It must, however, be evident to all, receiving a penny for their pains, then, are necessary to be established through lihat to effect this, a spirit of accommodation perhaps, a community of feeling may ex- the different states for the accomplishment and compromise, which alone can produce ist, which will induce us to procure en- of these great designs, and which the patu- harmony, and unity of design and action is

ral face of the country points out as the indispensably necessary, as well as a vast gravings, publish their descriptions, and

inost eligible. I will take the liberty 10 amount of cash capital, far beyond the abilthen send the work, gratis.

point out some of those which the gener 1ty of those most concerned in it, cap ai preIt may be said, and perhaps with truth, interest of the country requires to be con- sent command. The following plan is that the investment was injudicious. We structed; but I shall notice only such as therefore submitted for obviating the objecbelirved it perfectly good-and do not now pass through more than one State.

tions that have been staled, and for comdoubt but that it woud eventually have Railroad. This, it is proposed, should com

1. The Northern Atlantic and Mississippi plering the works designed.

I am well aprised that a considerable provel so, if we had not liad the misfortunemence at Boston, and pass by the most con. portion of Railroads have already been conto lose almost our andre stuck of back vo. venient route to Aibany, New-York, from structed in the lines of these rouies by prilumes and printing materials, worth over

thence, by Utica, Rochester and Buffalo, io vate corporations, and that some difficulues five thousand dillars, by the late conflagra. Cleveland and Maumée, Ohio, through ling them. It is, however, believed that

Erie in Pennsylvania; from thence 10 may arise on that account in establishtion. Now it is an entire loss, and there. Michigan and Indiana, by Michigan City these may be combined and connected with fore

every person interested in, or connect- und Lake to the Mississippi and Jefferson one great company for the construcing and ed with, Railroads, is solicited to aid in sus. City, Missouri. The distance of this Road compiering any of these entire routes on just will be about 1500 miles.

and equitable principles; which shall equaltaining the work, not only by his own sub

2. The Southern Atlantic and Mississippi ize the profits arising from the whole, and sescription, but also by inducing others to be Railroad. This will extend from Charles- cure a general system of operations, by alike-wise. Its Editor, like old Eng-lon, S. C., 19 Augusta, Eatonton and for which the benefit and interest of all will be land expects every man to do his duty," byl syth, to West Point, on the Chatahoochee; promoted. forwarding a few additional subscribers as

from thence to Montgomery and Woolville, The plan which I would propose is the early as possible, with the advance sub-burgh, a distance of about 712 miles, Alabama, by Jackson, Mississippi, to Vicks- following: Let five great companies be or

ganized to construct and complete these five scription.

3. The Atlantic Coast and New Orleans or great national works of internal improve

Union Railroad.—This road, it is proposed, ilments, to be incorporated by all the States We publish in our columns to-day, ex. Maine, by Portsmouth, N. H., Boston, Mass., capital sufficient to finish them in the best

should extend from Augusia, in the Siaie of through which they may pass, and with a tracts from a very interesting letter address. Providence, R. I., New-Haven, Conn., 10 and most substantial manner. If, however, ed to the Committee of the Alabama Legis-New-York city; and from thence by Ne:v- this cannot be dune, lei each Stale incorpolature, on ile subject of Railroads, by Mr. Mark, New-Brunswick, aad Trenton,N. J., rate a company or companies for the conJ. F. Scuermerhorn. The large and liberalind Baltimore to flashingion City; thence vorks in their own States. The stock 10

to Philadelphia; thence by Port Deposit struction of these work's and other similar views developed in that letter, and the inti- by Richmond and Fredericksbury, Virginia, be divided into shares of one hundred dolmale acquaintance with ihe localities of the Raleigh, N. C., Columbia, S. C.; thence to lars. Each State shall have the right to take vast regions of the west, acquired by Mr. Aanusia, Georgia, until it intersects the one-fourth of the stock necessary to conScherinerhorn, in the discharge of his offi- Southern Atlantic and Mississippi Railroad-, struct roads within the same; and the U.

