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Copper and Lead Smelting.
(From Census Bulletin No. 86.) According to the special reports to the Census Bureau, 108 establishments were reported as engaged in the combined industry of copper, lead and zinc smelting and refining, in 1304. Their combined capital was $164,349,036. They employed 26,853 wage-earners, paid $20,058,200 in wages, consumed material costing $382,723,480, and manufactured products to the value of $451.398, 334.
At the Census of 1900 the lead smelting and refining industry was the most important of the three branches, and copper was second; but at the census of 1905 the positions kere reversed. At the later census the copper industry supplied 46.8 per cent. of the capital, 47.5 per cent. of the wage-earners, and 33.3 per cent. of the value of products, while the lead industry furnished 35.8 per cent. of the capital, 28.2 per cent. of the wage-earners, and 41.2 per cent. of the value of products. That the growth of the copper industry has been greater than the growth of the lead is partially due to an increase in the practice of smelting the dry ores of the precious metals with copper instead of lead ores.
COPPER SMELTING AND REFINING. Copper smelting and refining was the principal industry of 40 establishments, the combined capital of which was $76,821,610. These establishments furnished employment to 12,732 wage-earners, paid $10,827,043 in wages, consumed materials costing $196,736,956, and manufactured products to the value of $210,780,216,
When compared with the figures for the Census of 1900, those for 1905 show a decrease of 14.9 per cent. in the number of establishments, but an increase of 44.8 per cent, in capital, of 12.6 per cent, in wage-earners, of 26.9 per cent. in wages, of 61 per cent, in cost of materials, and of 45.8 per cent. in the value of products.
COPPER REFINED IN THE EAST. The growth of the industry, however, has not been uniform in the sections east and west of the Mississippi. The figures reveal a tendency toward the growth and concentration of the refining industry in the Eastern territory. In 1900 this territory reported only 86.8 per cent. of the refining, while in 1903 it reported 98.8 per cent. The operations of the Western establishments are how confined almost entirely to smelting, with, in a majority of cases, the conversion of the matte into blister copper, which is electrolytically refined in the East.
GOLD AND SILVER BY-PRODUCTS, At the Census of 1905 the product of smelting was valued at $88,374.830 and that of refining at $149,711,214. The products of smelting consisted roughly of 539,000,000 pounds of fine copper contents of blister or anodes, valued at $60,000,000; 82,000,000 pounds of fine copper contents of matte, valued at $9.000.000; 22,000,000 ounces of silver, valued at $ 12,000,000, and 322.000 ounces of gold, valued at $6,000,000. The products of refining consisted roughly of 934,000,000 pounds of ingots, wire, bars, etc., valued at $119,000,000; 28,000,000 pounds of blue vitriol, valued at $1,000,000; 28,000,000 ounces of silver, valued at $16,000,000, and 636,000 ounces of gold, valued at $13,000,000. Thus it appears that the product of the precious metals resulting from smelting and refining copper is valued at Clout $29,000,000. In 1900 the product of the precious metals resulting from smelting and relining copper was a little more than $12,000,000.
NEW JERSEY THE LARGEST PRODUCER. New Jersey is the largest producer of refined copper, and between 1900 and 1905 it increased its production of the total for the country. Of the 602,595,113 pounds of ingots, wire, bars, etc., reported in 1900. New Jersey produced 28.3 per cent., while of the 933.803, 701 pounds reported in 1993 it produced 35.6 per cent. The refining industry in New York also made a great advance, so that the States of New Jersey and New York reported for 1905 nearly two-thirds of the refined copper product of the country. Michigan was third and Maryland fourth.
LEAD SMELTING AND REFINING. Lead smelting and refining was the leading industry of 32 establishments, the aggregate capital of which was $63,822,810. These establishments employed 7,573 wage-earners, paid $5,374,691 in wages, consumed materials costing $168,958,076, and manufactured products valued at $185, 826.839.
When compared with the corresponding figures given at the Census of 1900, those for 1905 show a decrease of 17.9 per cent. in the number of establishments, of 11.5 per cent. in capital, and of 9 per cent. in the average number of wage-earners; but, on the other hand, they show an increase of 5.6 per cent. in total wages, of 17.2 per cent. in cost of materials, and of 5.9 per cent. in value of products. The decrease in the number of active establishments, in capital invested, number of wage-earners and general operating expenses has all been in the West, for establishments east of the Mississippi show increases in these items.
