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to increase the general beauty of the ties of the vale of Matlock, we proceeded scene.

onward, and shortly came in view of the Crossing the river, by a boat kept for spacious mansion of Sir Richard, and the the purpose of conveying visitors to the nunerous dwellings of the pers ns he opposite shore, a little way above the employs daily, to the number of several town, we ascended by a winding path, hundreds, in his extensive cotton manuand gained the summit of the height we factories. This is indeed a different laboured to attain : we stood upon a scene from the calm sequestered envie high projecting point of rock, some hune rons of Matlock; but it is by no means dred yards above the level of the stream, an unpleasing one; for industry and and looked upon the vale in all its glory, Deatness are combined to give an air of diversified by wocds of various hues and comfort and animation to the whole susspecies ; the windings of the Derwent, rounding district; and cold and unfeelthe greyish-coloured rocks, and whitened ing must be the heart which does not houses embosomed amidst groves of experience gratification at the sight of trees, which, sprouting from every crevice “happy human faces," or know a sentiin the precipices, give variety and anima- ment of delight at hearing the sounds of tion to a scene of wonderful beauty. merriment and cheerfulness amongst the

Proceeding along the edge of the poorest of their fellow mortals. woody height, the views continually Of the interior of Cromfit House I varied as we advanced. Beneath our cannot give you a description, for we did feet, a steep and thickly-wooded bank not ask to view its apartinents. We were stretched close along the margin of the assured it was elegant, and laid out for stream, while the opposite shore rose the convenience of the owner's family boldly froin the water, and appeared and guests; but, as by far the greater almost wholly covered over with roman- number of the houses of the affluent tic huinan habitations, huge masses of bear a striking similarity to each other, impending rocks, and a hare and lofty it is little worth while to explore the intehill broken by craggy precipices, and rior of each, or seek to fatigue others by forming a charming contrast to the sofler descriptions of what can tend but features of the landscape.

slightly to the gratification of curiosity, Advancing still a little farther onward, nor in any manner interest the admirers the eye takes in a reach of the river, of Nature's unadorned scenery. smooth and unruffled, and overhung The grounds we however sought and by' dark and thickly-spreading wood, obtained perinission to walk over, and some whilened houses at a little distance were amply repaid for our trouble, by the from the baths, with a rich variety of view of a part of the sweet vale of Matpointed rocks, tufted with trees, and lock, and an extensive tract of the adja adding to the beauty of a view at once cent country. The walks are tastefully interesting and romantic as imagination formed; and, though not extensive, are can conceive. From thence a path leads extremely pretty, and deserving of a to the bottom of the hill, by which the visit. views are reversed; and every object seen from Cromfit we crossed the country in a different point, forms new and in- to Ashburn, a sweetly situated, clean, Teresting pictures of peculiar loveliness pretty town, on'the road between Derby and diversity,

and Buxton, and twenty miles from the Toilevening closed, and hid the charm- latter, ing landscape from our sight, we conti. I had been there years before : but two nued to wander round the environs of of my companions never having been in Matlock; and it was with reluctance we that part of the county, I made no objec. retired to our auberge, where we had an tions to extending our tour thither. As excellent supper, and good beds. The we arrived at an early hour in the evenday had been delightfully fine, and we ing, we had a long stroll ere supper was were all charmed with our ramble, and announced to be upon the table; and eager for the ensuing morn to extend it found much to admire in the various still further, to the elegant seat of Sir views upon the banks of the Dove, and Richard Arkwright, at Cromfit, about in the vicinity of the town, where the tuo miles or the other side of Matlock. country is beautifully diversified, fertile, We accordingly prepared at an early and finely cultivated, and the air of neat. hour, to put our former evening's plan in ness so conspicuous even in the humblest execution; and having again taken a par- of the habitations, peculiarly pleasing, tial survey of the more immediate beau. The church is a tasteful structure, but


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unfinished. It had been meant to form intermixture of woods and rocks, and a cross, but has never been completed; patches of softest verdure, the picture was and the tower stands on the north side, one which could not fail to inspire the which was purposed to be elevated froin most pleasing sensations, and wild, the middle of the building. The inns, of silent, and solemo as the scene appeared, which there are several in Ashburn, are we were inexpressibly delighted with it. good; and there is a considerable lace No trace of human habitation was seen; manufactory carried on in the town and no sound was heard, save that of the neighbourhood. Sir Brook Bootheby rushing water, as it played amongst the bas a beautiful seat adjoining the town, broken pieces of the rocks; we seemed which strangers often visit.