and thence with the line of said road by Ea- States shall have the privilege to take onecial duties as Indian Conmissioner, entitle tonton and Montgomery to Woodville, and fourth of the entire siocks in all the Rail: his remarks to an attentive consideration. thence to Mobile and New-Orleans, a dis-roads, and the balance to be taken by citi It will be perceived that the Legislature of cance of about 2000 miles.

zens of the United States only; but the citiAlabama bas granted a charter on the plan

4. The Baltimore and Mobile and New-Or- zens in each State, in the first place to have recommønded by Mr. Schermerlora.

leans Railroad.—This will extend from Ball the right to take the whole amount of stocks Tuscalou81, November 24, 1835.

liinore to Harper's ferry, which is already created for the building of the roads within

constructed, then by Winchester, Staunton, the same, and which shall not have been Sir,- find, in travelling through the ind Abbingdon, Virginia, to Knoxville and taken by ihe State or the United States.western States the past season, thai there Kingston to the Tennessee River at Brown': The amount of stock subscr bed and is a great movement among the people on Terry, near Lock-out Mountain ; thence by linally apportioned to the several citizens, the subject of Internal Improvement, espe. Wills Creek Valley and Woodville to Mo: by the Commissioners and Directors apcially by the construction of Railroads; and bile, a distance of about 1050 miles, and from pointed by the act of incorporation, shall be as the people of Alabama are at present as thence to New-Orleans.

secured by morigage on real estate, with in. seinblent in a convention on this sudjeci, 5. The New-Orleans, Mobile, and Alichi erest payable semi-annually, and the prinand your Lögislature will soon be called 10 gan Railroad.- this, it is contemplated cipal payable in twenty years; the same to act upon applica:ions of this kind; I take shall run from New Orleans, by Jackson. e appraised by Commissioners appointed the liberty to a dress 10 you some considera- | Mississippi, to Columbia, Tennessee ; and or that purpose by the Legislature or Gore tions in reference to them, which will be from Mobile by Tuscaloosa and Courtland.

rnor of ihe State. When these morigages found worthy the serious consideration of Vabama, also lo Columbia ; thence by ind ibe Railroad and income of ihe same every stillesman and friend of his country. Nashville to Louisville, Kentucky, and in zball be pledged to the State, the State shall

The experimenis that have already been lianapolis to Michigan City and Lake pake a loan for the b nefit of the Railroad made, have sufficiently developed the prac vhere it will also intersect ihe Northeri ompany, either from the U. Stales, from ber ricability and utility of Railroads, to trans- Itlantic and Mississippi Railroad; and ir urplus revenur, if any; and if this cannot mit conino:lities and facilitate intercourse passing the Wabash river, it will also inter e done consistenily with the principles of bei ween different sections of the country.llect the Lake Erie and Wabash Canal. he constitution, then from the citizens of Il Internal Improvements could be extended Che distance from Mobile is about 900 miles he United States, or the citizens of any through the Siates generally, so as to con ind from New Orleans about 1000 miles. oreign nation, to be redeemable in twen. nect the trade and intercourse between the The whole length of these five Railroads, i several principal commercial places and completed, would not exceed 6000.

y years, or any time thereafter, at the pleaure of the States. The whole details, as