The products of the lead smelting and refining industry consisted of 783.060,836 pounds of lead, valued at $30,357,901; of 2,574,519 ounces of gold, valued at $52.994,436, and of 72,592,987 ounces of silver, valued at $41,423, 114, As compared with the corresponding figures of 1900, those for 1905 show an increase in quantity of 33.2 per cent. for lead, of 2.4 per cent. for gold, and of 3.1 per cent. for silver. In value lead increased 20.6 per cent, and gold 1.9 per cent., but silver decreased 1.7 per cent. That the development of the precious metals did not keep pace with that of lead is not due to a decrease in the precious metal values of the argentiferous lead ores treated, but results from the large increase in the quantity of dry gold and silver ores treated by the copper smelters. This increase in the consumption of dry ores by the copper smelters has been at the expense of the lcad smeltcrs.
The Xron and Steel \ndustry,
(From Census Bulletin No. 78.) From 1900 to 1905 the number of establishments in the United States has decreased from 660 to 606. At the same time capital increased from $390,030,481 to $948,689,640; the average number of wage-earners, froin 222,607 to 2 12,7410; wages, from $120,838,338 to $111.139,900; the cost of materials used. from $522,131,701 to $620,171.881, and the value of J'roducts, from $804,031,915 to $905,854.132. The tonnage produced in 1905 was $31,841,933, an increase of 18.1 per cent. since 1900.
BLAST FURNACES. There were, in 1905, 191 blast furnace establishments, 14.7 per cent. less than in 1900. The capital invested was $239,1039,191, an increase of 61.6 per cent. Materials cost $178.:07, 119, 36.1 per cent. more than in 1900: the tonnage of products was 16,628,294, a gain of 15.1 per cent., and the value $231, SS9,120, a gain of 12.1 per cent.
In the number of wage-earners there was a decline from 39,358 to 35,178 in 1905, due chiefly to the use of pig iron casting machines in place of sand casting and to improvements in charging devices and in ore handling machines for stocking and charging. The reduction in the labor factor through the improvements in equipment, as might be expected, is balanced by a corresponding increase in the capital invested. The investment in build. ings, machinery, tools and implements in 1905 in active establishments averaged $8.21 per ion of pig tron produced, as compared with $5. 18 per ton in 1900, an increase of 50.4 per cent.
PIG IRON MANUFACTURED. Considerable more pig iron was made with mixed coke and bituminous coal as fuel in 1905 than in 1900, and less with anthracite coal and with mixed anthracite coal and coke. The quantity of charcoal pig iron, although greater than in 1900, was relatively small. Bessemer and low-phosphorus, of which there were 8,894,584 tons and 192,795 tons, respectively, together formed 54.7 per cent. of all pig iron produced in 1905. Basic pig iron to the amount of 2,553,910 tons, 172.4 per cent. more than in 1900, formed 15.4 per cent. of the total, and foundry pig, 3,679,213 tons, formed 22.1 per cent. of the total. None of the remaining grades reported--malleable, Bessemer, forge, white and mottled, and miscellaneous grades, ferrosilicon, spiegeleisen, ferromanganese, and direct castings--formed as much as 4 per cent. of the total.
IRON FOR STEEL MAKING. Iron for steel making-comprising Bessemer, low-phosphorus, basic, ferrosilicon, spiegeleisen and ferromanganese-aggregated 11,921,578 tons, an increase of 23.4 per cent. over the production of like grades in 1900. The major part of the pig iron product-9,926,5+5 tons, or 59.7 per cent.-was made by establishments controlling steel works and rolling mills for consumption therein. After deducting this and the quantity purchased from independent establishments by steel works and rolling mills-2.264,683 tons -- there remains out of the total pig iron production 16,628,294 tons--4,437,006 available for foundries, other industries, etc.