as if shut out from human intercourse; On the succeeding morning, having and a fertile, romantic imagination, might breakfasted, we began our journey back have formed a variety of pictures, to to Buxton; and when about a mile from charm the senses, and create ideal strucAshburn, we quitted the turnpike-road, tures of felicity. and sending on the carriages to meet us At the extremity of the dale, we found at a particular spot some miles distant, the carriages in waiting; when, seating we proceeded on foot to the entrance of ourselves again in them, we were shortly the celebrated Dove-dale, a narrow conveyed over the excellent lime-stone winding valley, to which a guide con roads, for which that part of the country ducted us, and where we found ourselves is remarkable, and reached our quarters enclosed betwixt two rocky ridges varied at the hotel early in the evening, when in height, and diversified by an assem. we concluded the days amusement by a blage of broken craggs and jutting preci- visit to the theatre, and laughed away a pices, partly shaded over by groupes of couple of hours at the representation of trees shooting from their crevices, and a popular comedy, and the buffooneries hanging from the summits of the frowning of a no less fashionable farce. cliffs, or wholly hid from sight by thick My stay at Buxton being now com. embowering woods; while, at the bottom pleted, and my anxiety to pursue my meof the dell, the Dove winds amidst an ditated wanderings returning as the peinfinity of shrubs, and broken pieces of riod of departure drew nearer, I deterrocks, sometimes assuming a more bold mined to begin my journey to the northappearance as it dashes over stones and ward; and, two days after my return from fragments that impede the progress of its Matlock, bidding adieu to the friends in waters; at others, smoothly flowing over whose society I had passed some very its narrow channel with gentle murmur, pleasurable moments, and the newlya reflecting the varied colours of the pené formed acquaintances whom I had found dant boughs that droop and dip their agreeable during my stay at Buxton, I beautiful luxuriant foliage in the lucid proceeded across the inountainous and streanı. On the rocky boundaries of the dreary tract that intervenes between that dale, some wonderfully picturesque pre- place and the populous smoky town of cipices rise in wild confusion, and give Sheffield; a tract so bleak and uninteradded beauty to the scene: in these, esting as any you can forin an idea of, there are several arches formed as it were excepting for a little space in the vale by the band of art, but which, upon where stands the village of Middleton, ascending the steeps to examine, we the approach to which upoin the Buxton were satisfied were wholly the work of side, is singularly wild and romantic, the nature, and only serving to render the road passing through a very n. Irrow dell scenery around more beautifully pictu- of nearly a mile in length, the borindaries resque.

of which are principally coinposed of The walk we here enjoyed was indeed 'rocky precipices of a greyish colour, delightful; and we were all enchanted formed into a variety of fantastic sha pes, with the whole of our excursion. The and in many places resembling the : 11weather was charining, the air was clear, cient turrets of a castellated mansion, a'r and the softened light thrown on the dif- a ruined fortress; wbile.broken fragments' ferent objects from the sky, contributed scattered on the ground, give added with the mildness of the air, to“ send force to the idea of their having onca into the heart a surimer feeling.” The belonged to the dilapidated monuments sun occasionally only peeped through of grandeur that imagination leads th: white and slowly sailing clouds floating observer to fancy bare at some far disupon the azure horizon, and from the tant period surinounted the craggy partial gleamus it cast upon the beautiful boundaries of the way. Though less


talked of than many other wonders of the general benefit; but the local oppression country, this is, in my opinion, a scene still remains. that is peculiarly interesting. It is wild, In an adjacent market-town, we hare romantic, solemn, and impressive; recal. a benefit club by which I have found Sing the memory of former times, and in that a very comfortable provision is made the contemplation of the mutilated frag- for members who have been necessi. ments of the proudly soaring precipices tated to recur to its pecuniary assistance, that seem as if fixed for ages in the earth, "There are, perhaps, already made, calreminding the observer, that even the culations where such institutions can be world, and the most apparently durable of conducted upon a sure principle ; and I nature's works, are subject to decay; submit it to the candid and benevolent, while in ourselves

whether the following ideas bear an as. Swift down the pathway of declining pect of absurdity, and whether philanyears,

thropic and enlightened gentlemen As on we journey through this vale of tears: would find them of difficult execution. Youth wastes away, and withers like a They do not require half the concern flower,

which is bestowed upon the game; and The lovely phantom of a fleeting hour; they would find the benefit much greater 'Mid the light sallies of the mantling soul, than from pulling down cottages, and The smiles of beauty, and the social bowl, taking measures which, in a general Inaudible, the foot of chilly Age

view, are not politic. Steals on our joys, and drives us from the

I would suggest, that a plan upon a stage.

proper footing, upon the principle of a Hodgson's Translation of Juvenal.

a. benefit-club which cannot fail, be estab. Farewell. My next will contain an lished in districts or parishes, as found hasty sketch of my journey to the north, best. I would then recommend gentleand scenes more congenial to my taste, men to give notice to their tenants, (ma. ekran are to be found amongst the din of nufacturers exercising the same power in, forces, or the busy countenances of mo- relation to their workmen,) not to em, ney-making manufacturers.