oi

it respects the number of Directors in each || greatly stop the stock.jobbing system, and main through which they may pass will Siale, the manner the monies shall be drawn preventinein in a great degree from ever go- also be greally enhanced in value by ibese and expended, and the division of the profilsing out of the country; and this certainly is improvements, and it is a question whether so is to equalise the same among all the stock | an object of great public importance. There the Railroud companies sticuld nu receive holders in the diffurent Sraies; the mannerjis no doubt that foreign capi al is now very irom Congress a portion of these lands or in which the stock may be transferred, and exit ns.vely employed in banking istirutiuns a certain per centage on those within a core the mortgages cancelled and o:hers subsit.ad in making our internal improvements; lain distance of the read, the minimum tuted for thein, can and musi all be adjusted, nd as long as it is done in the way of loans price of which should be immediately adand satisfactorily secured in the several o States, and they do not own the stocks olvanced one hundred per cent. charters; in which, however, there should hese companies, there can be no objection I trust, sir, thai alihough I have only al. be an express provision, that the rates on the o it, be ause there is a security the loans luded 10 many inportant advantages which road shall be so adjusted from time to time, will be redeeined; but if foreigners once would result from the construction of these that the netl income of the roads shall not become stockholders of our works of inter- Railroads, to the private stockholders, 10 yield the stock holders more than fifteen nalimprovements, wh ch of neces ity are cor-l'he public generally, to the several States per cent. or the first construction of the road|poations of perpetuity,the country never can interesied in them, and 10 the United States; ater the loan has been paid off and re-l be relieved froin this incubus; and we must still sufficient, I think, has been said to show deemed.

become tributary to foreigners, and every that the plan for raising funds to execute It is believed that if this plan is adopted in Sep which leads to such an event ought to the works proposed, is safe, practicable, and any State, there will be no difficulty in hav- be deprecated and avoided. And, under al important; and if the few ideas which have ing the whole annount of stock taken and these circumstances, who can doubt for a

been suggested shall have a lerdency to adequately secured, for making every possi. several States will not readily accommodale of our commun couriry, I shall fiel myself

moinent whether the Legislatures of the promote the general welfare and presperiiv ble improvement, in each State that will

their people in this respect, and thus pro- highly honored and rewarded. warrant the undertaking. The advantage

mai to the stockholders must be manifest to eve. mote the general welfare.

Tam, with great respect,

Your obedient servant, ry one, for by paying the interest only on The General Government of these States their stocks, while the roads are construct. is also greatly interested in having these im. Col. J. W. Lane, Chairman

John F. SCHERMERHORN. ing, without depriving themselves of the provements made both as respects public

of the Com. Internal Imuse and occupation of their plantations, or utility, and in the economy and facilities jeopardizing iheir propery in the least, or wh ch will be thus afforded for carrying on

provement of the Senate

of the Legislature of Ala. diminishing the value of them; but instead the operations of the government. This of this, actually advance it one hundred per will be seen in strengthening and increasing cent, the moment these works are completed; the bonds which cement our Union, by the

ENLARGEMENT OF THE ERIE. CANAL.and ultinately, when the loans are paid off social relations of lite, which will be in. The subject of enlarging the Erie Canal is from the profits of these roads, which may creased and extended-by equalizing the one of such vital importance to ibis com. be the case even in 10 instead of 20 years, advantages to be enjoyed-by furnishing unity, that we shall deem it our duty to they will have the whole amount of their parkets for the productions of every part

Jevole considerable space to it. stock free, and for what has comparatively the country-by the commercial relations cost them nothing. So ihat it must be evident which will ihus be extended and increased, The annexed article from the Albany Artall, there can and will be no difficulty in disand by the means tha: will thus be affordedgus, and another fronı the Commercial Adposing of their stock 10 complete the roads, in times of war and insurrections, of con-vertiser, in relation to the enlargement and if the States will lend their aid to their own centrating the whole force of the country al ci:izens in this matter. And here let me any given point, in a very short time. The termination of that work, should be reaj ask, why should not every Siate in the ion saving also will be great to the nation in with attention.

19 do this, for the benefit of the commonwealth the transportation of ibe munitions of war,

INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT. generally? She can sustain no possible loss subsistence and transportation of troops, and

ENLARGEMENT OF THE ERIE CANAL, AND COMor risk in doing it, for she is triply secured in dispensing with the necessity of making for the responsibility she assumes in making several military works for detenee, but es.

