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naturally excited considerable attention George Gipps, how far the claimants, or amongst those who take an interest in any of them, might be entitled to concolonization; and they also deeply con- firmatory grants, and on what terms cern the large class of persons who have such confirmations ought to be made. friends or relations settled in Australia Had the New Zealanders been a poor, and New Zealand. These troubles have ignorant race, like the aborigines of originated in the peculiar circumstances Australia, they would soon have been under which New Zealand was taken driven to the wall in the bustle of possession of and colonized by Britain, settling the new colonies there ; but and are of a peculiar character, such as the Maories were found to be alive to never has been experienced, and, in their interests, and they have defended fact, could never occur in Australia or their supposed rights inch by inch with any of our other colonies.

the British settlers. They have never Previous to any effort at colonization even hesitated to resort to arms in cases in New Zealand, at the period when where they deemed themselves aggrieved. there had been a threat to seize it for The majority of the Maories have viewed France, we acknowledged its inde- with extreme dissatisfaction the increase pendence under the chiefs of the tribes. of European population; and, although The latter merely looked up to Britain the authorities have strictly adhered to as the parent of their little state, and the principle of purchasing every foot its protector from all attempts upon of ground from the legitimate owners its independence. The Committee of before allowing it to be used for the the House of Commons, which sat in purposes of colonization, yet the native 1836, perceived the difficulties of colo- chiefs have felt keenly the alienation of nizing under such circumstances, and so vast a portion of the lands of their reported that the increase of national ancestors. Many of the larger tracts of power and wealth promised by the land had been disposed of before the acquisition of New Zealand would be Maories had begun to realize the fact a most inadequate compensation for that it would be occupied by a race the injury which must be reflected superior to them in civilization. They upon the kingdom by embarking in a were well disposed to the British so measure essentially unjust, and but too long as they were but a few scattered certainly fraught with calamity to an settlers dependent upon them; but they inoffensive people, whose title to the soil had never conceived it possible that the and general title was not only indisputa- time would come when they would cease ble, but had been solemnly recognized by to be the dominant race. the British nation. In 1839, however, jealousy of the European people has our Government was induced to send exhibited itself upon various occasions, Captain Hobson to the country in the the ostensible cause of quarrel being the two-fold character of Consul and Lieu- right of the purchasers to the land which tenant-Governor. Many Englishmen had been bought from time to time. The had, by this time, purchased large tracts Land Commissioners, having found that of land of the natives; such sales as many of the purchases made by private had been made at an unduly low rate persons from Maories had been obtained were declared void; and a commissioner by improper representations and for inwas sent to the country to ascertain what adequate prices, declared them void ; amount of land was held in New Zealand and great doubts existed for many years by British subjects under grants from about the legality of all the titles to the natives ; how far such grants were law- land, not excepting that of the New fully acquired and ought to be respected, Zealand Company which encouraged and what might have been the price or the native chiefs to maintain claims over other valuable consideration given for territory that had been fairly sold. them. It was ultimately to be decided by Before we consider the present unesting to glance at previous outbreaks in cold blood. In this collision, there amongst the New Zealanders during our fell Captain Wakefield, the agent of the occupation of the country.

