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that it was inexpedient to proceed, and the troops were again debarked. The invasion of Canada at that point was thus finally abandoned for the season.
The army of the north was commanded by General Dearborn. A part of the forces were stationed at Greenbush, near Albany, and the remainder at Plattsburg, on Lake Champlain. This division of the army effected nothing but an incursion into Canada, in which a small body of British and Indians, and some military stores were taken. The failure of the other expeditions had the effect of discouraging the general from any serious attempt on the British territory.
Thus upon land the advantages of the first campaign rested altogether with the British. It was at sea, on the element where they felt more secure, that their superiority was more successfully disputed. On the 19th of August, Captain Hull, in the frigaie Constitution, of 44 guns, encountered the British trigate Guerriere, of 38 guns, and after an action of 30 minutes reduced her to a complete wreck. Every mast of the British vessel was carried away in the battle, and, as it was found impossible to bring her into port, she was burned. The loss on the side of the enemy was 50 killed, and 64 wounded. The Constitution lost 7 killed, and 7 wounded. This victory was hailed with enthusiasm by all parties. Even the opponents of the war united in the honours and rewards which were conferred on the successful commander, and gave entertainments and drank toasts to the success of the infant navy.'
This was followed by a series of naval victories not less brilliant. In the month of October, Captain Jones, in the Wasp, of 18 guns, met and captured the British sloop of war Frolic, of 22 guns, after a hard fought battle of 45 minutes, losing but 8 of his men, while the loss of his enemy in a vessel one-third his superior was 80 men. The Wasp was subsequently captured by a British ship of the line. During the same month, Captain Decatur, in the frigate United States, encountered the British frigate Macedonian. In this action the American ship had a trifling advantage in the weight of her metal, but this was by no means equal to the disparity of loss, which was 104 killed and wounded on the British side, and 11 on the American. The Macedonian was safely brought into New York, and the gallant Decatur, the same officer who had so signally distinguished himself at Tripoli, was welcomed with the applause and honours which he had so nobly won. Describe the first naval victory. Of the United States and the MacedoDescribe the affair of the Wasp and
nian. the Frolic.
Decatur's reception at New York.
The Constitution, familiarly called by the sailors Old Ironsides,' had the good fortune to encounter another British frigate, the Java, of 38 guns, in December. In this action, which lasted three hours, she was commanded by Captain Bainbridge. The Java was dismasted and reduced to a wreck, losing 161 killed and wounded, while the American loss was but 34.
In addition to these victories of the public vessels, the American privateers had succeeded in severely distressing the enemy's commerce, capturing above 500 of their merchantmen during the first seven months of the war.
The success of the Americans on the ocean served to relieve them from the chagrin and discouragement occasioned by their ill-fated attempts on the British province of Canada. They became sensible that their principal means of defence must consist in the navy; and the exertions of the government were immediately directed to the increase of this efficient branch of the national force. The large number of sailors, deprived of employment by the general suspension of commerce, furnished the first and most important requisite, and more ships were ordered to be built and put in commission.
Meantime the opposition to the measures of government made by the federal party in New England, was by no means relaxed. They criticised and protested against the war with England, pointed out the advantages which would have accrued from one with France, declared their abhorrence of any alliance with Napoleon, reprobated the conduct of government
Of the Constitution and the Java.
What measures were taken respecto
ing the navy? What was done in New England ?
ARMISTICE OFFERED. in persisting in war after the revocation of the orders in council and asserted it to be unconstitutional and illegal to employ the militia of the states in offensive warfare.
On the last ground, Massachusetts and Connecticut had refused to furnish their contingent of troops for the invasion of Canada. The friends of government stigmatised this opposition as treason, and by their votes at the election gave decided testimony of their approbation of the war.
The presidential election took place in the autumn of this year. Mr. Madison was, without difficulty, re-elected to his second term of office ; whilst Mr. Gerry became vice-president, succeeding Mr. Clinton.
In November congress met. The president, in his message, frankly stated the defeats experienced on the Canadian border, and complained much of the employment of the Indians by the British, thus bringing the horrors of savage warfare upon the people. He also complained of the conduct of Massachusetts and Connecticut, in refusing their contingent of militia. The victories of American ships were cited with just pride, and congress was requested to increase the allowance of the army, which was wholly incompetent.