Thé N. Y. Legislature, at the last session, the loan-first, on the real estate inortgaged|pecially in the transportation of the United at its present value-second, in the increas- States mail. For the time has already with a liberdy for which no example can ed value of the property mortgaged, by come when the Post-Office department will be found in the annals of American Legislamaking the improvements contemplared – require the action of the government on this sion, placed at the disposal of the Canal and thirdly, by ihe road and entire nett in- subject, in order to prevent impositions from Boaru The revenues of the Erie and Cham. come thereof, until the loan is paid. But Railroad corporations. The Congress of plain canals, 10 an indefinite amouni, and from this the States may receive other bene- the United States will be constrained either or an unlimited period-ihe amount estifits: by investing her public stocks for com to make post roads of this kind, for the con

mated by the Governor to be twelve millions mon schools and university funds, if she has voyance of the mail, or else encourage the lat the lowest, and the period i welve years any, and if she has none, she may now cre-l construction of Railroads, by making loans at the shortest: And this, 100, without the ate then by taking a portion of ihe stocks or taking a portion of the sioeks, and enter. aid of science to enlighien their deliberaof these companies, and finally, pledginging at the same time into some special ar. luns; fur not a single survey or esi mate the income of them after the loan is redeem- | rangement for carrying the nails at certain was required, as a preliminary 10 this vast el, for such purposes, which will enable the thus extends to these improvements. If the

rates on said roads, for the patronage she appropriation. States to extend the blessings of education, United States were to take one-fourth of such unwonted contiding to subordinate pub

The object sought, and which demanded and the diffusion of benefits of common schools to their entire population. But the the stocks in the Railroads before mention. lic agenis, and such bold, precipitare action, State of Alabama will have another peculiar ed, it is believed the next annual income was the great and grou ing trade of the far advantage in making such loans for the from them 10 the Government would be suf. west !”—not the interior irade of western N. purpose of making the contemplated im- fcient of itself to pay the entire expense of York. In this we were sufficiently secure and prove nents within her State: Her loans enable Congress to reduce to a mere nomi. accommodated by an expenditure of 9. or

the Post Office department. Tis would that section of our State had been sufficiently will be deposited as an additional banking nal sum the postage on letters, and to make 10 millions. For this trade and for the accapital of several millions of dollars for free entirely the possage on all newspapers commodation of this section of our Stave; twenty years, which costs them nothing, and journals of 'science and magazines of therefore, no appropriation could be ibcught and the advantage of which alone will en- useful knowledge, which would bave a great of while so many paris of the State ren ainable her to take one fourth of the entire tendency to diffuse very generally useful in- ej unimproved, and so many projects were stocks of these roads, which is se'f-eviden: formation on the subjecis of politis, science, yet untouched. But the prize which imin the end can cost them nothing Anal with such a fund devoted to the lenefit of United States. But this is not all: unless was the trade of the “ far west"-a prize

and rolirion, throughout the whole of these pelled the Legislature to immediate action common schools and the advancement o science, what an immense benefi' will she than they are now conveyed, there must be as well as Pennsylvania, Maryland and Vir.

mails can be conveyed in some otier way for which we are to contend with Canada, confer upon her population, and what a glorious example will she set for ler sister else we must have them at an increased ex- | ney and power, the Canal Board seemed to

a limit to our accommodations by mails, orginia. With this unbounded grant of mo. States.

pense, for they are now frequenily overbor-himb.te the ardor and baste of the LegislaThe general diffusion of these stocks dened; and what must they be in a short cure, having settled and revised their plan of among our own citizens, especially the time, with the increased population and operations, although the Governor inform planters or farmers and mechrnics, will business of our country. The public dous that they bave not yet acquired the in

PARATIVE VIEW OF A SEPARATE WORK.

formation necessary to an estimate of ex-dimensions proposed hy the Canal Board, 11. ENLARGING THE Erie CANAL.–The en. penditure approaching to accuracy. These (unless belter can be devised) from Albany largement of the canal has, during the last circumstances are detailed to palliate the to Lake Erie, by the route of Oneida Lake season, been urtermined opon, at an eso presumption of questioning enter the dis-land River, Lake Ontario and the Niagara-pense some what exrerumg iis original cost. cretion of the grantors or the prude,ice of (see Assembly documents, last session, No. in carrying this resolution of the legislature the gantees of this ample power.

