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nity of this compter, and its confined this city, we are of opinion the same situation from being entirely surrounded should be abolished; and that the keepers by private residences, that the present and their assistants should receive fixed scite is a very improper and insecure salaries in lieu thereof, so that no parsituation for a prison, and that the same tiality should be shewn to any description ought to be erected in a inore open and of prisoner; but should this worshiptal unconnected space, as we found no less Committee or the Court of Coinnon than three notoriously bad characters Council differ with us in this opinion, we had lately effected their escape from this think it should be strongly recommended prison.

to the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor That we, your Sub-committee, upon and Court of Aldermen, to take into a review of all the circumstances, are their immediate and serious consideratiou deeply impressed with the absolute ne the present fees, and make such suitable cessity that exists of a new prison being alterations thereiw, as to them shall seesa provided in lieu of the present Poultry advisable. Compter; and after the most mature Thonias Bell. J. R. Mander. consideration, are unanimously of opinion, Edward Wigan. W. Pritchard. that the said prison should be erected on

Wm. John Reeves. John Ord. a much larger space than the present J. Jacks. compter occupies, and in a situation more unconnected with buildings, and

For the Monthly Magazine. that the saine should be solely appro

LYCEUM OF ANCIENT LITERA. priated to the confinement of debtors

TURE.-No. XXXI. under proper regulations, allotting dif

Amatory Poels.-CATULLUS. ferent spaces in the same for the different

TINDI.R this comprehensive title descriptions of debtors; for the county

we shall include the three Romaus debtors who are now confined in News poets, Catullus, Propertius, and Tibuda. gate; for the city debtors who are con.

jus. It is obvious that any observations fined in the Giltspur-street Conspter;

upon this species of composition, where and for those debtors who are usually

the imagination is indulged beyond the confined in Ludgate; by which means

boundaries of reason, and often of Newgate will be relieved from a large

decency,' are altogether unnecessary. portion of prisoners, and may be rendered

We shall therefore proceed at once to our fully adequate to the purposes required, account of Catullus. with some internal alteration only, and

Caius, or Quintus Valerias Catullus, without any further enlargement; and for the prænoinen appears to have been the keeper will probably be then enabled a subject of inuch coniroversy, was born to make that separation of the prisoners in the peninsula of Sirmin, formed by the confided to his care which justice and lake Benacus, in the territory of Verona. humanity so loudly calls for; Giltspur Eusebius supposes Verona itself to have street Compter, with the addition of the

been the place of his birth, * It took present Ludyate prison, and by removing place in the 2d year of the 173d Olymp. ihe Sheriffs offices to the new prison, A.U.C. 667, in the consulate of Luc. will be thereby rendered fully adequate Cornelius Cinna, and of Cn. Octavius, , to all the purposes of the confinement of about 85 B. C. Ile was thus a conteinpersons (committed to take their trial) porary with Vario, Sallust, and even previous to the goal delivery at each

Virgil. His parents do not appear to Sessions of Oyer and Terminer, for pri.

have been reinarkable, either for illussoners committed to the Quarter Sessions, trious birth or opulence. But his father and for migh: charges avd vagrants, with was attached to Cæsar, who frequently very little internal alteration and expence, visited at his house. † At a very early And we are of opinion, that in the Coip age, he was sent to Rome, and consigned ter where prisoners are confincd only to the patronage of Manlius Torquatus, previously to taking their trial, or coin a patrician belonging to a well-known mitted some for offences at the Quarter fainily, and whose marriage with Julia Sessions, the same regulations with re. Aurunculeia, the poet has celebrated spect to irons might be adopted as above recommended for persons committed to This is probably the better opinion, and Newgate.

seems to be corroborated by the testimony That having duly considered the cir- of Ovid, Pliny the elder, Martial, Ausonius, cumstance of fees being taken by the and M. crobius. different keepers of the prisons within t Sueton. in ul. (.73.

