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and reduced its height by some 2,000 ft. A Vast no fear that an eruption will take place while they crater was formed, surrounded by a jagged rim. are at the foot of the mountain. That considerWithin this crater, which measured nearly 3 miles able heat still remains in the volcanic reservoirs across from north to south, two small cinder cones below, however, is shown by the steam jets that were later built up, and these contiguous cones to- continue to issue at the summit and by the warm gether now form the dome that constitutes the springs at Longmire. Mount Rainier bears a greatmain summit of the peak. They rise only about a number of glaciers than any other peak in the 300 ft. above the higher portions of the old crater continental United States. A study of the map rim.
will show great arms of ice extending from the Mount Rainier is not known to have had any summit down the mountain sides to end in rivers great eruptions during historic times. Indian leg- far below. Six great glaciers appear to originate ends tell of a great eruption, but the date is un- at the top of the peak. known. During the nineteenth century the old vol- The University of Washington is in Seattle: cano appears to have been feebly active at long State College in Pullman; Gonzaga University in intervals and now is dormant. Visitors need have Spokane.
West Virginia Capital, Charleston-Mountain State-State Flower, Rhododendron-Motto: Montani Semper Liberi (Mountaineers Always Freemen)--Area, 24,181 sg. mi.; rank, 40th-Population, 1,901,974; rank, 25th.
West Virginia was set off during the Civil War tier soldiery in the Continental Army in the east. from Virginia. It is bounded on the north by Ohio. and gave impetus to the conquest of the Illinois Pennsylvania, and Maryland: on the south by country by General George Rogers Clark. Virginia and Kentucky: and on the west by Ken- In the American Revolution, no region sent more tucky and Ohio.
men to the east under Washington and his subIt is essentially mountainous. the Appalachian "back door" of the embryonic United States. than
commanders, or did more valiant defense of the Range having several spurs therein. Its western
did the men from West Virginia. These days found parts drain into the Ohio River, and its eastern
the pioneers forced to wage war against the British portions down the Potomac River to the Atlantic
from the sea and the Indians from beyond the Ocean. The climate is moderate, and between the Ohio. Indeed from the west the closing, days of north and south extremes.
the Revolution blended into the so-called later The State is a heavy producer of soft coal, petro-Indian wars which only ended at the battle of leum, natural gas, iron ore, iron and steel products. Fallen Timbers (Aug. 20, 1794) where General glass and glassware, chemicals and chemical prod- Anthony Wayne broke the power of the savare. ucts. Millions of dollars have been invested in
Several conflicts at arms took place on West Virchemical plants in the Kanawha Valley.
ginia soil West Virginia produces more hardwood than In the Whiskey Insurrection (1794) hundreds of any other State, excepting Arkansas, and has vast "west" Virginians rendezvoused at Moorefield, pretimber wealth, including yellow poplar, birch, ash.
paratory to marching into Pennsylvania. In the oak. spruce, hemlock and walnut.
War of 1812 many men marched to Norfolk to The chief agricultural products are wheat, corn, defend the shores of Virginia from the English. oats. hay. potatoes. tobacco, apples, peaches. A brigade collected at Point Pleasant and marched plums and grapes.
across the state of Ohio. to serve in the Maumee The date of the appearance of the first white River region under General Benjamin Harrison. settler in what is now West Virginia is unknown. In the War with Mexico, West Virginians responded Recently discovered records in England indicate to the call of the Governor of Virginia for volunthat probably pioneers had crossed the Potomac teers and several hundred saw service in and around and located on or near the site of Shepherdstown Mexico City, including a young man named Thomas (as early as 1719). Morgan was recorded as a J. Jackson, from Weston, who emerged from the settler near Bunker Hill, Berkeley County (by Civil War as "Stonewall" Jackson. Five companies 1726). Out of the groups of French and English from Jefferson and Barkeley Counties saw service settlers and the struggle between them, came the (Oct. 1859) in the John Brown "Insurrection." French and Indian War. In this took place the first With the opening of the Civil War (1861) the armed conflict on West Virginia soil. Dunmore's first engagement of the war took place at Philippi War followed in which the pioneers took & part. (June 3, 1861). Skirmishes, battles, and other serving at the battle of Point Pleasant at the affairs at arms were in evidence almost continumouth of the Great Kanawha (Oct. 1777) and in ously until the spring of 1865. the expedition into the heart of the wilderness of Mineral Springs at White Sulphur and GreenOhio, where at Camp Charlotte, preliminaries were brier County, West Virginia, are world famous. agreed upon with the Indians, out of which grew Among higher institutions of learning are Unithe treaty of Pittsburg by which the Indians were versity of West Virginia, in Morgantown, West kept quiet until 1777. This action had a profound Virginia State College, in Institute, and West Virinfluence upon permitting operations of the fron- ginia Wesleyan, Buckhannon.
