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western Country of all Europe ; whence it is ftyled by the Poets Hesperia Ultima, and thereby distinguished from Italy, which is always understood by the word Hesperia, when used without the addition of that Epithet. Thus. Horace speaking of Spain, calls it Hesperia Ultimo :
Qui nanc Hefperia Sospes ab ultima * Which Epithet he drops in mentioning Italy, as appears from his following Verses :
Dii multa negleEti dederunt
Hefperia mala lu&tuofa t.
Longas O utinam, Dux bone, ferias
Præsies Hesperia . Our Author adds, and endeavours to prove, that the Name Italia is the most antient of any that Part of Europe bears; wherein he is guilty of a most notorious and unpardonable Blunder. His Words are as follow : Italia, says he, unicum, singulare, ac proprium est bujus Regionis nomen, æque apud facros & propbanos auctores vulgatiffimum. Imo arbitror antiquius effe omnibus aliis. Illud quippe Moyses omnium Scriptorum antiquifimus expresse exhibuit Numerorumi cap. 24. ubi referens Balaami Propbetæ vaticinium, inter alia hæc ab ipfo prænuntiata tradidit : Venient in trieribus de Italia, superabunt Affyrios, vaftabuntque Hebræos, & ad extremum etiam ipsi peribunt. ll De Romanorum Imperio omnes facri Interpretes hoc vaticinium exponunt. Inde colligimus, Italiæ vocabulum omnium huic * Horatins, Carm. Lib. 1. Ode 36. + Idem, Lib. 3. Ode 6. $ idem, Lib. 4. Ode sa Numerorum Cap. xxiv. v. 24..
regioni impositorum esse antiquifimum. Nam coterorum nominum, qui prædicantur, Auctores, Moyfis coyo posteriores sunte. Cum igitur Moyfes Libri Numerorum, ac totius Pentateuci Auktor I. taliæ nomen exprimat, evidens eft nomen istud jam ante ejus ætatem huic Europe parti fuisse inditum ; ac proinde omnium aliorum elle vetuftifimum... One would hardly think ic poffible, that any Writer should argue after To preposterous a manner. Because he finds the Word Italia in the vulgate Translation of the Pentateuch, he takes for granted, that the very fame Word was used by Mofes; and upon this Foundation grounds his Opinion touching the Antiquity of that Name. I am of opinion, says he, That the most antient Name of this country is Italia, because it is used in express Terms by Mofes, the most antient Writer now extant: Venient in trieribus de Italia, &c. Should we not deserve to, be severely censured (or rather pity'd) if finding, for instance, in an English Translation of Cæsar's Commentaries, the Words Britannia, Gallia, and such like, rendered thus, England, France, &c. we should conclude from thence, that the latter Names were very antient, and had been used by Cæfar? Had our Author recurred to the Original, which every Writer is... indispensably bound to do on such Occafions, he would have found, that Mofes uses not exprefly the Word Italia, but the Word 'n Chittim, which no more resembles his Italia, than it does Oenotria, Aufonia, Hesperia, Saturnia, &c. 'Tis true S. Hierome translates the Hebrew Words end 70 a parte Cbittim, thus, de Italia ; but he might have as well used any of the above-mentioned Names as that of Italia, which he preferred to the others for nở
other Reafon chan because it was the most com- . mon, and, consequently, the best known. Tho' S. Hierome translates the Hebrew Words abovementioned de Italia, yet it is not certain that the Word Cbittim signifies Italy or the Italians. The Greek Interpreters render ic Kitius, Kinas, and Kitaies, that is, according to Josephus *, the Cyprians; there being a famous City in that INand, called Citium. In that City was born Zeno, the celebrated Stoic Philosopher, and from thence named Kirisus. Josephus adds, that all Inands and maritime Places are called in Hebrew Xebine; and on this falfe Supposition
את מלכי fenders the following Hebrete Words
