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The Hatch Acts of 1939 and 1940

Source: The Records of Congress The first Hatch Act, signed by the President and gressional acts on account of any political activity, in effect Aug. 2, 1939, forbids pernicious political race, creed or color. activity by Federal employes.

To solicit or be connected with such action of The second Hatch Act, signed and in force July any assessment, subscription, or contribution for 20, 1940, prohibits such activity on the part of any political purpose whatever" from any person State employes paid wholly or in part from Federal receiving compensation or employment under relief funds.

appropriations. The primary purpose of both acts is to enjoin To disclose names of persons or list of names United States Government employes from taking for political purposes of persons receiving empart in political campaigns other than voting. ployment through acts of Congress, providing

The 1940 act limits to $3,000,000 the annual ex- for relief, to “a political candidate, committee, penditures of any political committee and to $5,000 campaign manager' or to anyone for delivery to the amount any one person or organization may such candidates, etc.; also makes it unlawful for contribute to national committees for campaign anyone to receive the lists "for political purposes. purposes. Local and State committees may receive To use any appropriation or any part of apand spend in excess of $5,000. The act prohibits propriations made for relief for "the purpose of the purchase of goods, commodities or advertising interfering with, restraining, or coercing, any inwhen the funds go for campaign purposes.

dividual in the exercise of his right to vote at any The 1940 act applies to employes of State High- election." way Departments, Social Security, Welfare or Em- The 1939 Hatch Act makes it a felony to violate ployment Departments, universities of the "land the act and provides a fine of $1,000 and one year grant" type, teachers employed in schools receiv- imprisonment. ing various types of Federal assistance as well Makes it illegal for any administrative or superas numerous others. The measure also includes visory employee of the Federal Government "to within its provisions labor organizations, which use his official authority or influence for the purmust not make a contribution or loan of more than pose of an election or affecting the results thereof, $5,000 in any year to a political party.

and provides for removal of any official violating The 1940 act reaffirms the prohibition against the section, and stoppage of pay. contributions by corporations to parties or candi- Bans Federal jobs to persons advocating "overdates and makes the penalties of the Corrupt Prac- throw of Constitutional Government." tices Act apply.

Extends the language of the bill to cover nomiProhibitions against the exploitation of those nation contests as well as elections. on relief were put in the 1940 and 1941 Federal The United States Department of Justice ruled, relief acts.

on July 16, 1941, that the Hatch Act prohibiting The 1939 Hatch Act makes it unlawful for any

Federal employees from engaging in political acperson

tivities, does not apply to officers of the National TO "intimidate, threaten or coerce," to interfere Guard and selectees. The opinion reversed a rulwith the rights of any other person to vote as he ing on June 6, 1940, that the law applied to offipleases in any Federal election.

cers of the National Guard while in Federal In a governmental administrative position-de-service. partments, independent agencies or corporations Political activity of such officers and enlisted controlled by the Government-to "use his official men, whether they be regular Army troops, authority for the purpose of interfering with or guardsmen or selectees, is limited 'by existing affecting" an election for Federal office.

Army regulations, which forbid Army personnel Directly or indirectly to promise "employment, from engaging in political management or camposition, work, compensation or other benefit' pro- paigns. vided for or made possible by an act of Congress, The opinion pointed out that the penalty for to anyone as a reward, favor or consideration for violating the Hatch act is mandatory discharge "any political activity."

from the service. **Therefore," it held, 'appliTo deprive, threaten or attempt to deprive by any cation of the Hatch act to persons ordered or inmeans any person of "any employment, work, com- ducted into the military service under the subsepensation or other benefit" made possible by Con- quent legislation would produce an absurdity."

Wills Source: General Provisions of the Laws on the Subject. A Will or Testament is a final disposition of a It is the duty of an executor to tally and appraise person's property, to take effect after his death, the estate, pay all taxes and legal claims, sell or

A codicil is an addition or alteration in such dis- liquidate if the will so provides, distribute the position.

property, and make a final report to the court. A will, or codicil, may be signed any day, includ- If personal effects-clothing, furniture, paintings, ing Sundays and legal holidays.

books heirlooms, jewelry, automobiles, etc.-are not All persons are competent to make a will except

disposed of by will, they become part of the general idiots, persons of unsound mind, and infants. In

estate and may have to be sold in liquidation. civil law, a minor is an infant.