With the development of the Bessemer and open-hearth processes there has resulted the practice of retaining the blast-furnace metal in molten condition. Casting machines have also been extensively introilucent, and to a small extent the practice of chill casting Ol casting on an iron floor. Of all pig iron made. 6,083,513 tons were sand cast, 5.898,714 tons were delivered in molten condition to Besseiner converters, open-hearth furnaces, etc.; 4,307,108 tons were machine cast, 329. 160 chill cast, and 9,169 were direct castings.
The most important improvement of late years in the blast furnace industry is the Gayley dry-air blast, which. by eliminating the effert of the moisture of the air and its tendency to consume heat energy, results in the following economies: a reduction of some 20 per cent. in the fuel consumer por unit of pig iron, increase in the capacity of the furnace, reduction in iron ore waste (dust), and control over silicon range, There is also, incidentally, a saving in power.
STATES PROMINENT IN THE PIG IRON INDUSTRY. In 1905 there were active blast furnaces in twenty States, Pennsylvania is still far in advance of the other States as a producer of pig iron. Ohio, Illinois and Alabama follow, in the order named. All but three of the States which had more than two blast furnace establishments in 1905 reported increases in pig iron production. Pennsylvania produced one-half of the Bessemer pig iron, nearly three-fourths of the low-phosphorus, nearly three-fourths of the basic, over one-fifth of the foundry, more than one-half of the forge, over three-fifths of the spiegeleisen, all of the ferromanganese, nearly one-third of the direct castings, and relatively small amounts of the remaining grades-malleable Bessemer, white and mottled, and miscellaneous grades, and ferrosilicon,
STEEL WORKS AND ROLLING MILLS. The number of active steel works and rolling mills for which separate reports were received was 415. a decrease of 23 from the number in 1900. The capital invested in these establishments was $709,130,616, an increase of 60.5 per cent. since 1900; the amount invested in idle establishments was $21.217.646. The average number of wage-earners and wages were, respectively, 207,562, a gain of 13.4 per cent., and $122, 191,993, a gain of 19.8 per cent. The cost of materials used was $411,204,432, and the value of products, $073,965,026; the gain was 13 per cent. in both. The total tonnage of products was 18,216,639, an increase of 21.1 per cent., compared with an increase in the decade preceding of 103.6 per cent,
Pennsylvania continues to produce more than one-half of the cast steel and rolled iron and steel products, its output constituting 54 per cent. of the total value, compared with 05.7 per cent. in 1900. This State reports one-half of all employees and expenses pertaining to the industry, and over one-half the capital. Its present share of the steel making and rolling mill industry is even greater than its share in the blast furnace branch, and exceeds by over $30,000,000 the total product of steel works and rolling mills for the entire country in 1890. Ohio ranks second, Illinois third, and New York fourth.
295 1,690 116,663 63,486 78,831
180 79.209.166 341,639,113
3,100 115,267 53,952 47,991
40 78,731,523 308,344.613
2,315 38,419 51,146 39,600 25,745
1,048,202 44,678,456 14,098,000
3,933 (11) 863,663 851.000
850 1,352,418 139,889,230 1,933,80
19.039 25.986.122 1.030,334
768,163 196.041 213.90
600 178,788.244 354,043,546
64.637 19.667 226,157 104, 109 232,452 186,816 114,696
821,967 94,768,122 6,739,200)
224,980 1,681,472 185,900
163,908 119.906 8:23 9,113,296
88,118 6.095,929 1,083,730 4,574,560
9.147 72,656 66,697 34,883 28.000 6,404
16.883 4,894,483 1.040,585 49,237, 129 15,486,139
7,805 (u) 141,681 1,423.100
1.489 846,176 131,771,506 2.062.742
12,200 925.046 28,172,380 1,089, 430 1,314,742
20,566 1,066,019 252,719 352, 490
1,800 166,307,002 400.550, 961
92,780 401.631 243,012 201.481 237.960 179,548 102,176
170,866 3,837,976 107,091,574 7,829,1%
5,415 310.993 25.,248
152,312 80,277,979 12,342,741
6,658,350 1,208,788 5,668,346
11,350,000 $3,632.000 14 350,000 $5,160.000 Antimony..
614.848 5.800.000 1,37,019 ('opper...
875,241.741 137,404,200 917,630.000 180,000.39 Ferromanganese (0)
300.500 24.040.084) Gold (fine).