195.] The distance by this rouie to be ca. into elleri, we unciarstand that the canal What is the projeci, and what are its palled will be about 150 miles : 127 miles board mtends to rectily the course of the bearings? Twelve millions at least are to Tron Albany to the Onrida Lahe, 13 miles canal in thiuse pinces wirse from the inex. be expended to convert a small boat cana: round the rapids of the Oneida and Oswego perienced and losiy decisions of the en. into a large one ; and as the trade has be. rivers, 9 to 10miles round the Falls of Niaga gineers origmaily employed, the line of the come too important to tolerate interruption, ra-in all 150 m) s ot artificial navigation.canal was improperij ducated. At this dee this expenditure is to be made principally

The whole distance from the sudson to wrivinat un we rejoice. in the winter inonths, say froin the 30th | Bufialo by tlie Lake route is 378 miles, wc Every person who has travelled the Erie November 10 the middle of April. A more may be reluced to $631 miles, should the Canal must bave observed many places lavish expenditure of money ihan this con- direct route from Sehenectady to Albany b: where the route could be judiciou-iy altered. templates, cannot be imagined. Judeed, adopted; giving 223 m les of natural navi-l in one part of the canal io whicla public athow inc various labors of earth excavation, gation, instead of 365 miles by the Eritention was of late been particularly directlock-pits, cotler-dams, culveris, masonry, Canal. The natural navigation is boibed, its length is doubled, besides crossing a

river twice in the space of 15 nules. We grouting, &c., in short almost any portion cheaper and more useful ihan artificial. except rock excavation, can be achieved in even though the latter were not encumbered refer to the easieru section bezween Srbie. the winter months in this high latitude, is with tolls.

nectacy and Albany. The distance across nui easily conceived. Practical men pro

For the cost of these 150 miles, better date the country is but 75 miles, and by the canounce it impracticable, and the best engi-l are furnished by former surveys than are yellnai it is 30 mies. In the present rome, lov, neers say, that an entire new work, by the afforded so tbe enlarged roule. Mr. Roberts, the canal is twice taken across the Mohawk, side of the old, constructed in the proper sea. an engineer of acknowledged talents and and when the aqueducis are lowered three son, would cost less than the contemplated established reputation, estimates the Nia-leet on account of the increased dep!h of the alteration. gara Falls portion, in a detailed report, ai canal, il may well be doubted whether they

can be consiructed to withstand the spriug As twelve years must be devoted to this less than a million of dollars, for sloop or enterprise, litile benefit can result iu us until “ship navigation.” As a work of less mag Treslets of that rapid river. It has been that period shall have expired, so far as the nitude at his place would not be useful

. proposed to bring the canal direct 10 Albany trade we seek is concerned, for as lpg as a that portion of ile work should be se: duiv. as a mode of avoiding this d ficulty, and at prin of the canal is contracted in di. at this sum, say one million. Mr. E. F. tlie satue iime sliurtening this section of the mensions, small buais once loaded, woulu Johnson, bas estimated the cost of a still canal.

The ground between Schepertady and proceed through the whole line, instead of larger work, viz: 8 feet deep, 90 feet brord transferring their lading to a single large at the surface, with stone locks 130 frei Albaliy is a high table land, intersecied by boat, at an intermediate point. long by 30 fpet brond, for steamboats, from deep dry ravines and creeks, which enipiy

into the Mohawk to the north and the HudInterest compounded ai 5 per cent. while Oswego to Utica, it a little more than a mil the work is in progress, would swellits costlllion, [ $1,131,989, see his repori, Ass. doc. son on the east. The descent from the Mo. to about 16 millions of dollars. Our rivals / No. 195, page 47.] As this portion of the rawk at Sehenectady 10!the Hudson at Alwould have the field for 12 years to come,

work may be made to correspond with that bany, is 220 feet. The bright of the table with nothing more formidable than our