Company; Captain England, 12th regi. A lamentable tragedy occurred in June, ment; Mr. Thompson, Local Judge ; Mr. 1843, at Cloudy Bay, in Cook's Straits. Howard, the Company's storekeeper; It arose out of a disputed claim to land Mr. Packett, merchant; Mr. Cotterel, on either side of Cook's Strait, and we surveyor; and about twenty other fear the New Zealand Company were British emigrants. There were eleven quite as much to blame as the natives of the party who fortunately reached a in raising and exciting the collision. A small vessel and got out of reach of the party of surveyors were sent to Wairow natives. It has been urged, with what to portion the land out into allotments. degree of truth we do not know, that They erected a couple of rush huts on the wife of Rangibaiata, and daughter the ground. Two native chiefs, Ranpa- of Ranparaha, had been killed by a raha, and his son-in-law, Rangihaiata, random ball, and that this circumstance burnt them down, in consequence of the had irritated those two chiefs, and dispute then pending. The natives, how- excited them to perpetrate the coldever, wished the matter in question refer- blooded massacre of those who had red to Mr. Spain, the Land Commissioner surrendered. There appears to be little of the country, whose conscientious de- doubt that the proceedings of the Comcisions had inspired them with great confi- pany's servants were most injudicions, dence. Unfortunately, however, instead of and it has been generally supposed that waiting forthearrivalof Mr.Commissioner they expected to intimidate the natives Spain, Mr. Thompson, a civil servant into giving up the land without any of the Government, who held the post of appeal to Mr. Commissioner Spain, Judge of the County Court and Prose- which they did not by any means cutor of the Aborigines, at the solicita- desire. tion of Captain Wakefield, the chief In the year 1845 Honi, Heki, and vaagent of the New Zealand Company at rious other chiefs began to be very Nelson, issued an order to apprehend troublesome to the settlers; and a severe the two chiefs. The British party, collision took place on the 11th March, numbering forty-six persons, under the the natives attacking Kororarika, in the command of Captain Wakefield and Bay of Islands, the oldest town in the Captain England, of H.M. 12th regi- colony, which they completely destroyed, ment, advanced

upon the native driving out the military and a party of encampment to enforce Mr. Thompson's sailors and marines of H.M.S. Hazard order, The nature of the warrant after a brave resistance by the latter, who having been explained to the natives had the misfortune to have their comby means of an interpreter, the chiefs set mander severely wounded early in the their party at defiance, and Thompson, action. This disaster was chiefly caused who was, it appeared, a very excitable by the behaviour of the military offiman, ordered an advance. The chiefs cer in charge of the block house ; who, were posted upon a highly advantageous on hearing guns fired, quitted that fortiposition, near the source of the Wairow, fication, the key of the position of the and the British had to pass a rivulet in Europeans, to proceed towards the spot their front in a canoe, under a beavy from whence the sound proceeded ; and fire. They were thrown into confusion, thus this most important post fell into but were rallied by Captains England the hands of the natives. In this enand Wakefield, and made a stand on the counter there were thirteen Europeans brow of a hill close by, where they killed and eighteen wounded; of the were attacked by the chiefs and dis- New Zealanders fifty were killed and a persed. Some escaped, and others put large number wounded. At a public forth a flag of truce and surrendered to meeting held in Auckland a resolution Ranparaha. The latter were butchered

was passed by acclamation, giving Commander Robertson and the men of the recalled, and his successor tried to soothe Hazard the greatest credit for their gal- the natives. Heki, however, continued for lantry in defending the place at such nearly two years to disturb the

peace

of dreadful odds. Indeed, they did not the country—the affair at Wanganai being abandon the town until the magazine in

the last of these outbreaks. So expenthe stockade blew up and the ammuni- sive, however, had been the operations of tion failed, when the order was given Government for exterminating this spirit for the troops and inhabitants to embark. of rebellion against British authority and The native chief who commanded on this protecting the English residents, that it occasion, Ehara, murdered nine English was calculated their safety cost the Empeople who fell into his hands after the pire at the rate of 15l. a-head per annum. embarkation had been effected.