Wisconsin Capital, Madison-Badger State-State Flower, Violet-Motto: Forward-Area, 56,154 sq. mi.; rank,
25th--Population, 3,137,587; rank, 13th. Wisconsin. of the East North Central group. is chiefly, and the fisheries on the lakes are highly bounded on the north by Lake Superior and Michi- productive. gan, on the east by Michigan and Lake Michigan, The story of Wisconsin forests, as of all of the on the south by Illinois. Iowa and Minnesota, and
Lake States, is tragic. Naturally, almost the entire on the west by Iowa and Minnesota. The Mississippi State was covered with pine, hemlock, and the
valuable hardwoods. Lumbering proceeded without River forms the southern half of the western
regard to conservation, until more than 8,000,000,boundary line. It has the characteristic climate of
000 ft. were cut annually, until exhaustion of supply the northern tier of States. cold in winter and cut production. The cut (1899) was 3,389.166 M. pleasant in summer, dry and stimulating.
bd. it.; and (1933) was 186,000 M. bd. ft. The Agriculture is the leading industry and every- estimated stand is about 2.000.000 M. bd. ft. There thing grown in the north temperate zone is are wide areas of cut-over forest lands, with produced, in grains, vegetables and fruits, agri- scattered timber tracts left. culture being especially well diversified-corn, Superior, at the head of Lake Superior, opposite wheat, rye, barley. hay. flaxseed potatoes. sugar
Duluth, is the main terminus of the Great Northern beets, with considerable quantities of tobacco for Railway, and has great ore. lumber, wheat and coal cigar wrappers, hops, peas. sorghum and maple dockage, with considerable manufacturing of iron syrup. More peas are canned than in any other products. State, and more hemp raised. The State ranks The Wisconsin Unemployment Compensation Act. high in cranberry production and also produces
the first adopted by any American State. went into apples, cherries and plums. Wisconsin is a leader
effect (July 1, 1934), affecting more than 1,500 emin the number of dairy cows, in cheese production
ployers and about 400.000 employees receiving less and in the output of condensed milk products and than $1.500 annually each, casein.
Wisconsin was the first State to set up (1917) Manufactures include lumber cut in the Great a cooperative crop reporting organization jointly Lakes region. The State ranks high in butter pro- with the Federal Government-- a system which has duction; refines much beet sugar, makes much since been adopted by forty States. wood work and implement products, considerable pig A law was passed (1939) restricting labor picket. Iron output, ranks fifth in zinc production, fourth ing to labor disputes which are defined as a differin iron ore output. the valuable hematite kind ence between an employer and a majority of his
employees in a collective bargaining unit result- Jean Nicolet was the first white man known to ing in a strike or a lockout.
set foot on Wisconsin soil. He arrived at the Wisconsin is rich in lakes and resorts that beckon mouth of the Fox River (1634) and landed either the tourist. Devils Lake in Sauk County is set between mammoth quartzite bluffs. It is fed by
at Red Banks or at Dotys Island up the river near springs and has no visible outlet. Ripple marks
Neenah. The source material for early Wisconsin made by waves 700.000 to 1.000.000 years ago may history, the "Jesuit Relations" which were rebe seen on the rocks and scratches made by
ports sent by the Jesuit missionaries in New France glaciers may be found on the bluffs. A series of to their order in Europe, merely says. "When they waterfalls in the Bad River four miles from the (Nicolet and his companions) reached their desticity of Mellen annually attracts thousands of nation they fastened two sticks in the earth and visitors. The principal falls, because of the copper hung gifts thereon so as to relieve these tribes colored rocks which flank it, has long been known from the notion of mistaking them for enemies to as Copper Falls,
Wyoming Capital, Cheyenne-Equality (Suffrage) State-State Flower, Indian Paintbrush-Motto: Cedant Arma Togae (Let Arms Yield to the Gown)-Area, 97,914 sq. mi.; rank, 8th-Population, 250,742; rank, 48th.
Wyoming. a Mountain Group State, is bounded (established 1929) contains more than 8.500.000 on the north by Montana, on the east by South
acres in 11 national forests. Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado
Thermopolis Hot Springs, in Hot Springs County, and Utah, and on the west by Utah, Idaho and
is one of the outstanding geological phenomena
of the world. It is the largest hot spring known, Montana. It is a lofty region, its mean elevation flowing 18,600,000 gallons of water at 135 degrees about 6,000 ft.a broad plateau traversed by the Fahrenheit every 24 hours, which contain mineral Rocky Mountains, highest point of which is Mt. properties adaptive to the successful treatment of Gannett. 13.785 ft. Topography is varied.
rheumatism, infantile paralysis and similar disIts waters flow in all directions, drainage by the orders The Saratoga Mineral Hot Springs are Green River to the southwest, by the Yellowstone
in Carbon County. Mammoth Hot Springs in and Snake Rivers to the northwest. by the Big Jupiter Terrace is the largest hot spring terrace
in the world. Horn to the north, and by the North Platte. Sweet
There are as well two other national monu. water and Laramie Rivers to the southeast, none of them navigable.