of the Mohawk section, viz: a large boat 7 land at Schenectady, is 115 fert above the present work to contend against; and when feet hy 70 and 16 foret locks; one million Molinwk, and at Albany. 185 feet above the that distint period arrives at which we are would be ample.-That engineer Johnson Hudsol. If this table land should be cut demand three times the amount of wes-those of the canal engineers at least, who ile Mobawk. inasmuch as the table land de

is good authority, will be conreded by through at Schenectady down to the level of modate; when we are to challenge our ri-have measured arms and tried their prowess sends toward Albany, upon an average, vals on the north, and on the south, and with h in : four will ons will remain to com- 15 feet in the mile, the deep cutting would combat for the prize, it is greatly to be fear-plete a boat canal from Utien to Allany, dis diminish as the canal advanced from ilie ed that our enlarged canal will be burthened feet by 70, and 13 feet locks? If this sum is level of the Mohawk would strike the top of

tinct and separate from the present canal, 7 Mohawk, and in eight wiles in line from the with tolls in proportion to its magnitude; adeqante to this portion of the work, ex

the table land. unless our exhausted treasury can be re

From that point there would be a continu. plenished and our unproductive canals suspended in the summer, it follows preity clear iained from other sources than the Erie, the whole work on the Erie Canal route "ex. ble land be cut throughi

, ilie work is not for. ly, that twelve millions are not enough fora! descent to ibe Hudson, Even if the ta. and projected improvements in other paris pended in the winter. of the State, be postponed for 12 years. Un.

Now I ask any onemidable; but if a proper' ravine he chosen, Jess this can be compassed, we shall have

io doubt, if they can, that six millions in the labor will be much diminished. The

money enlarged our work without attaining our four,) are not as liberal an estimate for ihese portance to the west.

and six years in time, (I may say object to be obtained is of the highest inobject.

A saving of 15 miles 150 miles of canal, as twelve millions and upon the eastern sertion of the canal, is il As it would be both unjust and ungener: twelve years are for the 365 miles? If so, saving of not less than $3 in tolls on every ous to find fault with our Legislature, and this work being achieved six years before boat entering the Budson, indthea me on condemn the projects of their agents, the other could be, and baving' three times the return, making $12 saving in tolls alone the Canal Board, without proposing substi- the capacity of the old canai, and being able on carb boit. The saving in line will be tutes, I will venture to submit one for public to bear the same toll (if required to do so)live hours each war, making ton louis on consideration, which promises to accom

as the Erir, it would not be unreasonable to each boat, which, estimating waves and v.8. plish the same object, for less than half the expect from it thus charged, an addition of penses of each boat it $1.50 fi r one day of expenditure of time and money, and one thai can earn in the remaining half of the peri- cost of the work in these six years. If this on each boat.

one million in toll per year, on the entiretro hours, will make a lotil saving of $13.50 od, at a resonable estimate enough to reim-1 work could accomplish so much, there

In 1834 there were 32,128 boats arrived burse all the cost-hat is at the end of 12 would indred still remain about one million, and cleared at the Hud-on, which, at $6.75 years. When the enlarged Erie Canal would|mpon the principle adopted with the Erie on each boat, would make an annual-aving begin to resund the 16 millions expended Canal for interest on the disbursements, to those navigating the canal of $218 956. upon it, my canal will have earned enough while the work was in progress. The Taking the present year as a basis, the sav. to reimburse its cost, leaving the Erie Canal|amount at the end of twelve years woulding would not fall short of $250,000, and and its present revenues untouched. This stand thus :

each year it will probably increase. Should State will have placed itself in a cond'tion to Erie Canal enlargement would have cost we not, then.parnestly inquire whether this compete with the western trade within six sixteen millions, and nothing refunded. great and annually increasing expense can. years, and in 12 years will have saved 15 The Lake route canal seven millions, of not be saved ? millions, which, if expended in other works, which six would have been reimbursed, The route proposed for this section of the would go far to satisfy the demands of leaving one million against sixteen ; or an|canal by Mr. Randal, who fully examined other sections of ihe State, numerous as they | advantage in favor of the Lake roule of fiflihe ground, was to leave the present canal are. Stariling as this proposition is, it is teen millions. Six years earlier com. 600 yards west of Schenectady, and go up nevertheless made with confidence,and with petition for the western trade would be the valley of the Sundkill until you arrivo the hope of provoking discussion and ex- achieved, and a better canal for all lime to at a point one and three quarter n.iles east amination.

