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militia under Governor Shelby, embarked on the lake, and soon arrived at Malden. This post had been abandoned by the British, who had ascended the river Thames as far as the Moravian villages.

Here they were overtaken by General Harrison, on the 5th of October, who succeeded in bringing them to action, and gained a complete victory. General Proctor saved himself by flight, leaving his camp equipage

Six hundred of the British were made prisoners. The Indians are said to have borne the brunt of the battle, and fallen in great numbers. Their great chief, Tecumseh, was among the slain in the battle of the Thames, having been shot by Colonel Johnson. This victory restored to the Americans all the posts which had been surrendered by General Hull.

The British had been no less successful in exciting the hostility of the Indians at the southern extremity of the Union than at the north; and a visit of Tecumseh at the commencement of the war had stirred up among them a spirit of blind fanaticism which manifested itself by a series of hostilities, carried on by the Creeks and Seminoles against the frontier inhabitants of Georgia. This was repressed, however, for the time, by an incursion of 2,500 Tennessee volunteers led by General Jackson in the fall of 1812. Their hostility now burst forth with fresh violence.

At Fort Mimms, in the Tensaw settlement, a party of 300 inhabitants who had fled thither for safety, were surprised on the 30th of August, by 600 Indians, who broke into the fort What was

now done by General | What excited the hostility of the Harrison ?

Indians in the south ? Where did he overtake the British ? Who repressed their attempts in the Describe the battle of the Thames. fall of 1812 ? What did this victory restore to the What was done at Fort Mimms ? Americans ?



THE CREEK WAR. drove the people into the houses which it inclosed, and set them on fire. Only seventeen escaped the general massacre.

An army of 3,500 militia principally from Tennessee was speedily assembled and placed under the command of General Jackson for the purpose of chastising the authors of this unprovoked outrage. On the 2d of November a detachment of this force under General Coffee attacked the Creeks, at Talluschatches, destroyed 200 of their warriors, burnt their town, and captured 86 prisoners.

On the 8th, General Jackson attacked a large body of the Creeks, who were assembled at Taladega, and defeated them; the Indians leaving 290 of their warriors on the field, and retreating to the mountains.

On the 18th of November, General White was equally successful at the Hillibee village, where, after a bloody encounter, he defeated the Creeks, 60 of their warriors being killed, and 256 made prisoners without the loss of a single man on the side of the Americans. General Floyd inflicted a similar defeat on the Indians at Autosse, on the 29th of November.

On the 22d of January, 1814, General Jackson, with about 1,400 men, was attacked by a large body of the Creeks near the bend of the Tallapoosa. The Indians were repulsed with considerable loss, and the general, having effected his object, a diversion in favour of General Floyd, retired to Fort Strother. A furious night attack, made upon General Floyd's detachment on the 27th, was successfully resisted; and the Indians were

ompelled, after a severe loss, to fly for shelter into the Caulibee swamp.

The last signal stroke of vengeance was inflicted on the Creeks at the Horse Shoe Bend, called by the Indians Tohopeka, on the Tallapoosa, March 27th, 1814. Here, by the judicious arrangements of General Jackson, they were completely surrounded, and after a most sanguinary battle, the greater part of them were destmoyed. Six hundred warriors fell in the battle, and but 300 escaped.

This may be considered the closing scene of the Creek war, since the subsequent march of General Jackson to the Hickory Ground only terminated in the formal submission of the chiefs. Who now marched against the In- | What was done by General Jackson

on the 22d of January? What was done by General Coffee ? By General Floyd on the 27th ? By General Jackson ?

By General Jackson on the 27th of By General White ?

March? By General Floyd ?

dians ?

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• The interference of Great Britain,' says an American historian,* in the relations that subsisted between the United States and the Creek Indians, was, as will be presently seen, finally retaliated upon her, with four-fold vengeance.

The war with those deluded savages was the school in which Generals Jackson, Coffee, and Carroll became adepts in the tactics that made a Tennessee rifleman superior to a

66 Wellington invincible," and qualified an army of citizen soldiers to defeat an army of veterans, of superior numbers. The ways of Providence are indeed inscrutable to man. When the Creek war broke out, the United States were completely begirt with enemies; and short-sighted man would have considered the addition of an infuriated and warlike race to the list of their foes as an event much to be deplored. But this circumstance, more than any other, favoured the defence of New Orleans. The officers and soldiers who defeated the legions of Packenham, Gibbs, Keane, and Lambert, were formed in the contest with the unfortunate victims to British influence.'