ploy persons who did not belong to such a THE WANDERER.

fund, and pay à proportion, by no means

oppressive, but rated according to their To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, earnings and families. This fund I SIR,

would aid · by contributions of the THE parish of which I am the mic principal inhabitants, upon ratios of

nister, is one of those which are assessment settled among themselves; overburthened with poor; and the cir- such sums being suffered for the first ses cumstances of distress on one hand, and ven years to accumulate, and thus have injury to the estates on the other, are the operation of a tontine survivorship, equally melancholy in contemplation. in aid of the future demands. For in. Any man possessed of common pru. stance, the population of this parish is dence, idust know the peril of letting off more than 3000 persons, and the poor's projects; but I trust that, what I have rate exceeds 12001. yet the rent-roll of to state, does not come under that denue the parish scarcely exceeds 3000l. The mination. I conceive, that poor's rates manufacture is cloth-working; and, may be abolished gradually, and that, ty when trade has been commonly good, the means absolutely practised by the the weavers, shearmen, and others, can wiser poor themselves.

earn 11. 21. 31. or even 4l. per week, The principle of all legislation is to Where would be the cruelty of a manu. eonipe! men to consult what is, in fact, facturer saying, “John, I pay you so their own good; and prevent their annoye much. I insist upon your belonging to ance of their neighbours, in life, pro- our institution, according to the ratios of perty, or reputation. The necessity of your family and earnings," the workman f'incentrating a disproportionate mass of refuses. The natural answer is, Then, I the population upon one spot, for the will not give you but so much; and he purposes of inanufacture, is a grievous deducts the amount. Unmarried men, oppression upon the local landholder, in and servant-maids, could afford to pay Ti airy places. He derives no benefit something. Day-labourers could afford for the labours of that trading popula- little, it is true, with families; cottages, cion, and the rent of his farm is propore with an acre or two of land, and a good tionally diminished. I do not deny the garden, are the best provision for them; national profit; I do not deny the but they should never be their own, he

. cause

cause they are apt to mortgage or sell form or other expended upon the popu. them; they should be permitted to live lation; and whether through the con. in them, on condition of never having quests of the enemy, the decay of trade, parochial relief, and paying to the insti. may not render the poor's rates an intntution; and so many cottages of this lerable burthen, will, to politicians who kind, as the quantity of annual workmen do not consider it scientific to admit requires upon each farm, should be an- mere hope into their calculations, be a nexed to each farm. I would also suge subject which merits very serious reflecgest, that twice a year accounts should tion. be taken of the state of the population

THOMAS DUDLEY FOSBROOK E, by the vestry, and the increase or de

10. crease noted, as well as the sex. I

P.S. If any of the local newspapers think. would then suggest, a bounty to be o! that my ideas would be attended with any fered to boys not wanted, upon condi- utility, at least excite attention to the sube tion of enlisting in the navy, or army; ject; perhaps, in the present scarcity of news, and apprenticing girls. The advantage they may copy this article. of females in trade is inconceivable. They spend, if single, most of their mo For the Monthly Magazine. pey in dress, all manufacture; and, if OBSERVATIONS on the PRESENT STATE of married to labourers or workmen, the

the corron COLONIES. income is consequently doubled of the

(Concluded from page 234.) busband and family.

ANOTHER scheme of reasoning is I think that I may safely say, that I A derived from the fancied injury to have proposed no inore (ratios of the po. the manufacturing interest, which would pulation excepted) than what is abso. accrue from any restriction being inlately done by the wise and prudent posed on the introduction of foreign propoor themselves. To render wisdom duce. This would be very true, if we and prudence compulsory in them by had any great manufacturing rival, which the authority of the master, is no.hard. possesed similar naval resources to our ship, unless it can be deemed one, to own; but as no such power has existence, convert a fool into a sensible man, or the reasoning is inapplicable. There is make a thoughtless fellow less injurious no market in Europe that can enter the to society. The advantages to the poor lists with that of Great Britain, for cotthemselves, to men of property, and to ton-wool; and Anierica, from morad government, are self-evident, and the causes, cannot be a manufacturing countrouble infinitely less. Nothing but mi. try for a very long time. Ages may yet litary discipline can reform the drunken revolre, ere such events take place. or worthless character; and the custom Great Britain therefore is, and must be, of sending such persons on board a ten, the great mart for this kind of produce. der, is the wisest that can be adopted. America must pour it in increasing quan