of Schenectady, where the deep cuiting beTo the project :-Construct a canal of the

J. E. B. gins and continues 165 chains at an ave.

come.

do.

rage depth of 521 feet to Lyshe's kill, and || he must abandon it. The Company, by || manager conducts the work, in all its tience 100 cbailis, with the same average placing this work under contract, cannot paris, advantageously. depth of cuiting. Including the rivire on

gain, under any circumstances, but most If the President and Directors should conLyshe's kill, the average of deep cutring for elie whole 3.55 chains, or 4 miles auú 20 probably will loe. They cannot gain by cur with me in the opinion that the sih rods, will be reduced to 45 fert. From this having the work done with the lunds of -ection of the first division should be placed point there is another excavation for 9: | contracturs, (and in this way I am sure it under the direct management of agents of chains, of an average depth of 15 fert, along is not their wish to gain, because, if the the Company, I would then respectfully the valley of the Flykill, and thence another contractor has an inadequate price, and all but earnestly, further recommend, for the through the table land, 150 chuius long, and hough he may be in possession of ihe re same reasons, that two other sections be an average depth of 22 feet, to the lead 01|quisite fu: d-, he will not, most probably,| also graduated by the Company. Indeed, Mill Creek, which tows toward the Hudson, expend them for the benefit of ihe Compa-l: here will be additional reasons for underand empties itself into that river between | ny and to the ruin of himself; and if his taking the other two difficult and expensive

The estimate of the cost of excavating price is based upon the expectation of great sections. At any time that an increased and constructing the canal at the deep cut. || litticulties, and those dificulties should noi force might be temporarily required on any tings, has also been made by Mr. Randa!,|| occur at all, or only in part, then his pricelone section, it could be applied from one or and is as follows:

will be too high, and the Company will be boih of the other sections. Besides the corFor excavating, &c., No. 1, $ 188,464 || the loser. And again, if his price is ade-rect management by the Company, of sec. do.

No. 2, 278,188 quate and his funds inadequate, he will tions, on different parts of the line, would
No. 3, 40,675

most likely fail: or if his price and funds exert a powerful moral influence upon the
do.
No. 4, 148,172

are both adequate, and greater difficulties conduct of those employed on the whole So that the total cost amounts to $955,802 should occur than he expected, a failure line, very highly beneficial both to the inĮ The residue of the route is all sand and must be the consequence.

terests of the Company, and the contraccommon cutting for six and one-eighth

lors and laborers.

Failures are greatly to be deprecated, miles to the Hudson River, which is esti

In the event of those sections being conmated at $30,000. So that the direct route especially in the commencement of a greai would cost less than $1,000,000, independ. I work, and every possible precaution ought ducted as recommended, I would very reent of the locks, which are the same on the to be taken to prevent them. Their occur. spectfully suggest that if the provisions of new as the old route. rence is highly prejudicial to the interests

the charter justify the measure, and the Now is the time for investigation, before of the Company and of every one employed President and Directors approve it, that the the State has expended a dollar on the en- by thern, because they occasion distrust, establishment of stores by the Company, at largement of the canal. Let the route beriot, and consequent embarrassinent, if noillhose sections respectively, would prove whether the canal cannot come direct to the great injury to other contractors. The un beneficial boih to the interests of the ComHudson, instead of going round by the Co-certainty of payment causes an advance in |pany and those employed by it. The Com. hoes.

the price of every article of value, and in pany would, of course, sell to their opera.

none perhaps more than in that of labor. tives at very moderate profits, and whilst [ S. ]