Real estate given outright in a will does not pass

through the executor's hands, the will in such a In many States a will of an unmarried woman is deemed revoked by her subsequent marriage.

case operating as a deed.

It should be stated in the will whether inheritA nuncupative or unwritten will is one made orally by a soldier in active service, or by & mariner

ance taxes are to be paid out of the general estate

or deducted from the individual legacies. while at sea.

An executor and trustee can be given, in the In most of the States a will must be in writing, will, the right to join in any agreement of merger, signed by the testator, or by some person in his readjustment, exchange, or consolidation affecting presence, and by his direction, and attested by the securities of the estate. two (in some states three) witnesses who must sub- An executor and a trustee can be given, in the scribe their names thereto in the presence of the will, specific authority to sell, lease, and mortgage testator.

real estate; he can be instructed to continue as Wills are of two general types.

well as to liquidate a business, The first provides for outright distribution of an A dower right is a widow's right to receive during estate.

her lifetime one-third of all the rents and revenues The second provides for deferred distribution of of the husband's lands. part or all of an estate until conditions are more Dower and courtesy rights were abolished in favorable.

New York State under a law of 1929. Husband and The first type should provide for the appointment wife now have equal inheritance rights. Not over of an executor; the second, for an executor and a one-half of an estate can be devised by the owner trustee.

to charity. An executor serves only long enough to close out Since Sept. 1, 1930, in New York State, a suran estate by legal process and turn it over to the viving spouse who is disinherited under the will beneficiaries or the trustees as directed in the will. from receiving what he or she would receive if

A trustee, after receiving part or all of an estate the decedent had died without making a will may from the executor, holds and manages it until such elect to take such share against the will. The time as the will directs final distribution.

statute, since its enactment in 1929, is subThe same person, or trust company, can act both stantially the same. as trustee and executor.

Debts are a prior lien on the estate under the Funds may be left to charity outright, or in trust, law of New York and most of the states.

United States Anti-Trust Laws

Source: World Almanac Questionnaire


Source: The Federal Anti-trust Laws The pioneer Federal anti-trust legislation was guilty of a misdemeanor, and, on conviction thereembodied in the so-called Sherman Act of July of, shall be punished by fine not exceeding five 2, 1890, drawn by the late United States Senator thousand dollars, or by imprisonment not exceedJohn Sherman of Ohio, and supplemented by the ing one year, or by both said punishments, in the Clayton Act of Oct. 15, 1914.

discretion of the court. That part of the Sherman Act, as amended, de- Sec. 3. Every contract, combination in form of fining and pens ng monopoly, is as follows: trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of

Sec. 1. Every contract, combination in the form trade or commerce in any Territory of the United of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint States, or of the District of Columbia, or in reof trade or commerce among the several States, straint of trade or commerce between any such or with foreign nations, is hereby declared to be Territory and another, or between any such Terillegal:

ritory or Territories and any State or States or Provided. That nothing herein contained shall the District of Columbia, or with foreign nations, render illegal, contracts or agreements prescribing or between the District of Columbia and any State minimum prices for the resale of a commodity or States or foreign nations, is hereby declared which bears, or the label or container of which illegal, Every person who shall make any such bears, the trade mark, brand, or name of the contract or engage in any such combination or producer or distributor of such commodity and conspiracy. shall be deemed guilty of a misdewhich is in free and open competition with com- meanor, and, on conviction thereof, shall be punmodities of the same general class produced or ished by fine not exceeding five thousand dollars, distributed by others, when contracts or agree

or by imprisonment not exceeding one year, or ments of that description are lawful as applied by both said punishments, in the discretion of to intrastate transactions, under any statute, law,

the court. or public policy now or hereafter in effect in any The Clayton Act, as amended. prohibits price State, Territory, or the District of Columbia in discriminations, except as to differentials “which which such resale is to be made, or to which the make only due allowance for differences in the commodity is to be transported for such resale, cost of manufacture, sale, or delivery resulting and the making of such contracts or agreements from the differing methods or quantities in which shall not be an unfair method of competition under such commodities are to such purchasers sold or section 5, as amended and supplemented, of the delivered." Even in such cases the Federal Trade Act entitled "An Act to create a Federal Trade Commission may intervene to establish quantity Commission, to define its powers and duties, and

limits. Persons engaged in selling may select for other purposes," approved September 26, 1914: their own customers in bona fide transactions and