Parliament rarely interferes to any ex- tities; nor can she be restricted from tent in the internal concerns of the coun- doing so, but by regulations which no try; but how any body of men can accu- man in his senses would wish to see prorately legislate, without annual returns of mulgated. . the population, and their several employs One means of bringing the American and avocations distinguished, is to me in- and the British cotton-planter to an explicable. I am satisfied that it would equality, is to double the duty on all be wholly in its power, by easy means, foreign cotton, now taxed the same as and better, perhaps, than I have suge that of our own colonists, and to take off gested, for the Quakers bave actually the whole of the duty paid by British done it, gradually to abolish poor's rates; cotton wool. By doing this, the public but it is the curse of every honest heart, revenue would be increased to à suin and every friend to improvement, that exceeding the present duties on cottouhe is coin pelled to find" oracular dog. wool of British as well as foreign mas," and “lions in the way," let the growth, by several thousand pounds, good proposed be ever so mighty. In, while the average price would reinain the the impusition of taxes, difficulties are same, the exorbitant profits of the foonly made to be overcome; in the alle reign cotton-planter being reduced; and viation of them, the converse is the fact those of the British proprietor reasonably In every country where interest is paid increased : or, in fact, by making foa for money, its wbole income is in some reigners contribute something to a coun


try, to which they are so deeply in. which physical causes preclude on the debted.

great continent of America. Total of present receipts.

We have too recently witnessed the Amount of duties on 204 2. S. d.

entire dependence of North America on millions lbs. of British cotton wool .. .

this couniry for manufactured goods, to 172,524 11 8

entertain a doubt upon the question; for On 47 millions lbs. of

at this inoment, the government of that American do. in British shipping - - 395,833 6 44

country is fulminating decrees against On 23 millions of Brazil

Britain, and at the same time covering dittu, in ditto ditto - 191,666 13 4 the seas with her coasters, freighted for Total of present duties £700,0-4 11 4]

Britain: an artful policy, which requires

to be encountered with firmness and reAmount of proposed duties on tbe same solution. quantities.

I have hitherto reasoned on the sup

£ S. d. position, that no fiscal regulations with reOn American cotton . 791,666 13 4

gard to foreign cotton of the pature alOn Brazil ditto - - 383,333 64

ready described, could enhance the price

1,174,999 19 8 to the British manufacturer. But were Deduct total of present

the utmost increase that can be conduties . - - 760,024 11 4

ceived to take place, the alteration in the Balance in favour of the

price of the goods for sale, could scarcely proposed plan • £414,975 8 34 be perceptible. For illustration, let us

But this estimate has been framed on suppose that one pound of cotton-wool the-supposition that all American cotcan be so manufactured as to fetch the tun-wool is imported into this country sum of twenty shillings, which is below in British vessels : this, however, is not the average. The present selling price the fact; and we may safelv assume that is about two shillings: were any enhancethe whole is conveyed in their own ships. ment of price to occur, for instance, were Not that this is the case; but as it occurs the Americans and Portuguese to retain in a greater degree with the Brazil cot- their produce by universal consent, unless 1011, this assumption may be granted, as they could get half a crown per pound, The original estimate of the Brazil pro, the additional six-pence would not be duce will he retained.

perceived, when distributed over the The increase on importations made in various articles manufactured from the foreigii vessels, should certainly be pro. pound of the wool. portional to the duty on British shipping; I have however been informed by a and if that be the case, the revenue manufacturer, that this loss (if any) does would be augmented by at least one. not devolve on the manufacturer, but on third.

the workmen ; for in proportion to the And there can be no doubt respecting low price of the material do the wages the preference which the Americans will of the latter approach a certain standard; continue to give to their own ships, in or in proportion to its high price, do despite of the increased duty; for the they recede from it. This is certainly navigation charges would be so much the fact in some parts of the kingdom. less as to render thein che most econo- The complaints therefore of the manu. mical mode of couveyance.

facturing interest is unjust, ungenerous, It cannot be urged in opposition to and illiberal. this scheme, that foreigners thus taxed, If, after all, the foregoing proposition may lay countervailing duties on British should be deemed inadınissible, there is manufactures, and thus give a vital stab another to which I candidly confess there to the manufacturing interests. The truth are many objections on the score of re. is, that this may be done, though at the venue, and yet the cotton-planter's situa. expense of the consumer. The price of tion calls so loudly for alleviation, that, produce being the same in this country, bad as the alternative, it would have the manufacturer can fabricate his cotton. been so far preferable, as it would tend wools as cheap as before. No country to alleviate his distresses. can vie with us in them; and the people This might be effected by taking off the of the country, imposing .countervailing duties on cotton-wool of British growth, du:ies, must ultimately repay the British (that is to say, produced in British comerchant. This statement extends more lonies) and continuing those on foreign forcibly to our woollen manufactures, produce. By this means, the British


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