Troy oz. 4,256,120 89.180.700 4.648 385 96,101,114) Iron (pig)
22,7112,397 377,510.62 25,006,691 431,871,141 Lead.. .....
345,529 39.093 151 Nickel (s)....
7.150 6,3641.640 Platinum..
4. IN Quicksilver...
20,393 1.157,1-4 Silver (fine).
Troy oz. 56,101.600 33,858,48 56.183,500 37.33,521 Zinc......
228.494 27,961,366 Total metals,
$873.514.630 Total ores and minerals.
891.555,13 Secondary products..
178,249,69% Grand total enumerated........
1,872.312,449 (c) Includes sulphate male from metallic copper. (l) Includes manganiferous iron ore. Estimated. (1) One ** square" covers 100 sqnare Teet. (9) Barrels of 265 lbs. (h) Barrels of 380 lbs. (1) Barrels of 42 gallons. (h) Includes salt used in manufacture of alkali; the barrel of salt weighs 280 lbs. (m) Includes a small quantity made from spelter. (0) Flasks of 75 lbs. (9) Includes spiegeleisen, although the value is given as for ferromanganese. (xi Includes nickel froni ('anadian ores smelled in the United States. Barrels of 330 lbs. (') Figures reported by the United States Gieological Survey. (1) Excludes Lake Superior mangauilerous iron ore which is included in iron ore proper.
The foregoing statistics of " Mineral Products of the United States" were compiled by the New York periodical, The Mineral Industry,” and “The Engineering and Mining Journal."
17,724.00 29,040 $17.724.00 Ohio.. 74.200,000 70,000 8,533,000 Indiana
10.980.000 12.100 19,480),(N) Virginia.... 73,005,125 108,971 6,031,64. New York...
8,812 900 7,074 1:20.25 North Carolina.. 69,807.540 120.358 6.980 764 Vassachusetts. 6,245,18 4,719 1.535.0 Wisconsin... 49,725,000 39.000 6,713,875 Oiher Slates...
21,814,505 29,839 3,919,164 Pennsylvania, 35,750.00 20,000 4,897.750 Tennessee.
31,069,000 43,400 2,555,176 Connecticut. 24,-9.9470 14.140 4,415,22 Total lis.
682,428,5601 796,099 $68,23,647 The imports of tobacco, fiscal year 1907, were 39, 540,321 pounds, valued at $26,055, 248. or those importations 20,333, 264 ponds, valued at $13,527,863, were from Cuba, The exports were 340,742,864 pounds, valued at $33,377,398.
Dollars, Pounds Dollars (ents
8. Russia 1902 23:2, 767,000 150,244.000 21,254,000 1.10
.18 161 France
1902 54,010,000 84,303.000 81,063,000 2. If 2. OS 96.1 United Kingdom. 1904
83,378,000 63, 806, 000 1.93 1. 19 76.0 Austria.... 1902 15,895,000
27. 113,000 78, 755,000
3. 02 44, 633,000
1.69 Hungary..... 1903 134,567,000
1.14 47.0 Production of other countries in pounds in 1904 : Cuba. 45, 748,000; Brazil, 57,000,000: Bela zium. 1:3,183.000; British India, 441,000; Java, 19.100,000, Sumatra, '46.500.000, Japan, 101,873,000; Turkey, 90,000,000; Philippines, 33, 100,000. Tylal world, 2,016,817,000,
The Tobacco Xndustry in the United States.
(From Census Bulletin No. 87.) Census statistics of the manufacture of tobacco appeared first at the Census of 1810. The classifications were “American Cigars," "Spanish Cigars," and "Tobacco and Snuff.' No totals were presented for the entire country, but the returns for Pennsylvania gave a total of 3,898,999 Spanish cigars. valued at $26.550; 29,061,000 American cigars, valued at $14,253, and 2,186,757 pounds of tobacco and snuff, having a value of $410,910. For Virginia were returned 2,726,713 pounds of tobacco and snuft, of a value of $469,000. At the Census of 1840, out of thirty States and Territories the manufacture of tobacco was reported for twenty-eight, the total value of products as shown in the recapitulation being $3,819,568, of which Virginia reported $2,406,671.