The present contest between the British Much alarm was caused by the anni- Government and the national or Maori hilation of our settlement at the Bay of party is clearly to be traced to the jealIslands - not so much to be deplored for ousy of the latter of the power of the the sacrifice and the destruction of pro- English settlers. The avowed objects of perty as for the loss of prestige that the confederation of native chiefs who had now for the first time really fallen acknowledge the Waikato prince, Te on the British power; and great fears Whero Whero (or, as he is more genewere entertained that the excited abori- rally named, Potatan) as king of the gines would everywhere rise and mas- northern island of New Zealand, are the sacre our defenceless fellow-countrymen, subversion of the authority of Queen scattered up and down from the North Victoria, and the prohibition of further to the South Cape. It was deemed ne- alienation of territory to the Crown for cessary to enrol the white inhabitants purposes of colonization. The present and drill them daily. It was known Taranki war has been caused by the that Heki had fortified a new pah native king movement, and the real which he had six guns to defend, while issue is, whether Victoria or Potatan in his rear was an interminable forest to shall be the future sovereign of New fall back upon if driven from his stock- Zealand. The settlement of New Plyade; the natives throughout the country mouth, where the present outbreak has were quietly waiting the result of the taken place, was founded in 1841, by attack of the British on the prime mover the Plymouth Company of New Zealand, in this insurrection, and ready, if Heki who had purchased a large tract of land, were successful, to rise everywhere and of the extent of 60,000 acres, from the expel the colonists from the country. The · only natives then resident in the district. stronghold of this predatory chief was These were Waikatos, who had conattacked on the 1st July, and our troops quered it from another tribe named were repulsed with heavy loss, one-third Ngatiaws, the great majority of whom of them having fallen before the order had been enslaved by the victorious to retreat was given. The British had tribe, who now ceded their right to the no guns that could be of service; and, British. The title of the Company was although they repeatedly pulled down investigated by Mr. Spain, the Commisportions of the outer stockade or pah, sioner for the purpose, who reported in yet there was an inner stockade lined favour of the Company's claim; but with men firing through loopholes Governor Fitzroy, instigated by some of which resisted all their efforts. Having the missionaries of the district, refused obtained some guns and ammunition to confirm their title, holding that the from the Hazard, our troops con- enslaved tribe of Ngatiaws had the real veyed them to the top of a hill property in the soil. The European which commanded the pah, which was population at the settlement were consethen abandoned by the natives in the quently confined to a block of 3,500 night.

acres, which they had purchased from

.

blocks which they were afterwards able along the coast. Backed by the so-named to purchase. It was from one of those native king party and the native antitransactions that the present disturbance selling land league and some of the arose, and it occurred in this way :-In missionaries, William King insolently March, 1859, the governor of the colony, defied the Crown, and, rather than allow being at New Plymouth, offered to pur- another native chief to sell his land, chase land to extend the settlement, in took up arms, and, having been joined a proclamation or notice to the effect by all the disaffected natives, openly that he thought the Maories would be resisted the government. It has become wise to sell land they did not require, a fight for British supremacy in this as it would enhance the value of what island; and, surely, our nation could they retained ; he would buy no man's never abandon 90,000 of our compaland without his consent, and he would triots, who have successfully colonized require an undisputed title. In reply to and civilized it. At the period of the this notice a Waitara chief offered to sell outbreak there were said to be 5,000 a block of land. No person disputed his Maories in arms, and they have been right to sell the property, with the able to set the British authority at exception of one native, named Paora, defiance for several months. The first who said he would not allow the sale; severe skirmish arose out of an exthe land was in his hands, and he would pedition sent to bring in some British not give it up. This chief, however, did settlers who had clung too long to not deny that the right to sell the land their homes, and had been cut off by belonged to the native who had offered the natives from communication with it; but said he would not let him sell it, their friends at head-quarters. The pretending that his position as a chief brunt of the engagement was chiefly gave him

power to veto the transaction, born by the civilians, and the military and forgetting the conquest of the country took very little share in the struggle. by the Waikatos, who had transfered The fight took place at the mouth of their rights to the Crown in 1842; for, the Waireka, amongst the flax gullies, although Governor Fitzroy had refused to where the Maories were posted at the act upon this, and reversed the decision bottom of the ridge on which their pah of the Land-Court, his act has been was erected, in order to oppose the deemed an error by all his successors, passing of our men. The soldiers reand by those competent to give an mained at long range, a small party only opinion on the question. It is necessary being detached to support the civilians. here to mention that, in 1853, there So vastly did the Maories outnumber arose a new contest about the land at