Onn 2 Reg. vii 6. into Greek thus Tov (Gaðinéa) 48 vno wy; as if Chittim with a Cheth, were the same as Chittim with a Caph. Others translate Chittim Xies; and some render it I'vdãoOvn. The Author of the first Book of the Macchabees by the Word Chittim understood the Macedonians ; for he tells us, that Alexander the Great came out of the Land of Chetim ir tas gñs xetivy +: and calls Pere feus, of whom the Romans triumphed, Kitewr Racinéa 1.' 'Tis true, that moft Interpreters by Cbittim 'understand the Romans, founding their Opinion on the following Words of Daniel ; At the time 'appointed be (Antiochus) fall return, and come towards the South's (that is, towards Egypt,) but it shall not be as the formers or as the latter. For the Ships of Chitrim fhalli come against him ; therefore be fhall be grieved and return, and have Indignation &c. | The
* Josephus Lib. 1. Antig. Judaic. Cap. 6, & 7. it Macchab. i i # Macchab, Cap. viii. v.5. Daniel.Cap. xi.V. 29, & 34. i
Ships of Chittim, say they, are plainly the Ships of the Romans, who under the Conduct of Caius Popilius, defeated the Designs of Antiocbus and obliged him to return home it. In the Vulgate instead of Chittim we read Romani : & venient super eos Trierés & Romani : & percutietur & revertetur ; which Explanation is followed both by the Greek and Latin Fachers, and, among the Jews, by Joseph Bengorion, Solomon Yarbi, R. Saadias Gaon, Aben-Ezra, Joseph Jacbiad. But allowing the Romans, or Italy, to be meant by the Word Chittim ; it would be ridiculous to infer from thence (as our Author does) that Moses used the Word Italy, when he said, in relating the Prophecy of Bae laam, And Ships fall come from the coast of Chittim, &c. Perhaps the Hebrew Word Chittim, sup. posing it to signify that Part of Europe we call Italy, had been better rendered in Lalin by Latiųm or Camefene, than by Italia ; for Chetema in the Arabick Dialect, (which is a Branch of the Hebrew) signifies to hide, and cheam, bidden, to which Latium answers, being derived from the Latin Verb lateo. As to Camesene, several learned Writers will have it to import the same as Latium; with this difference, that Latium is derived from the Latin Verb lateo, whereas Camesene, according to them, comes from the Hebrew camas, which signifies to hide t..
Who were the first Inhabitants of Italy, or when it began to be peopled, is a Question, which, for want of antient Records, cannot be determined. Some have said, that. Cbetbim,
* Liv. Libr. 4 & 5. Decad. 5. Polyb, in excerpt. Legnt.
* Johannes Jacobus Omannus in Lexico univer: Verbo Camele; and Bochastus Geogr. Sacra, Libr. 3. Cap. 5..;
third Son to Javan, who was Japheth's fourth Son, came and settled in Italy. They found their Opinion upon the Romans being called in the Scripture Chittim, which is but a sandy: Foundation. Annius of Viterbo is of opinion that Noab himself, (whom he takes to be Janus) came into Italy; nay, that he failed, with his three Sons, round the World, and put each of them in poffeffion of the Countries they and their. Descendants were to enjoy. He adds, that, in this Partition of the World, Europe fell to Japheth and his Pofterity. The most common Opinion is, that Italy was peopled by Colonies from Greece, which paffed into Italy, according to S. Hierome and Eufebius, about, Moses's Time. The most ancient Kingdom in Italy was, according to Trogus Pompeius, and, Livy, that of Tuscany, founded by Tyrrhenus, a Native of Greece. Josephus Gorionides * and Vatablus + conjecture, that Tuscany was erected into a Kingdom by Mofocb, Jabbeib's sixth Son. Others take the Kingdom of Latium to be che most antient; which, if we give credit to Eufebius, was founded by Janus, a hundred and fifty years before Æneas arrived in Italy, that is, according to our Author's computacion, seven hundred and eighteen Years after Noah's Death, and seven hundred and seventy three after the Confusion of Tongues. Our Author here gives us the Series of the Kings that reigned in Latium, from Janus to Numitor, Grandfather of Romulus, Founder of Rome: enume: rates the various Nations that inhabited Italy gives an account of their Origin, and a geogra
* Joseph. Gorion. in Thesauro Pagnini. ..
+ Vatab, in cap. X. Geneseos. No. XVI. 1722. main Zi'.