in a beavtiful epithalamium.* Under the detestable vice, which infected the such patronage, and introduced into the age in which he lived." best circles of the capital, the native W hat rarik Catullus held among the talent of Catullus could not fail of high wealthy, may admit of inquiry. In his and rapid improvement. The suavity earlier days, he night experience poof his manners, the brilliancy of his wit, verty; in later life, perhaps after his and a display of learning very rare among father's death, he appears to have been the poets of his time, procured him affluent. On the one hand, he frankly many friends, among whom we must confesses the einptiness of his purse; distinguish Cornelius Nepos the histo- and he followed Mennius when Prætor rian. To bin Catullus dedicated his into Bithynia, it would seem, with the works. In the infinite variety of his hopes of gain. This employment, smaller poems, we may easily collect though probably creditable and inporthe names of those with whom he was in tant, produced no profit, from the avithe habit of associating. Even Cicero dity of the Prætor, and his inattention is said to have highly valued him. That to ihe interest of those who accompanied he pleaded some cause for the poet, or him. So low was the condition of Carendered him some cssential service in tullus, that in one place he says lie could the forum, of which we are totally igno- not even afford the expence of bearers rant, is probable from the elegant to bis old travelling coach: and in ano. little epigram which contains his ther, that he was obliged to mortgage bis thanks.f

country-seat.t Some critics, however, The loves of Catullus must necessarily bave argued, that his having a countryform a prominent part in cvery implies that his poverty was not of his biography. Ilis amatory produc- inherited from his parents: he had a tions, equal ini renown to the epic farm in the Tiburtine territory; he calls labours of the Mantuan bard, proclaim himself the lord of Sirmio;f he navigated his inconstancy and his successes. He the seas in his own vessel; he gratified was chielly attachell to Clodia, I whom he his taste and inclinations, gave entertaincelebrates under the naine of Lesbia, in ments, indulged in love, and employed bonour perhaps of the Lesbian Sappho, numerous emissaries in the pursuit of his whose pueins were bis delight. Clodia was ainorous pleasures;s in short, he lived on tail, but possessed all the beauty of her terms of friendship with the great. This sexi probably of a gay and sprightly extravagant turn involved him in dis. semper, from the comparison he draws tresses, and accounts, says Vulpius,ll betweeii her and the inanimale Quin- for his acquaintance with so many law ulia, $ a celebrated beauty of a different characters." complexion. Some suppose Lesbia to With these defects, his disposition have been sister to the infamous Clodi- 'was amiable, gra:eful, and affectionate. us. llypsithillall and Aufilena, both The clegant composition on the nuptials Veronese ladies, also shared his affec- of his patron Manlius, is a proof of this. tions: but the latter, proving faith. In his epistle to the same, a strain of less, and being, besides, convicted of tenderness pervades the whole, that does incestuous pleasures, incurred the po- honour to his heart; he apologizes for eric castigaiion of the injured bard, 1 his deficiency in friendly offices and whom the happier Quintius had ric poetical offerings, which he attributes to rolled in ber affections.** Many other his grief for the loss of his brother; and females are mentioned in his poems; but his apostrophe to the memory of that These appear to have been bis favourites. brother, is exquisite. The few lines he

It were to be wished, that the account composed on performing obsequies at his of his amours ended here; but, from his tomb, on the Rhætian coast, breathe the own confession, we are compelled to purest fraternal regard. It appears that acknowledge that he was no stranger to while Catullus was on his expedition

with Memmius, his brother died prema* See Carm. 65.

turely in the Troad province; and was + Carm. 46. I Apuleius, Orat. Claud. Nac.

Carm. 21, 45, 78, 94. & Carm. 83.

of Carm. 23.
Carm. 29.

İ C. 28.
Carm. 106.

Carm. 98. * * Carm. 95.