their foe that they swarmed the Waireka New Plymouth amongst the Ngatiaws gully, enclosing our militia and volunthemselves, as to what portions of it teers on the right and rear; and, the belonged to the different chiefs of the detached party of sixty-five having been tribe. In 1854 a chief, Rawri, was recalled, the British were hemmed in on murdered, for offering to sell a portion of every side, except on the flank toward land to the government, by Katatore, a the beach. Their ammunition having leader of the anti-selling land league. become spent, their position was very This feud has been at work since then, critical ; but here, as at Kororarika, the and so much afraid have the natives blue-jackets saved them from ruin. become of Katatore and of his successor The men of the Niger came up at the William King that no attempt was made, critical moment, headed by Captain from this occurrence in 1854 up to 1859, Cracroft, and rushed on the natives to dispose of land to the government; with cutlass, bayonet, and revolver, and, notwithstanding that there are in that having carried the pah, extricated the fine province 3,000,000 acres which troops, with whom they returned to about 3,000 natives profess to own, only head-quarters. cultivating a few patches here and there The military rendered but little assistance in this affair ; and, without a portion of the rebels on the 6th professing to throw any blame on the November, at a place named Mahoetahi, officers in command, we may say that it and that their leader Wetini had was unfortunate that the rebellious been slain. The engagement is renatives were not better enlightened ported to have been very severe, the upon this occasion as to the power and Maories fighting, as they generally appear efficiency of our troops. The result to do, with great courage and resolution, was, that they treated us with scanty while the conduct of our officers and respect, and the disaffection still spread men was beyond praise. The natives amongst the various tribes in the have been accustomed hitherto to undernorthern island. The officer in com- value British prowess, and it is to be mand at this period did not seem to hoped that they have now received a possess any great amount of energy, and salutary lesson, which will not fail of little was attempted by him beyond restoring our prestige. Our ultimate holding his position. The arrival of triumph cannot be doubted, but in the Major - General Pratt, who held the mean time many colonists are suffering office of commander of the forces in severely in consequence of the risks and Australia, with large reinforcements, put losses which this disturbance has brought it in the power of the British to assume upon

them; and it is absolutely necessary offensive operations ; and we are very that the outbreak should be quelled and happy to learn by the last mail that a peace restored as quickly as possible. complete victory had been obtained over

T. McC.

METROPOLITAN DISTRESS.

BY THE REV. J. LLEWELYN DAVIES.

The distress of the poor in London has to create the Distress movement, by been recently brought before the whole opening its columns to appeals and reworld with unusual prominence, through porting donations, with the occasional the space devoted by the Times to va- stimulus of a thorough-going leading rious attempts to relieve it. There is article. It is a striking, and in many always a lamentable amount of distress respects a hopeful, fact, as a sign of the prevailing in London, and especially tendency of the public mind, that this during the winter season; and the dis- great power should have been applied tress has lately been much aggravated directly to the help of the needy and by the bitterly cold weather, and the miserable ; but, unfortunately, the good suspension, through the frost, of many is not gained without grievous injury to kinds of labour. It is not without good our social order, and without the danger reason that hearts have been touched of inflicting permanent damage upon the and purses opened in behalf of the poor. class it is designed to benefit. But it is important to understand that There is one injustice which the Times the Charity columns of the Times fur- has itself committed, and encouraged nish no safe criterion of the compara- others to commit, which ought not to tive pressure of distress. “Metropolitan be left without a protest. We are told Distress” had already assumed appal- that our Poor-Law administration has ling dimensions in the columns of the evidently failed. The proofs of that Times before the hard weather set in; failure are the appeals in the Times, the and yet at Christmas time it was shown crowds at the police-courts, and the parby the average statistics of all the Lon- ties of “frozen-out” labourers asking don workhouses, that there was no un- relief in the streets. That contributions usual degree of suffering amongst the should be asked for, and should still

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