Provided further. That the preceding proviso not in restraint of trade. The act, as amended. shall not make lawful any contract or agreement. does not prevent price changes due to market conproviding for the establishment or maintenance of ditions or to marketability of the goods concerned minimum resale prices on any commodity herein “The labor of a human being." says the Clayton involved, between manufacturers, or between pro

Act, ''is not a commodity or article of commerce. ducers, or between wholesalers, or between brokers. Nothing contained in the anti-trust laws shall be or between factors, or between retailers, or be- construed to forbid the existence and operation of tween persons, firms, or corporations in competi- labor, agricultural. or horticultural organizations, tion with each other. Every person who shall instituted for the purposes of mutual help, and make any contract or engage in any combination not having capital stock or conducted for profit, or conspiracy hereby declared to be illegal shall be or to forbid or restrain individual members of deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and, on convic- such organizations from lawfully carrying out the tion thereof, shall be punished by fine not exceed - legitimate objects thereof; nor shall such organiing $5.000, or by imprisonment not exceeding one zations, or the members thereof, be held or conyear, or by both said punishments, in the discre- strued to be illegal combinations or conspiracies tion of the court,

in restraint of trade, under the anti-trust laws." Sec., 2. Every person who shall monopolize, or Interlocking bank directorates are banned except attempt to monopolize, or combine or conspire with as allowed by the Board of Governors of the Fedany other person or persons, to monopolize any eral Reserve System The monopoly provisions part of the trade or commerce among the several apply also to the railroads and other common States, or with foreign nations, shall be deemed i carriers.

Thurman Arnold, Assistant U. S. Attorney Gen

have already been achieved by the activity of the eral, in a statement before the Temporary National

Antitrust Division. Thus, during the aluminum Economic Committee, February 12. 1941, said:

case the price of aluminum dropped from 20 to 17 For the past 2 years the Antitrust Division has

cents in the face of a severe shortage and a most

urgent demand. been investigating industries directly involved in

In tungsten carbide which was

an unusual case the price fell from $205 a pound the present national-defense effort. The results of

to somewhere in the neighborhood of $50 a pound the investigation indicate that:

2 days after the indictment. I think that answers "1. The United States Government has been the charge of failure of business cooperation. charged excessive and unreasonable prices for "In magnesium, where for the past 14 years an essential war materials as a result of agreement absolute monopoly in production was maintained between domestic and foreign companies, and cul- by one concern, others are now preparing to enter lusive bidding on Army and Navy contracts.

the field in the belief that the Department of "2. Foreign companies have taken out patents Justice will prevent the use of monopolistic power and entered into cartel arrangements in the United to eliminate them. In military optical goods others States on essential war materials for the purpose are also making plans to enter the industry now and with the effect of blocking American develop- that they feel that the Antitrust Division has ment and creating serious shortages,

broken the monopolistic practices in this field." "3. There have been divisions of world markets On the general anti-trust subject, Mr. Arnold in bs patent agreements between domestic and foreign his report said: "It is, of course, very difficult to companies which give foreign interests the right discuss the immense and intricate organic growth to determine where and how the American com- which constitutes the American business system panies may sell certain military supplies.

without oversimplification which may be mislead"4. It seems probable that vital military in

ing Subject to this elementary caution, it may formation has been disclosed to foreign companies

be said, however, that there are two main types of through the requirements of itemized descriptive problems to be faced in the administration of the royalty payments in patent license agreements. antitrust laws for these purposes.

"Criminal or civil actions have been started in "First, there are the problems created by groups the aluminum, military optical goods. tungsten

within an industry which combine to exercise concarbide, airplane fabric, bentonite, and magnesium trol over prices and production, sacrificing both industries Grand juries are at present investi.

employment and opportunity for new enterprise in gating drugs, aviation precision equipment, and an attempt to freeze the status quo. surgical instruments and equipment. The pending "Second, there are problems presented by single proceedings have disclosed serious shortages of large industrial enterprises whose price policies materials essential to the present emergency

whether through design or lack of foresight, block national-defense effort.

rather than promote the maximum distribution of "In aluminum, military optical goods, magnesi- goods which modern technique enable them to um, and tungsten carbide, certain beneficial results make."