The British government had offered an armistice, stating as a reason for a suspension of hostilities, the repeal of the orders in council. The president, in reply, had demanded by way of preliminary, towards a settlement of difficulties, some effectual provisions against the impressment of American seamen, and as this was refused, he had declined the offer. A majority of congress now passed resolutions approving of the president's course in this affair.
His request for a more efficient organisation of the army was granted. The pay was increased, and a loan for the purpose authorised; and twenty additional regiments of regular infantry were ordered to be raised.
What was the result of the presi- | What measure of his was approved by dential election ?
congress? What was said in the president's What was done for the army?
BATTLE OF THE RIVER RAISIN.
CAMPAIGN OF 1813.
The people of the western states were naturally anxious to recover the posts which had been lost by General Hull on the north-western frontier; and thus to relieve themselves from the danger of incursions from the British and Indians in that region. During the autumn of 1812, General Harrison, who had command of the army in that quarter, was principally occupied in collecting and organising his forces preparatory to a winter campaign. Nothing of importance was effected, as we have already had occasion to remark, before the winter set in.
General Winchester, with a detachment of seven hundred and fifty men, was sent forward in advance of the main body, and while General Harrison was collecting his forces at Sandusky, with a view to join Winchester, and advance upon Malden and Detroit, the latter officer received a pressing call from the inhabitants of Frenchtown, on the river Raisin, for protection against the British and Indians assembled at Malden. Advancing within three miles of the town, on the 17th of January, he learnt that the enemy had already taken possession of it. He attacked them on the 18th, and drove them from their position with considerable slaughter. On the 20th
. he advanced to within twenty miles of Malden, where a British force much stronger than his own was stationed.
General Winchester's desire to afford relief to the inhabitants of Frenchtown, had thus brought his detachment into a situation of no little peril. The expedition in which he was engaged had been undertaken without the knowledge of General Harrison, who, on learning his advance, sent for reinforcements, and pushed forward with the main body in hopes of affording him relief.
The British were not slow to perceive their advantage. On the evening of the 21st of January, Colonel Proctor left Malden with six hundred British and Canadian troops, and one thousand Indians, under the command of their chiefs, Splitlog and Roundhead, and at daybreak of the 22d, com.
Who commanded on the north-west- | Where did he attack and defeat the ern frontier ?
British ? Who advanced into Canada ?
When was he attacked in turn i
By whom, and with what force
SIEGE OF FORT MEIGS. menced a furious attack upon the Americans. General Win chester's left wing, amounting to six hundred men, was protected by pickets; the right wing, one hundred and fifty in number, being exposed, was speedily defeated, and nearly the whole massacred by the Indians, who cut off their retreat. A detachment of one hundred sent out to their relief shared the same fate. General Winchester and Colonel Lewis in attempting to rally them were made prisoners. The left wing sustained the unequal contest with undaunted valour until eleven o'clock, when General. Winchester capitulated for them, stipulating for their protection from the fury of the Indians. This engagement was violated on the next day, when a large body of Indians fell upon the wounded, tomahawked and scalped them, and setting fire to the houses, consumed the dead and the dying in one undistinguished conflagration. In permitting this massacre, Proctor seems to have counted on daunting the courage of the Americans. But the effect was directly the reverse of what was intended. New volunteers, fired by these barbarities, flocked to the standard of their country, and were eventually successful in avenging their murdered fellow citizens.
General Harrison, having received considerable reinforcements from Kentucky and Ohio, advanced to the rapids of the Miami, and there erected a fort which he called Fort Meigs, in honour of the governor of Ohio. This position had been selected as a suitable post for receiving reinforcements and supplies from Ohio and Kentucky, protecting the borders of Lake Erie, and concentrating the forces intended for the recapture of Detroit, and the invasion of Canada.
On the 26th of April, General Proctor with two thousand regulars, militia and Indians, from Malden, appeared on the bank of the river opposite the fort, and erecting batteries on an eminence, commenced a regular siege. The Indians crossed the river on the 27th and established themselves in the rear of the American lines. A heavy fire of shot and shells was poured in upon the fort for several days, and on the 3d of May, a battery was erected on the left bank of the river, within two hundred and fifty yards of the American lines.
General Harrison now received a summons to surrender, which was gallantly refused. On the 5th of May, General
Describe the battle.
What fort did General Harrison What was the result?
erect? How were the prisoners treated ? Where? What was the effect of this conduct When and by whom was it besieged ?
of the British ?