ments, Devils Tower (the first national monuThe climate is that of the rarefed air of high ment) and Shoshone Cavern; 11 national forests
and two State parks. elevations, and is salutary, with severe winters and pleasant summers, moisture precipitation being low the historic Trois Tetons, which were noted land
The Grand. Middle, and South Tetons comprise at about 12 inches mean annually. The soil in its entirety requires irrigation and
marks to the trappers and explorers of the early there are more than 5,000 miles of ditches in the
19th century. Eleven peaks are of such boldness and
prominence that they receive rank as major peaks. State. The crops include corn, wheat, oats, potatoes, hay, alfalfa and fruit. No state produces a
In order of descending altitude they are: Grand sugar beet with a higher sugar content, and the
Teton, 13,766 ft.; Mount Owen, 12.922: Middle average yield for the beets is 13.5 tons an acre.
Teton, 12.798; Mount Moran, 12.594: South Teton, The production of certified seed potatoes is ex
12.505: Mount Teewinot. 12.317: Buck Mountain, tensive. Great mineral resources, not fully devel
11.923; Nex Perce, 11.900: Mount Woodring. 11,585: oped, include coal, petroleum, gold, silver, Iron and
Mount Wister, 11,480; and Mount St. John, 11.412.
Up to the beginning of the last century Indians copper Since the days of the cattle kings the State has been recognized as one of the greatest
held undisputed sway over the country dominated
by the Trois Tetons. Then, as now, Jackson Hole of livestock States; more than 800,000 head of fine beef cattle and 4,000,000 head of sheep and
was literally a happy hunting ground, and, while lambs graze on the prairies, ranches and farms.
the severe winters precluded permanent habitation,
during the milder seasons, bands of Indians freThe wool clip is of great value. Dairying is im
quently entered the basin on hunting or warring portant in several sections.
expeditions. They represented many tribes, usually The University of Wyoming is in Laramie. The first guaranty of equal suffrage to women
hostile to each other. The dreaded Blackfeet, the
Crows, the Nez Perce, the Flatheads, the Shoshoni. in the United States was contained in the Act
and others. of 1869 of the Territorial Legislature of Wyoming. On the Jackson Hole side the Teton Range preThe Constitution, subsequently adopted by the
sents one of the most precipitous mountain fronts voters of Wyoming, was confirmed by Congress on the continent. Except for Teton Pass. at its (July 1, 1890) and Wyoming was admitted into the
southern end, the range is practically an insuperUnion.
able barrier. Forty miles in length, it springs Many tourists visit the State to enjoy the ranch abruptly from Jackson Hole and only a few miles life which retains much of the flavor of the old
west of its base attains elevations of more than West. The Shoshone Indian Reservation is in 13.000 ft. above the sea. Thus most of the range the west central part of the State.
is lifted above timber line into the realm of perThe first white settlement established (about petual snow, and in its deeper recesses small 1834) was old Fort Laramie, now a national
glaciers still linger. The grandeur of the beetling monument. The area had been used by trappers
gray crags, sheer precipices, and perennial snow (about 1820) and was explored (1743) by Sieur de fields. is enhanced on this side by the total abla Verendrye and his sons, from Canada, who sence of foothills and by contrast with the relatraveled as far south as Wind River.
tively flat floor of Jackson Hole, from which they Yellowstone National Park (3,438 sq. m.), the are usually viewed. oldest and best known of the national parks (set The Teton Range may be described as a long aside in 1872) is principally in the extreme north- block of the earth that has been broken and upwestern portion of Wyoming but partly in Idaho lifted along its eastern margin, thus being tilted and Montana. High above sea level (6.000 ft, and westward. Movement of this sort along a fracture over) it is heavily forested and is a game preserve is what the geologist terms "faulting." The total and bird sanctuary The Great Falls of the Yel- amount of uplift along the eastern edge of the lowstone are higher than Niagara. In the Park block amounts to more than 10.000 ft. Doubtless are found more and greater geysers than in all the this uplift was accomplished not by one cataclysm rest of the world put together, and Old Faithful but by a series of small faulting movements disGeyser is the greatest single attraction in the tributed over a very long period. Probably the time United States national parks. The region has no of faulting was as remote as the middle of the rival, and was discovered by John Colter (1807). Tertiary period (the period just before the Ice
The Grand Teton National Park (150 sq. m.) Age, the latest chapter of the earth's history).