The Monroe Doctrine

Source: Official Government and Historical Records President James Monroe in 1820 announced that cable relations existing between the United States the citizens of the United States wished success and those powers to declare that we should conto the revolting Spanish colonies in South America, sider any attempt on their part to extend their but that this government would maintain strict system to any portion of this hemisphere as neutrality. In 1821 the Russian Emperor issued a

dangerous to our peace and safety. With the exist

ing colonies or dependencies of any European ukase prohibiting citizens of other nations from


we have not interfered and shall not navigating and fishing within 100 Italian miles of interfere. the northwest coast of North America south of

"But with the Governments who have declared Behring Straits to latitude 51°. In 1823 the Monroe

their independence and maintained it, and whose administration denounced and defied the ukase independence we have, on great consideration and and declared that the American continents are no on just principles, acknowledged, we could not view longer subjects for any new colonial establish- any interposition for the purpose of oppressing ments."

them, or controlling in any other manner their Meantime the Holy Alliance of Austria, Russia destiny, by any European power in any other light and Prussia joined by France undertook "to put than as the manifestation of an uniriendly disan end to the system of representative govern- position toward the United States. ment" and it was proposed to overthrow new "It is still the true policy of the United States governments erected out of the old colonies of

to leave the parties to themselves, in the hope that Spain in the Western Hemisphere.

other powers will pursue the same course. This was the situation (August 1823) when "Our policy in regard to Europe ... remains the George Canning, British foreign secretary, wrote same, which is, not to interfere in the internal to Richard Rush, American minister in London, concerns of any of its Powers; to consider the suggesting a joint declaration, in substance, that government de facto as the legitimate government the recovery of the colonies by Spain was hopeless; for us; to cultivate friendly relations with it, and that neither Great Britain nor the United States to preserve those relations by a frank, firm and was aiming at the possession of any portion of manly policy, meeting in all instances, the just these colonies; and that they could not see with claims of every Power, submitting to injuries from indifference any portion of them transferred to any

none. other power. Great Britain had not at that time "In the wars of the European Powers in matters recognized the new States in Spanish America but relating to themselves we have never taken any did so later, when Canning was Prime Minister. part, nor does it comport with our policy so to do. "I called the New World into existence," he said, It is only when our rights are invaded or seriously "to redress the balance of the Old."

menaced that we resent injuries or make preparaIt was after deliberation by the President and his tion for our defense with the movements in this Cabinet, which contained John Quincy Adams, hemisphere we are, of necessity, more immediately Secretary of State, John C. Calhoun and William connected." Wirt (and also after consultation with Thomas In the first draft of his message, Monroe showed Jefferson, who approved), that the American posi- concern over internal developments in Europe. tion was formally stated in Monroe's message Adams advised him to eliminate that part on the (Dec. 2, 1823) asserting. "as a principle in which ground that it was poor policy, that it would take the rights and interests of the United States are from the message much of the force which would involved, that the American continents, by the be given it if it were grounded solely on the fundafree and independent condition which they have mental principle of self-defense. Adams had his assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be way, although not without a struggle in the considered as subjects for future colonization by Cabinet any European powers,

The United States Government sent to Germany "It is only when our rights are invaded or seri- and Italy (June 17, 1940) the following note: ously menaced that we resent injuries or make "The Government of the United States is inpreparation for our defense. With the movements formed that the government of France has in this hemisphere we are of necessity more im- requested of the German Government the terms mediately connected and by causes which must be of an armistice. obvious to all enlightened and impartial observers. **The Government of the United States feels it The political system of the allied powers is essen- desirable, in order to avoid any possible misundertially different in this respect from that of standing. to inform Your Excellency that in acAmerica. This difference proceeds from that which cordance with its traditional policy relating to the exists in their respective Governments. And to the Western Hemisphere the United States would not defense of our own, which has been achieved by recognize any transfer and would not acquiesce in the loss of so much blood and treasure, and ma- any attempt to transfer any geographic region of tured by the wisdom of their most enlightened the Western Hemisphere from one non-American citizens, and under which we have enjoyed un- power to another non-American power." exampled felicity, this whole nation is devoted. French, British and Dutch Governments re

"We owe it, therefore, to candor and to the ami- ceived similar notices.