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Early in the spring of 1813 an offer was made by the emperor of Russia of his mediation as the common friend of

What rer iarks are made on the con

duct of the British ?


What offer was made by the emperor

of Russia in 1813?

* Ramsay's History of the United States.




the United States and Great Britain, for the purpose of facilj. tating a peace between them. The president, having accepted this offer, commissioned John Quincy Adams, then minister of the United States at St. Petersburg, Albert Gallatin, and James A. Bayard, with the requisite powers to conclude a treaty of peace with persons clothed with similar powers, on the part of Great Britain.

During the session of congress, which commenced in December, 1813, a communication was received from the British government, declining to treat under the mediation of Russia, and proposing a direct negotiation in London or Gottenburg. This proposition was accepted, and the latter place appointed for the meeting, which was afterwards transferred to Ghent; and Henry Clay and Jonathan Russell were added to the commissioners who had already gone to Europe.

For the purpose of increasing the force of the regular army, several acts of congress were passed, offering large bounties to recruits, and providing liberally for the pay, rations, and clothing of the troops. A loan of twenty-five millions of dollars, and the issue of treasury notes for five millions, were also authorised. Provision was also made for the increase and better organisation of the navy, and for the defence of the seaboard. An embargo, which had been laid to prevent the trade under British licenses, was repealed in April, 1814.

The fall of Napoleon, having left Great Britain at peace with all nations except the United States, enabled that power to direct the whole of her disposable force against the Ameri

This circumstance, increasing the perils of the campaign, rendered it necessary to make greater exertions and sacrifices for the defence of the country.

The spring passed away without any important operations on either side. The army which had wintered at French Mills left that station in the early part of the spring, one division, under General Wilkinson, proceeding to Plattsburg, and the remainder, under General Brown, returning to Sackett's Harbour. In March, General Wilkinson entered Canada, and made an attack on a party of the British stationed in a large stone building called La Cole Mill. He was defeated with a heavy loss; and being soon afterwards superseded, his command was given to General Izard. What was the answer of the United | What was done to increase the force States ?

of the army? Of the British government?

What was the effect of the fall of Who were added to the commis- Napoleon ? sion?

What is said of the army at French

Mills ?





On the 5th of May, the British made a descent on Oswego and succeeded in capturing and destroying the fort and mili tary stores at that place ; after which they returned to King ston.

Early in July, General Brown crossed the Niagara river and invested Fort Erie, which was surrendered without

oppo sition, and the prisoners, 137 in number, were sent to Buffalo The

army then advanced to Chippewa, where a large body of the British were posted ; and, on the 5th of July, a severe engagement took place, in which the British lost upwards of three hundred killed and wounded, two hundred being left dead on the field. The American loss was 60 killed, and 268 wounded and missing: The British then retired to Fort George, and General Brown took post at Queenstown to await reinforcements from Sackett's Harbour.

The expected reinforcements, however, being blockaded by a British fleet off the harbour, did not arrive. Detachments from the army were occupied with unimportant skirmishes until July 25th, when the battle of Bridgewater, near the cataract of Niagara, took place.

The British advanced to the attack under General Drummond. The first brigade, under General Scott, with Towson's artillery and a body of cavalry, composed the advance of the Americans, and, engaging the enemy at six o'clock in the evening, sustained the attack without support for an hour. General Ripley, with fresh troops, then arriving, relieved General Scott, and his exhausted brigade formed a reserve on

The British artillery had taken post on an eminence at the head of Lundy's Lane, and poured a most deadly fire on the Americans. It became necessary to dislodge them or retreat. • Will you advance and capture that battery ?' said the commanding general to Colonel Miller. “I will try, sir,' was the modest reply of the colonel, which afterwards became the motto of his regiment. He advanced coolly and steadily to his object, amidst a tremendous fire of artillery, and at the point of the bayonet carried the artillery and the height. The guns were turned upon the enemy. Several attempts were made to regain them without success.

The principal force of both parties were directed to this point, and a most sanguinary contest took place, which resulted in the defeat of the British. The loss on each side was about 800

the rear.

Of the capture of Oswego?

Of the battle of Bridgewater. Of Fort Erie?

What is said of Colonel Miller ? Give an account of the battle of what was the loss on each side ? Chippewa.

Where did General Ripley take pos

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