ORGANIZED TERRITORIES OF THE UNITED STATES
Capital, Juneau-Territorial Flower, Forget-me-not Alaska, an Organized Territory of the United Yukon Territory of Canada and British ColumStates, with an area of 586,400 square miles, bia, the southwest by the Pacific Ocean and on including the Aleutian Islands, occupies the the west by Bering Sea and the Arctic Ocean. northwestern part of the North American conti- At the end of the Peninsula is the Valley of nent, with all the islands near its coast except 10,000 Smokes (near Katmal). SO named beBering and Cooper Islands. It is bounded on the cause of the constant discharge of vapor from north by the Arctic Ocean, the east by the lands thick with volcanic formations. Southeast Alaska is a narrow strip between Canada and protecting the future subsistence sources of the the Pacific Ocean, to the west of which lies the 15,000 native Eskimos who depend upon that animal Alexander Archipelago. The Yukon (2,400 miles) as an essential source of food and clothing and in is the principal river. Its chief tributaries are August (1939) appropriated $795,000 under the the Tanana, Porcupine and Koyukuk,
Reindeer Act which was to carry out this plan, Affected by the warm Japanese current, the The work was completed by the end of the fiscal coastal temperature rarely falls below zero and year, approximately 90,000 animals having been rises to 80 degrees in the summer. The section purchased from non-native owners. Reindeer Serhas abundant rainfall. In the interior there is vice activities are directed by the general reindeer a difference of 150 degrees between winter and supervisor. with headquarters at Nome. The insummer temperatures; in some parts 60 below
dustry contains 31 reindeer associations, 59 differin winter and 90 above in summer.
ent ranges. There are 4,600 reindeer owners with The 1940 population is 72,524, an increase of 13,- approximately 250,000 reindeer (a conservative esti246 in the decade. The 1939 population of the chief
mate) wolves having taken a large toll of the herds cities: Juneau, 5,729; Ketchikan, 4,695; Anchorage,
in recent years. 3,495; Fairbanks, 3.455; Sítka, 1.987; Petersburg, Fur farming continues an important industry. 2,187; Wrangell, 1,162.
Mink, blue and silver foxes are the most important, Alaska has vast forests along the coasts, of
but many ranchers are experimenting with white which more than 21 million acres are in forest
fox, marten, land otter, beaver and fitch. Furs reservations, from which the total annual cut
shipped (1939) were valued at $1,892,968, not inis between 40 and 50 million board feet.
cluding the fur seals, and represented a decrease Russia offered as early as 1855) to sell the
of 131,444 fur pelts shipped over the previous year.
and a decrease of $44,402 in total revenue. On a territory to the United States. The offer was declined. During President Buchanan's adminis
cash return to trapper and rancher, beaver led, tration negotiations for purchase were opened,
with 31,397 pelts valued at $463.105. Mink was but were called off by Russia after an offer of
second, with 42,883 pelts ($418.109); 9,426 blue
foxes brought $216.798. Fur farmers in the country $5,000,000 had been made. Credit for the final
look with favor upon the Territorial Experiment purchase is given William H. Seward, Secretary
Fur Station, at Petersburg, where projects are being of State under President Johnson, and the treaty
carried on in feeding, disease, management and of purchase was signed (4 A.M., March 30. 1867)
housing of mink, blue fox, silver fox and marten. and sent to the Senate for ratification the same day. Articles were exchanged and the treaty pro
During the year the Alaska Game Commission
issued 220 fur-farm licenses. In addition to its claimed by President Johnson (June 20. 1867).
regular wildlife agent personnel, the commission Formal transfer of the territory took place at
had 71 licensing officers on its rolls and 78 regisSitka (Oct. 18, 1867). The purchase price was
tered guides. These guides are authorized to en$7,200,000. At first a district (or unorganized ter
force the game laws. ritory), by an act of Congress (approved August 24,
Seal killing on the Pribilof Islands was brought 1912) Alaska was made a Territory. The Governor is appointed by the President for å term of four
under control (1910) and pelagic sealing prohibited
by treaty (1911). There were 60,473 fur-seal skins years.
taken at the Islands (1939) of which 47,646 were Mt. McKinley National Park (3,432 square
from St. Paul Island and 12,827 from St. George miles), the second largest National Park in the
As in previous years, killings were conStates (established 1917) was created
fined insofar as possible to surplus 3-year-old primarily to protect the great herds of mountain
males. The computation (as of Aug. 10, 1939) sheep and caribou on this part of the Alaska
showed 2,020,774 seals in the Pribilof herd, an inRange. Mount McKinley (20,300 feet) is the highest
crease of 148,336 over the preceding year. mountain in North America. Rising
Other from an elevation of only 2,000 feet, this moun
fishing canning and tain (from its base to the top) is the highest quarter billion pounds a year (about 7.000.000
mining. The pack of canned salmon averages a in the world.
cases). Glacier Bay National Monument, in South
The 109 cannerics operating (1939). 11
more than the previous year, employed 24,921, an eastern Alaska (created 1925) was (1939) increased
increase of 2,641. Ketchikan boasts that more salto 3,850 square miles, to include the Fairweather
mon is canned in that city than any other in the Range of high peaks and glaciers, with Mt. Fair
world. weather (15,300 feet) the loftiest peak. It abounds with magnificent scenery and wildlife on land and
The whaling station, at Akutan, the only one water.