Developments of the Convention at Havana

Sources: Various Government Records Instruments of ratification of the Convention vations--Argentina, Uruguay, Bolivia, Chile, Coon the Provisional Administration of European lombia, Venezuela, Peru. Colonies and Possessions in the Americas signed at

The American Republics which have appointed

representatives on the emergency committee proHavana on July 30, 1940, by the 21 American

vided for in the Act of Habana are the United Republics, have been deposited by the following:

States, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica Cuba, the The United States on October 24. 1940; the

Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, GuateDominican Republic on November 28, 1940; Costa mala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Rica on December 17, 1940; Brazil on January 14,

Peru, and Venezuela. 1941; Peru on April 4, 1941, and Panama on May The Act of Habana and the Convention were 13. 1941. The Convention provides in Article XIX approved by the Colombian Chamber of Reprethat it shall enter into force when two-thirds of sentatives on October 2, 1940, and by the Legislative the American Republics have deposited their in- Assembly of El Salvador and the ratifications struments of ratification with the Pan American thereof by El Salvador were signed by the President Union, Washington, D. C.

of El Salvador on November 27, 1940. The Act of Habana, contained in the Final Act President Somoza of Nicaragua, issued an execuof the Second Meeting of the Ministers of Foreign tive decree dated December 3, 1940, approving the Affairs of the American Republics at Habana, action of the Nicaragua Foreign Minister at Habana which also was signed on July 30, 1940, by repre- in relation to the Final Act of the Second Meeting sentatives of the 21 American Republics, provides of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American for the administration of European Colonies and Republics. Possessions in the Americas in cases of an By Congressional Decree No. 8 of December 23. emergency through an emergency committee which 1940. the Honduran National Legislature gave its is given authority to apply the provisions of the approval to the ratification of the Convention. Convention before the coming into force of the The Congress of Peru in joint session on January Convention. The Act of Habana entered into 28, 1941, approved by unanimous vote the favorable force on the day of signature in respect of the report of the Diplomatic Committee of Congress for United States and all the other American Re- the ratification of the Convention. publics except the States which signed with reser- In the Agreement between the United States and

Denmark relating to the Defense of Greenland, Congress requesting an appropriation of $20.000.000 signed at Washington on April 9, 1941 (Article I) to provide for cooperation with Central American it is stated that ". the Government of the republics in construction of the Inter-American United States of America, having in mind its Highway The bill passed the Senate on May obligations under the Act of Habana signed on 26, 1941. July 30, 1940, accepts the responsibility of assisting Resolution XXV on general economic cooperaGreeland in the maintenance of its present status. tion provided for the expansion of the activities of

In compliance with Resolution 1 of the above- the Inter - American Financial and Economic Admentioned Final Act, the American Neutrality visory Committee as an instrument for continuing Committee at Rio de Janeiro has formulated a consultation among the American republics with Draft Convention on the Security Zone.

respect to economic and trade matters and arThe Governments of Mexico and the United rangements. It was resolved that the Committee States have agreed to an exchange of views in should proceed forthwith to study the following order to coordinate suitably the progress of their matters: common defense.

(a) Possible measures for increasing the domestic Project on Refugees

consumption in each country of its own exportable

surpluses: The Project on Refugees was referred to the Pan

(b) Proposal of immediate measures and arAmerican Union where a special committee studied rangements of mutual benefit to increase trade that project. The Board of Governors of the Pan among the American republics; American Union, under date of October 2, 1940, (c) Creation of instruments of inter-American resolved, in conformity with the proposal of the cooperation for the temporary storing, financing special committee, and recommended "that the and handling of exportable surpluses; International American Institute for the Protec- (d) Development of commodity arrangements tion of Childhood should propose to the said with a view to assuring equitable terms of trade Governments the measures which could be taken for both producers and consumers: individually or collectively to put this humani- (e) Recommendation of methods of improving tarian purpose into effect." According to a communication dated December 20, 1940, from the

the standard of living of the peoples of the Institute to the Secretary of State the Board of

Americas, including public health and nutrition

measures: that Institute approved on December 16, 1940, the (1) Establishment of organizations for the disreport entitled 'America Helps the European Chil- tribution of surplus commodities as a humanidren," containing the recommendations referred to tarian and social relief measure. and prepared by Professor Emilio Fournié, Chief of the Institute.