And if the credit of the line sustains, in its they would thus advance their own inter

commencement, such a shock, as would be ests, would also subserve the interests of Baltimore, 26th Sept., 1833.

produced by a failure on this section, it can those in their empicyment, by selling to Sir,- In compliance with your insiruc

scarcely be expected 10 recover from it be-them necessary articles at fair prices and at tions, I have taken into consideration, the fore the work shall have been finished, and convenient places by which they would be proprily of causing the graduation of the he Company must, in the mean timne, pay saved from loss of time and perhaps from heavy sec ion (*Sth) of the first division of the premiun or advance in the price of la imposirion. The sri pe intendency of these the Washing on Railroad, to be executed|| bor occasioned by it. It will then be

esiablishwents would, of course, devolve

per under the imineliate direciion of agenis 01c-ived that the baneful consequences of all upon some other officer of the Company the Coupany, instead of the customary || failure on this section, may not be confinecil han the Superintendent of Graduation and my le by con ract, and recominend it as the to it alone, but will pervade the whole line Masonry, whose time would be too much must proper course.

of Road. And in the event of failure the otherwise occupied to attend to them. The se tion, under the most judici jus manage dertake ihe section themselves, or again will save both time and money to the la

It is believed that the grad ration of this Coinpany will be compelled either to un- l establishment of siores which will be conment, and in he absence of the occurrence place it under contract, most likely at an of extraordinary difficulties, such as iron advanced price, and with very lule cer- borers and o'hers in the service of the Comore, quicksands, landslips, &c., cannot be cainty that the succeeding contractor will pany, is considered of so much im partance, effected at a cost less than from eighty to finish it. And finally, afier encountering that I would recommend that the President nin aty thousan I dollars

. Viry few of such | ail the moral di-advantages of several fail-i and Directors should, in the event of their person 3 as are disposed to become contracures, to pay vastly more than the original leclining to establish them by the Compa. tors, or such as now are con raciors on pub-| value of the work. For ihese reasons and ny, afford every practicable facility to such lic works, are in the possession of sucho'hers which might be namel, I would re

persons as will establish them and conduct annount of funds as are indispensably neces. I specifully recommend to the consideration them or correct principles. sary for the advantageous commencement of the President and Directors the proprie To such men as are suitable for agents, and prosecution of a work of this magni-liy of conducting the graduation of this sec. men of character,—of long tried integrity, tude, and the insufficiency of means is notion, by agents of the Company. For this of capacity and great industry, adequate unfrequently the cause of fuilure, even purpose, a principal agent or manager, to be compensation must be given, or their serwhere : he price is ample and the manage-li selected' by the President and Directors, vices cannot be commanded : and unless ment good. But this section is, from ap. and 10 be under the direction of the Super such can be obtained, it would be more adpearances, so very liable to the occurrence of intendent of Graduation and Masonry, will | visable to encounter all the hazarde, perextraordinary difficulties, such as are abore be necessary. This agent should be a man plexities and difficulties likely to grow out alluded to, that no prudent contractor wili of in:egrity, fidelity, capacity, and of great of contracts for such expensive jobs. undertake its graduation without adding energy. The minute details of the work, as From the preceding remarks I do not to his price such sum as will

, in his opin. well as the selection of the necessary sub-ll wish it to be inferred that I am against ion, indemnify him for the risk. If he does ordinate agents, should be confided to him, | contracting altogether. I am decidedly in not do this, and any or all of those appre as he alone will be held responsible for the favor of contracting in general, and would hen led difficulties should be met with, his judicious and economical execution of the only make exceptions in cases of very large price will, of course, prore greatly inade: work. The general outlines of the opera-exient, or in such as it is beyond the capaquate to the coinpletion of the work, and ions and system of accountability will be city of man to form a correct estimate of

prescribed by the Superintendent of Gra- the value of ihe work to be done, because Note- This section was subsequently joined to the duation and Masonry, whose duty it will lof threatened or expected difficulties that Ist section of the second division, and both then called the lat section of ihe 2d division

also be to seo that the principal agent or may or may not occur.

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