operated (1939), employed 109 persons. The catch Katmai National Monument on the mainland op
of 171 whales produced 246.000 gallons of body oil Dosite Kodiak Island, created (1918) and enlarged
($85,915): 132.750 gallons of sperm oil ($33,188); (1931) contains 4,212 square miles and is a great
and 180 tons of meal from meat ($12,469); 180 tons
of bone meal ($4,959) and 8,200 pounds of sperm wild life reserve noted for its abundance of Alas
jawbone ($410); a total value of $136,941 and a kan brown bears and many grizzlies.
decrease of $42,700 in the year. Three steam Alaska is a hunter's paradise. Seldom can one whalers were operated, 2 less than the preceding be in a country where hunting is possible with year. so few restrictions, Hunting the Alaska brown
Persons employed in commercial fisheries numbear is a dangerous sport and the Game Com
bered 30,572. The total value of the manufactured mission demands that each non-resident hunter be accompanied by a registered guide. Big game
Alaska fishery products (1939) was $40.104,493. The
estimated approximate value of the catch, exclusive are protected under a law approved by the
of whales, to the fishermen was $11,321,000. President (Jan. 13, 1925) and administered by the Commisison of five Alaskans. Rivers and lakes
Gold is mined in Southeast Alaska; also in the
interior along ukon River; and at Nome and afford excellent fishing and deepsea "strip-fishing" for salmon has become a favorite sport in
several other places in the west. Other minerals Southeastern Alaska.
are silver, platinum, copper, coal and petroleum. The entire Territory, except the far north, is
Coal and petroleum production is increasing. covered with trails. The Alaska Road Commis
The University of Alaska is near Fairbanks sion, created by the Act of Congress (1905) has
in College. There are high schools and elemencharge of the existing system of roads and
tary schools for whites and also separate ones trails except those in the National Forests. Of
for the Indians. the 2,366 miles of road, 950 miles are connected
There were in air service in Alaska (1940) 175 in one system making it possible to drive from planes which carried 31,435 passengers and covthe coast at Valdez by way of Fairbanks to the
ered 3.598.790 miles. Passenger miles flown were Yukon River (533 miles). The McKinley National
5,745,804; freight and mail carried, 4,835,892 Park road is 93 miles in length.
pounds, of which 520,232 was mail. Aviation fields, The chief food supply of the natives (mostly
many of the emergency class, number 121, with 12 Eskimos) living along the western and northern
seaplane floats. A system of meteorological range coasts, namely, the whale, seal and walrus, had
stations and radio beam stations is under instalbecome so depleted (by 1890) by energetic white
lation by the Civil Aeronautics Authority from whalers that a new food resource was necessary
Ketchikan to Nome. Bi-weekly air service between to prevent human suffering. So between 1891 and
Seattle and Junea was inaugurated (May, 1940). 1902 1,200 reindeer were imported from Siberia
The trade of Alaska is almost entirely with the with private and Government funds, and it is
United States. Imports of merchandise from the the increase from these animals (estimated to
United States are chiefly meat products, dairy be 600,000 which today graze an area which ex
products, eggs, grains, vegetables, fruit, tobacco, tends from Kodiak Island to Point Barrow, a region
cotton and wool manufactures, logs, boards, etc. nearly as large as California, worthless for agri- paper manufactures; petroleum, iron and steel culture but capable of furnishing pasturage for manufactures; motor and other vehicles. vast numbers of reindeer. Congress authorized the Exports of merchandise from Alaska to the purchase by the government of all non-native- United States (exclusive of gold and silver) are owned reindeer as a means of conserving and Ash (chielly salmon); furs and fur skins.
Capital, Honolulu The Hawaiian Islands, an Organized Territory by racial origin, Portuguese, 30,708; Puerto Rican, of the United States the crossroads of the Paci- 7,736; Spanish, 1,219, total, 107,381. Japanese fic-are 20 in number, of which nine are inhabited, number 155,042, Filipino, 52,430; Chinese, 28,601; lying in the North Pacific Ocean in longitude 154
Korean, 6,738; all others, 941. Complete total.