Sec Vulpia Vit. Catul.

buried on the promontory of Rhætium, to write Latin iambics. * Others have once celebrated for the sepulchre of considered Juim merely as a writer of Ajax Telamon. Returning from Bithy- epigrams; while a few have dignified him nia into Italy, be necessarily passed with the title of a I yric poet. But, Rhætium; where, in love and veneration perhaps, to neither of these in particular, for the memory of his brother, * he does Catullus belong; it is probable, stopped at his tomb, and offered a so that he wrote many poems whose lemn oblation.t

nature even is unknowit to us, of which The learned character of Catullus is we have been deprived hy time and acknowledged by writers, both ancient accident, and which very possibly conand modern. Tibullus, Ovid, $ and ferred upon him the distinction of Martial, I give him the appellation of learned, which we have alluded to Doctus. The elder Scaliger alone, 1 above. Speaking of hinself when among the inoderns, disputes his preteise young, he says, multa satis lusi;t from sions to that title, and asserts, on the which we may infer that his Muse exhi. contrary, that his poems are vulgar, his bited herself 'in various kinds of poetry. thoughis low, and his expressions trivial. It may be collected from Pliny the elder, But he seems to have changed his opi. that he composed a something on incantanion, when he pronounces his galliambic tions, of which we have now no remains ; poem a noble composition; and de- and according to Terentianus Maurus, clares, that the epithalamium on the he wrute an Ithyphallic poem, and marriage of Peleus and Thetis almost there is still left a specimen of the rivals ihe majesty of the Eneid. On Priapeian style in which it was written. what account he more particularly Asit is, the poems transmitted to us, and obtained the epithet doctus, is uncertain; generally received as belonging to Caperhaps from being well versed in the tullus, though some have doubted the Greek language, then considered a great originality of all, have been divided by accomplishment, and the proof of a many of his commentators into three learned education. We know how classes: the lyric, the heroic and elegiac, neatly he has imitated an ode of Sappho, and the epigrammatic. The volume, in and an elegy of Callinachus; indeed, general, includes a few others attributed all his compositions appear to be formed to the same poet, of a more suspicious on the Grecian model. Perhaps the character. Of these, it may be doubted distinction arose from the various metres whether the Pervigilium Veneris be in which he wrote his poems; or else genuine. This beautiful piece, which froin some peculiar literary talent, with ought rather to have been called A Hymn which we are unacquainted, or some to the Spring, has been attributed to a other works now lost. To those who variety of authors, whom it would be have been accustomed to consider him tedious to enumerate. Ausonius, I only as a trilling amnatory poet, the know not how justly, puts in his claim epithet, no doubt, appears singularly to the honour of baving composed it; applied.

but it is, most probably, the production Catullus died some years after the of some pen more modern than that of age of 40, as Vulpios las satisfactorily Catullus, or even of Ausonius. Gyraldus • proved.*

asserts that he had never seen it, and Scholiasts have not agreed in what only heard that it was among the MSS. class the poet of Verona ought to be of Aldus Manutius. placed. Quintilian has placed him Whatever were the various walks in ainong the lambics; though Horace which Catullus exercised his muse, he boasts of having bimself been the first was successful in all. In the voluptuous,

ness of amatory verse he excelled; in • Carm. 62 and 65.

the galliambict he was unique,' and bis + Carm. 96. i Eleg. 7, lib. 3.

* Epist. 19, lib. 1. Amor. Eleg. 9, lib. 3.

+ Carm. 63. 9 Epig. 62, lib. 1.

i This was the metre in which the Gallæ, @ Poetices, cap. 6, lib. 6.

or priestesses of Cybele, are said to have sung; ** See Vulp. Comment. on Carm. 50 and hence it received its name. It is composed 108; though Eosebius, in his Chronicle, of six feet. The Atys of Catullus, which is afirms that he died at the age of so, about probably of Grecian origin, will give the tbe time that Virgil was a student at reader the best idea of this singular versifi. Cremona,

cation. MONTHLY MAG, No. 202.