GROWTH SINCE 1850. The returns at the Census of 1850 were for “tobacconists." The value of products was reported as $13,491,147, of which $5, 157,652 was from Virginia; the number of establishments in the United States was 1.418; the capital, $.1.008, 295; the number of wage. carners. 14,236, of which 1,975 were females, the cost of labor, $2,420,208, and of materials, $7,341,728.
The enormous growth of the industry since 1950 is indicated hy the fact that the value of products for the year covered by the Census of 1905 was $331,117,681. the capital employed being $323,983,501. In the saane year the industry expended $126,088.608" for materials, $C2,610,303 for wages, $8,800,434 for salaries, and $80,145,016 for miscellaneous expenses.
The value of products increased 25.6 per cent. for 1905, as compared with 1900; the cost of materials, 35.8 per cent., and the amount paid in wages, 30.6 per cent. The reported capital shows an increase of 190.5 per cent.
NUMBER OF WAGE-EARNERS. The number of wage-earners employed in 1905 in this industry was 159.408. This represents the average number employed during the year and includes 85,691 men, 66,301 women, and 7,416 children under sixteen years of age. The proportion of women comprised in the total has greatly increased in recent years. In 1880 only 23.1 per cent. of the total number of wage-earners in this industry were women. This proportion increased to 23.8 per cent. in 1870, 37.2 per cent. in 1900, and 41.6 per cent. in 1905.
of the reported aggregate value of products, cigars and cigarettes form 64.7 per cent. and chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff 33,3 per cent. of the total number of wage-earners 85 per cent. were employed in the manufacture of cigars and cigarettes. The number of establishments reported as engaged in the manufacture of cigars and cigarettes was 16,395, while the number reported for the other branch of the industry was only 433. This striking difference is due in part to the fact that cigars and cigarettes are to a considerable extent manufactured in small establishments, whereas chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff is mostly produced in factories of considerable size. For the cigar and cigarette branch of the industry the average capital invested per establishment was only $8,852. while for the other branch it was $413.043. A similar contrast appears in the average number of wage-earners per establishment, the number being 8 for cigars and cigarettes and 56 for chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff.
TOBACCO CONSUMED. According to the reports of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, the total amount of tobacco manufactured in 1904 was 448,511,793 pounds, the quantity used in the manufacture of cigars and cigarettes being 141,020,025 pounds, as compared with 307.491,554 pounds used for the production of chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff. As reported by the Census, the value of the raw materials--mostly tobacco-used in the manufacture of cigars and cigarettes ($09,291,011) was more than twice the value of that consumed in for cigars and cigarettes and 55 for chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff.
PRODUCTION OF CIGARS AND CIGARETTES. According to figures derived from the reports of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, the number of cigars manufactured in the calendar year 1904 was 7,376,669,712, and the number of cigarettes was 3,433,933, 122. As compared with the year 1900, this shows an increase of 19.4 per cent in the manufacture of cigars and of 5.4 per cent. in the manufacture of cigarettes, The Census Bulletin calls attention to the fact that the number of cigars and cigarettes consumed increased 27.5 per cent between 1900 and 19, and that between 1809 and 1905 the consumption of cigars increased nearly sevenfold, while the population in the same period increased only a little over twofold.
PRINCIPAL PRODUCING STATES. The manufacture of cigars and cigarettes is one of the few factory industries that are represented in every State and Territory, The production ranges in value from $!),310 (reported for the State of Mississippi) to $60.623.617, reported for New York, The production in New York represents in value 28.3 per cent. of the total production (214,350.031) of the United States, There were four other States for which the reported value of products exceeded $10,000,000. These States, with the value of product, were as follows: Pennsylvania, $39.079,122; Florida, $16.764,276; Ohio. $13,241.230, and Illinois, $11,669,495. As compared with the Census of 1900 a very noteworthy increase in the value of product is shown for the State of New Jersey, in which the production increased from $2.647,595 for 1900 to $8.331,611 in 1903. This increase was due chiefly to the establishment of a number of large cigar factories, most of which were owned by one corporation. As a result, New Jersey advanced from the twelfth place in 1900 to the sixth at the Census of 1905.
The production of chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff is contined to a smaller number of States than that of cigars and cigarettes. the United States is $116, 707,630.
The total production reported for