414,991. 40'-160° 30' west, latitude 22° 16'--18° 55' north,
The Hawaiian Islands were discovered by Capt. and more than 2,000 miles from the nearest main
Cook (1778) and there he met his death on his land. The group extends for 390 miles from
second visit (1779). King Kamehameha brought northwest, to southeast, comprising 6,407 square the islands under one rule (1791). Hawali bemiles of which 4.030 square miles are in Hawaii.
came & constitutional monarchy in (1840). A revoThe islands are mountainous and volcanic in lution drove Queen Lilluokalani from the throne origin, filled with extinct craters, Haleakala on (1893). An attempt to secure annexation to the Maui being the largest in the world. On the
United States failing, a republic was proclaimed Island of Hawaii is Mauna Kea (altitude 13,784 (July 4, 1894). On the outbreak of the Spanish11.), quiescent, and Mauna Loa (altitude 13,686 American War & treaty of annexation was negoti1t.), active. Sixteen miles east of the latter is the ated, ratified by the Hawaiian Senate, and consumlargest active volcano in the world, Kilauea (alti
mated by a joint resolution of Congress (July 7, tude 4,090 it.) with its "pit of eternal fire": & 1898). Hawaii was created a Territory, an intergral wonderful feature of the Hawaiian National Park. part of the United States, and its government
There are more than 1,000,000 acres in the for- provided for by the organic act of April 30, 1900, est reserves, and the total area of public lands The chief executive officer of the Territory of exceeds 1,500,000 acres. The soil is fertile and all Hawaii is the Governor (Joseph B. Poindexter tropical and sub-tropical fruits and vegetables are (D.), appointed Jan. 30, 1934; reappointed Mar. grown.
13, 1938), who is appointed by the President The two chief crops are cane sugar (averaging with the approval of the Senate for a four-yearabout one million tons a year), and pineapples. term, and who must be 8 resident of the most of which are canned as fruit or juice, and in islands for three years to be eligible for appointthose forms exports approximate 500 million cans ment, which applies as well to all other Terriyearly. Sugar retained its position as the leading torial positions for which nominations are made industry, the total value of shipments (1939) be- by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The ing $55, 217,960, of which total $53,973, 169 repre- Territorial Secretary who serves as Acting Govsented the raw, and $1,244,791 the refined product. ernor during the absence or illness of the GoverThe $51,069,686 valuation of the pineapple crop nor is appointed in this manner, but the heads (1939) to the mainland consisted of fresh pine- of the Territorial departments are appointed by apples. $230,188; canned, $34,098,779; Juice, $16,- the Governor, with the approval of the Territorial 723,754; alcohol, $16,965.
Senate. Merchandise purchases from the mainland are
The Legislature of Hawaii consists of the Senate chiefly meat and dairy products, grains. fodders,
of 15 members, elected for four-year terms; and beverages, rubber and manufactures, tobacco, tex.
the House of Representativesof 30 members,
elected for two-year terms. tiles, wood manufactures, paper, petroleum, coal,
The Delegate tc quarry products, and iron, steel, copper and glass
Congress is elected every two years, and has floor manufactures, which were valued (1939) at $101,
privileges in the house, but no vote. 817,230; shipments to the mainland, $113,206,898,
The islands expressed their desire for statehood an increase of $16,650,219 in the year
at the elections (1940) with 39,413 voting in favor The islands are becoming increasingly popular
and 19,911 against.
Honolulu, on the Island of Oahu, is the capital as a tourist center, During the calendar year
and chief commercial city and port of the islands. (1939) a total of 65,431 arrived, of which number
It has a fine natural harbor. It has never been 24,390 were tourists who spent two days or more
hotter than 88 degrees or colder than 56 degrees in the Territory. The Pan American Clippers
in the records of the U. S. Weather Bureau. furnish over-night service between Hawail and the
The Federal Government maintains a large Pacific Coast of the United States.
army post on the island with quarters for a division There are 66,485 privately owned motor vehicles
of 30,000 men at Schofield Barracks and the subregistered in the Territory of which 45,400 are insidiary forts. The Navy Department has a large the City and County of Honolulu and 8,390 in the
base at Pearl Harbor with drydock and two others County of Hawaii. Regular air service for the under construction. The Hawaiian Detachment, transportation of passengers, mail and express consisting of 30 of the principal vessels of the U. among the islands of the Hawaiian group is main- S. Scouting Fleet, was based for the first time in tained. Total mileage flown during the fiscal year Pearl Harbor (1939) possibly permanently, the (1939) was 476,797; passengers carried, 24,146. Navy Department having designated Honolulu as
The native population of Hawaii at the time their home port. The military reservation at of discovery has been estimated at about 200,000 Kapolei was made a permanent military post (Nov. With civilization it has dwindled and the race 23, 1934) and designated Fort Barrette. There are seems destined to disappear through intermarriage also an aviation field and radio station. and other stocks rather than by death.
The Hawaii National Park, in the Territory of The population (1940) is 423,330, an increase of Hawaii, was created by act of Congress (Aug. 1, 54,994 or 14.9% over 1930.