satire was keen, well-pointed, and vigo. the despoiling prætor Cn. Calpurnius rous. A vein of sharp and provoking Piso; the relia Virro, if such be ihe real irony, sometimes smooth, and at others name of the person intended;* Rufus, caustic in the highest degree, rung ihrough who had a siinilar infiriniiy, and was most of his smaller pieces, and we can

most probably M. Cælius Rufus the oranot but admire the perfect indifference tor; Silu, a pander; Vitennius anxl bis with which he learlessly applies it, with son, the one a thiet, and the other unnaout distinction of persons. Even Cæsar turally infamous; the lascivious Auflehiniself felt the severity of his song, but mus, brother of Avblena, the mistress of was too magnanimous to resentit. When Catullus: Rula, of Bononia, wife of Meupon a visit at the house of Cicero, who nenus, and the mistress of Rurulus; Postrecords the circumstance in a letter to humia, a lady of bacchanalian fame; his friend Alticus, that poein,* av eternal Balbus, Posthuimius, and other obscure stain upon his reputation, wherein the characters mentioned in the poem to a poet censures bis ill-applied liberality harlot's doort All these were exposed towards the dissolute favourite Mamurra, to the lash of an injured, and sometimes was shewn to bin while he was at the exasperated, poet; particularly those who hath, as the topic of public conversations, presumed to rival him in the affection of Cæsar affected to disregard it, and either his mistresses, lle pursues them with to display an ostentatious moderation, keen and unreinitting severity; he deor to conceal his indignation, he accepied rides their pretensions, and exposes their the submission of Catullus, and soon personal informities, with a freedom of after invited bins to supper; he also con- pencil and a broadness of expression, a tinued to make a home of his father's which compel us to consider him as one house as usual. I Next to Cæsar, and of the wittiest, and, at the same time, one to Mamurra, whose sumptuous posses- of the most indecent, poets of antiquity. sions proclaimed his ravages in Transalpine Gaul better than all the verse of To the Editor of the Alonthly Magazine. Catullus, the principal objects of his

SIR, satire were Gellius, Gallus, Vectius, Ra.

Cadis, Nov. 1809. vidus, Coininius, Nonius Struma, and T ARRIVED here alier a passage of . Vatinius; all of them men whom he ap- I cighteen days from Falınouth, which, pears to have cordially bated. Mein- at this season of the year, is not a long mius, the avaricious prætor whom he at one; while at sea we experienced fair tended into Bithynia, of course, does not and foul winds, calms and storins, “temescape it. lie riticules the incontinent pest v'er tempest rollid." foul-breatbeds Emilius. He plays upon I was comfortable on board the packet Volusius, a wretched writer of annals:/) so far as related to socialility, there Egnatius, bis execrable poetic rival; Sut being above twenty passengers, some of fenus, a conceited scribbler, with whom whom are proceeding to different parts he includes Cesius and Aquinius, two of the Mediterranean; but the crowded literary pests; and lastly the weak orator state of “each in his narrow cell," was Sextius, at the recital of whose cold occasionally uncomfortable. compositions, he ludicrously says that he We were prevented from making Cane took cold himself. Catullus also makes Finisterre by a strong easterly wind, satirical mention of other charac'ers, less that blew just as we came into inat latiimportant and less conspicuous in his tude; but in a day or two the wind verses: such as Sulla, a grammarian; the changed, and light airs carried us gently 'pompous poet Antimachus; Arrius, a along the coast of Portugal to ibe rock violent aspirator of words,** whose uncle of Lisbon, as we call it, but the PortaLiber had the same defect; Tuttitius, an guese call it Serra de Cintra; for it is old secretary of Cæsar's, together with not an insulated rock, but a vast promonOtho and Libo, whose dirty feet are 110- tory, “whose laughity brow" marks the ticed;tt Porcius anii Socration, tools of


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Dear approach to the Tagus. On the The intention of the other passengers top is a convent, whose white walls was to mount their mules, and make an glatered in the sun; and a few miles in excursion hither; but their disappointe a ta ley to the leil, we plainly saw the ment was great when they learned that toxne! Cintra, o lately made famous to travel about seventy miles would cause by the Convention between the bottish them a liresvine ride of three days, if it 200 trench cuinmanders.

were eren possible for them in proceed ditwugh this is a winter month, we at all, owing to the rains, and the consealtady telt the delightful soft breezes of quent bad stale of the roads. They, this climate. The setting sun formed a therefore, reluciantiy relinguished their charming object, where we saw its gol schere, and had the inoritying fatigue der rays spreading over an horizon of uit of rocking two days and a bibit in an Leraald extent on the past Atlantic:" open diriy fishing-boai, to come here in it was an evening picture which may in time to look at the place for a lew mia fall be sought for in England.

nutes, and then make sail after the pacWe conunued our course in-shore, ket, which is allowed to wait only cuenand sun cane ofi Cape St. Vincent, ty-four hours, and had just weighed ah

here the rocks seem to protect the land chor to pursue her voyage. in a sort of defiance to the waves of the immediately on our anchoring, we ocean. We stood in sufficiently close to were surrounded by boats with fruit, &c. see the inhabitants of the couniry walk the men wore the national cockade, tug to the convent, it being on a Sun. (which I have already found requisite to day. This is a large irregular building, adopt, in order to avoid insult;) and we almost on the edge of a bigh rage of soon landed at the quay, amid the noise, rocks: and the end of it towards the sea confusion, and curiosity, of hundreds of exhibits a large cross on the walls. Near dirty boalmen, porters, &c. which was it is a fort, where the Spanish colors were truly offensive. hoisted to us: we, of course, returned the It was necessary that our baggage compliment.

should be examined, and for this purpose then we came near Ayamonte, sine it was carried to an office; the inspectors of our passengers went ashore, in conse- appeared inclined to give the trouble of quence of the medisposition of a larly we opening every package: but a dullar obbed on board, and hose lite might lave vinied this ceremony. On coming howbeen endangered had she remained loo- ever to the Barrier, another exhibition was ger at sea. A Spanish boat caine along to take place; and here, each trunk was side us; and on informing the sailors of opened and submitted to a search by the the object wished for, they expressed band, before we were suflerud to froa dislike to receive the invalid, and feared ceed. that their governor would not permit A porter then conducted me to the them to land her under the apprehensjon larg si, and, as it is termed, the brst inn that a contaymus disorder might be in- in ihe place. I did not expect in meet trucucid into the place.

with the comforts of an English inin, but Ayamonte is a frontier-town of Spnin, was much surprised to observe the absence on the river Guadiana; opposite to it is of almost every decent convenieuce. a frontier-town of Portugal, founded by My lodging room reseinbles the cell of a the marquis de Pombal, during his prose prison; the foor is (of brick, the window perits as minister of that country, in the small, with iron bars, and no glass, but a Year 1752, and called Villa Real. They wooden shutter closes it at ni bt A hare both a handsome appearance from mattress of wool is lain on a wel, which is the sea.

stretched by a wooden frame, and a chair Much opposition was made to the serves for the wash-hand stand. I couid Jade's landing. After this was overcome not refrain reinarking the nature of our a most serious obstacle uccurred, for no accommodation to the landlord, whose person was inclined to receive her into a reply was, “ Why, sir, this is the same house; and two hours passed before they hotel that my lord and lady II -real could find a shelter, wbicb was at last sided in while they were at Cadiz." in an uninhabited hovel. The object of The smell of iobacco smoke, oil, and her landing was to procure medical as• garlick, is predominant in almost every Estance, however bad, rather than to re- thing; the oil is such as is used in manumain longer in the packet, which was factories in England, and the fish, poultry, unprovided with so requisite a part of its and beef, partake of it, unless it is boiled. Equipment.

The coffee at breaksast is excellent, but

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