1916) and placed under the control of the National Population growth by Districts was:
Park Service of the Department of the Interior. Island (county)
1938 Pop. 1939 Pop.
It consists of two separate tracts of land lying on City of Honolulu
different islands. The Kilauea-Mauna Loa section
153,073 154, 476 Rural Oahu
is on the island of Hawaii and the Haleakala secCity of Hilo
tion is on the island of Maui. 16,459
64,493 Rural Hawaii
An act of Congress (June, 1938) authorized the 65,253 521
Kalapana and Footprint additions, County of Kalawao
39.914 County of Kauai
creased the area of the park by 55,070 acres, of
which 17,405 acres was already Government land. County of Maui
The Footprint addition (5,370 acres) was included
in this Government land. To date none of the Total
privately owned land in the Kalapana addition has The population, by races (June 30, 1939) is: been acquired Hawaiian. 21.165: Caucasian-Hawailan, 21.055: The University of Hawaii is in Honolulu. The Asiatic-Hawaiian, 21,638, total, 63,858. Caucasians, majority of native Hawalians are Christians.
DEPENDENCIES OF THE UNITED STATES
Wake and Midway Islands
The United States flag was hoisted over Wake The Midway Islands, owned by the United States. Island (July 4, 1898) by Gen. F. V. Greene, com- are a group in the North Pacific, 1,200 miles northmanding Second Detachment Philippine expedition. west of the Hawaiian Islands. A relay cable With its two sister islands, Wilkes and Peale, it is station of the Commercial Cable Company is in the direct route from Hawaii to Hong Kong. I established there. The area of the group is 28 about 2,000 miles from the first and 3.000 miles square miles, and population (Census, 1930) was from the second and 1.290 miles from Guam. The 25, increased to 118 (1936); both are included in group is 413 miles long and 112 miles wide and the totals for Hawaii. the total land area is about 2.600 acres.
Wake and the Midway Islands are under the jurisdiction of the Navy Department. They assumed control of the Navy by Presidential order (Feb. 21, new importance (1935) as landing stages for 1936). trans-Pacific airplanes. An electric light and a Howland, Jarvis and Baker Islands, south of radio plant were set up an Peale Island. but the Hawaiian group also of value as air bases fresh water is unobtainable, as all the islands are and owned by the United States, were settled and barren coral shoals.
equipped as aerological stations (1936) by young Kure Island on the westerly edge of the Hawaiian Hawaiians acting under the Federal Division of group. of value as an air base, was placed under Territories and Insular Possessions.
Commonwealth of the Philippines. Capital, Manila (Luzon)-Area, 114,400 square miles—Population (1940 Census) 16,356,000 The Philippines, the largest island group in United States and the Philip ines have existed the Malay Archipelago, were discovered by Ma- since the Act of Congress of Aug. 5. 1909. gellan (1521) and conquered by Spain (1565); they The Tydings-McDuffie Act continued these relawere ceded to the United States by the Treaty of tions during the ten-year transitional period except Paris (Dec. 10, 1898) following the Spanish-Amer- that these annual quotas were set up on imports
into the United States of Philippine products: Raw ican War. Admiral Dewey had destroyed the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay (May 1, 1898), and sugar, 800,000 long tons; refined sugar, 50,000 tons:
coconut oil, 200,000 tons; of cordage, rope and Major Gen. Wesley Merritt captured the City
twine of abaca, 3,000,000 lbs. Imports in excess of of Manila (August 13).
The land area of the islands lles between 21° 10° these quotas are subject to the same duty paid on and 4° 40' north latitude and between 116° 40' and like commodities from other
countries. 126° 34' east longitude. There are 7,083 islands
All other Philippines exports, except those under
quota, will have to pay export taxes, starting with extending 1,150 statute miles from north to south and 682 miles from east to west. Of this number 5% in 1941 and gradually raised every year by 5%
until 1943. 462 have an area of one square mile or over: 2,441 are named and 4,642 unnamed. The archipelago
The new Constitution, drafted by a Constitution
al Convention, provides for a single legislative has an area of 73,214,200 acres of which 45,946,420, or 63%, are suitable for cultivation. In 1938 'only chamber, the National Assembly, of 120 members 10,399,340 acres or 41.1% were under cultivation. chosen every three years, with extensive powers The average size of the Filipino farm is three
over the judiciary, regulation of capital and labor.
utility franchises, supervision of power developacres. The largest are Luzon, 40,814 sq. m.; Mindanao,
ment and exploitation of natural resources. The 36,906; Panay, 4,448; Palawan, 4,500; Mindoro, term of the President and Vice President is for six 3,794; Bohol, 1,554; Masbabe, 1,255: Cebu. 1,695. years, and the President cannot succeed himself.
The chief cities, with their populations. are A Supreme Court, comprising a Chief Justice and Manila (623,362); Cebu (142,912); Zamboanga
six Justices appointed by the President, cannot (131,729); Davao (95,444); Iloilo (88,203); Bacolod
declare a law or a treaty unconstitutional except (57,703) and Baguio (24,122). The islands have a
by a two-thirds vote. Freedom of the press and foreign population (1940 census) of 166,977, includ
religion and right of assembly are guaranteed in 117,461 Chinese, 29,262 Japanese and 8,739 Ameri- the Bill of Rights. cans, exclusive of the military personnel and their
The constitutional convention declared "all lands families,
in the public domain, all waters, minerals, coal and Other groups in the Archipelago are the Sulu, or
petroleum, all forces of potential energy and other Jolo Islands in the South, the Babuganes and
natural resources of the Philippines belong to the Batanes in the North, the Catanduanes in the East. State and their disposition, exploitation, developand Culion in the West.
ment and utilization are limited to citizens of the The archipelago has a coast line of 11,444 statute Philippines or corporations and associations of miles. There are 21 fine harbors and eight land- which 60% of the capital is owned by such citizens' locked straits. Manila Bay, with an area of 770 sq. subject to present leases and concessions. Franm., and a circumference of 120 miles, is the finest
chises shall not be granted for longer than 50 years harbor in the Far East. It is roadstead
and shall be subject to amendment, alteration or in all parts of which vessels can anchor, but a
repeal by the National Assembly. breakwater has been constructed for shelter in bad
Women on whom the suffrage on equal terms weather. Manila, Cebu, Iloilo, Zamboanga, Jolo
with men was granted by the Legislature (Nov, 9. and Davao and Legaspi are the ports of entry.
1934, effective Jan. 1, 1935). while they voted in Princess Hadji Piandao, niece and adopted
large numbers for the adoption of the Constitution, daughter of the late Jamalul Kiram II, Sultan of were disfranchised by it until 300,000 of them vote Sulu, transferred (April, 1940) legal ownership of
for women suffrage in a specially called plebiscite. hundreds of islands in the Sulu Archipelago to the
English and Spanish are the official languages. Commonwealth of the Philippines. Estimates of President Roosevelt approved the Constitution the number of islands in the Archipelago vary be
(March 23, 1935) and it was adopted by the tween, 250 and 700, scattered for 220 miles from voters. Under it, President Quezon and Vice-PresiMindanao southwestward to Borneo. The islands dent Sergio Osmena were elected (Sept. 30, 1935) are populated chiefly by Moslem natives.
and they were inaugurated (Nov. 15). The United The extensive
mountain system of the Philippines States High Commissioner is Francis B. Sayre. belongs to the succession of volcanic ranges of the
Three amendments to the Constitution were subPacific system of the world's surface. There are 20
mitted (1940) to the people of the Commonwealth more or less active volcanoes. Mount Apo, 9.610
of the Philippines. The amendments with the ft., in Mindanao, and Mayan Volcano, 7,943 ft., in
vote follow: Albay, are the most famous. Between the moun
1. Are you in favor of the establishment of a tains, stored with minerals, and the sea le great
bicameral legislature to be known as Congress of fertile. well-watered plains. The principal islands the Philippines with a Senate whose members will have important river systems.
be elected at large and a House of Representatives The average temperature during the four winter
whose members will be elected by districts with a months is about 78° F.; in the three hot months. salary of $3,600 & year for each member of the April to June, about 84; in the other months, about Senate and each member of the House? YES, 80. The nights are seldom unpleasantly hot. 1,043,712; NO, 274,184.
Eight distinct languages and 87 dialects are 2. Are you in favor of the establishment of an spoken. About 4,000,000 read or understand Eng- electoral commission, composed of a president and lish. About two-thirds of the inhabitants are two members, which will take charge exclusively Roman Catholics and about 4,000,000 belong to the
of the enforcement and application of laws regard Independent Catholic Church, organized by a Fili- ing the holding of elections? YES, 1,072,039; pino priest, Fr. Gregorio Agilpay, in the 1899 in- NO, 240,641. surrection. There are about 500,000 Moslems and 3. Are you in favor of shortening the term of 500,000 Pagans.
office of the President and the Vice-President from The Philippines will be cut adrift from the six years to four years with only one re-election? United States (1945) according to the Tydings- YES, 1,017, 606; NO. 287,923. McDuffie Independence Act passed by Congress President Roosevelt later signed the three amendand signed by President Roosevelt (March 24, 1934) ments. and passed by the Philippine Legislature (May 1). The National Assembly granted to President
The Tydings-McDuffie Act provides for the rec- Quezon (1940) emergency powers to cope with sitognition of Philippine independence after a 10- uations arising out of the war in Europe. Power year transitional commonwealth government with was voted to Quezon to control farming, industries, & Filipino Chief Executive. The United States wages, profits, hours of work, distribution of labor. pledges itself to abandon military bases in the transportation, including shipping, public service, Philippines. The question of naval bases was held rents, prices of prime necessaries and to prohibit open. Immigration from the Islands is limited to
lockouts and strikes. The Assembly (1941) increased & maximum annual quota of 50.
the emergency powers for one year, Reciprocal free trade relations between the President Quezon appointed (March 21, 1941) a