Advisory Committee Active The Governing Board of the Pan American Union The Inter-American Financial and Economic at its session held on December 4, 1940, approved a Advisory Committee has been active in following report providing for the establishment of a com- up these matters. The Inter-American Coffee mittee of five members on the peaceful solution of Agreement was signed on November 28, 1940. At conflicts, in accordance with Resolution XIV re- the invitation of the Committee the Inter-American lating to the peaceful solution of conflicts.

Maritime Conference met at the Pan American Resolution XXIII relating to the Pan American Union in Washington from November 25 to DecemHighway recommended that every effort be made ber 2, 1940. The United States on its part has with a view to the prompt and efhcacious com- moved forward in many directions with economic pletion of the various sections of the highway. In cooperation with the other American republics, this conrection the President of the United States utilizing the Export-Import Bank, the Treasury's on May 1, 1941, transmitted a message to the stabilization fund and many other agencies.

Impeachments in United States History

Source: Official Government Records Under the Constitution, the President. Vice (5) West H. Humphreys, Judge of the District President, and all civil officers of the United States Court for Tennessee, impeached 1862 for supportare liable to impeachment for "treason, bribery, or ing the secession movement and unlawfully acting other high crimes and misdemeanors. and, on as Judge of the Confederate District Court; trial conviction, shall be removed from office.

May 22 to June 26. 1862; verdict, guilty: punishThe House of Representatives has the sole power ment, removal from office. of impeachment. The Senate has the sole power (6) Andrew Johnson, President of the United to try all impeachments. When sitting for that States, impeached for usurpation of the law, corpurpose the members are on oath or affirmation. rupt use of the veto power, interference at elections When the President of the United States is tried, and high crimes and misdemeanors; trial, March the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court presides. 30 to May 26, 1868; vote, guilty, 35, not guilty, 19; No conviction is had except by the concurrence verdict, acquittal. of two-thirds of the member's present.

(7) William W. Belknap, Secretary of War, imJudgment in cases of impeachment does not ex- peached for accepting bribes; trial, April 5 to Aug. tend further than to removal from office, and dis- 1, 1876. A question as to jurisdiction was raised; qualification to hold and enjoy any oflice of honor, verdict, acquittal. trust, or profit under the United States; but the (8) Charles Swayne, Judge of the District Court person convicted "shall nevertheless be liable and for Florida; impeached 1905 for misconduct in subject to indictment, trial, judgment and pun- office; trial Feb. 6 to Feb. 27. 1905; vote, 55 guilty. ishment, according to law.'

37 not guilty: verdict acquittal. Impeachments to date have been:

(9) Robert W. Archbald, Associate Judge of (1) William Blount, one of the first two Senators the Commerce Court, was impeached July 11, 1912, from Tennessee, accused of treason and sedition, on articles charging him with corrupt collusion in having plotted to aid Great Britain in wresting with coal mine owners and railroad officials while Florida and the Louisiana territory from Spain. in office. Verdict, guilty; removal from office. The Senate, 25 to 1, expelled Blount, July 8, 1797. (10) United States District Judge, Alston G The House, Dec. 4. 1797, impeached him, and the Dayton, of West Virginia, was impeached, June 12. impeachment trial began Dec. 17, 1798, His 1914; proceedings abandoned March 3, 1915. counsel said the Senate had lost jurisdiction when (11) George W. English, U. S. District Judge, it expelled Blount. The Senate, agreed to that East. Dist., Ill. The House, April 1, 1926, voted his view of the case, and dismissed the impeachment. impeachment. He resigned.

(2) John Pickering. Judge of the District Court (12) Harold Louderback, U. S. District Judge. for New Hampshire; impeached 1803 for drunken- at San Francisco. It was charged that he had ness and disregard of the terms of the statutes: profited pecuniarily by the appointment of retrial March 3 to March 12, 1804; vote 19 guilty. 7 ceivers and had shown favoritism. The Senate, on not guilty: verdict, guilty: punishment, removal May 24, 1933, voted on the indictment, and he from office.

was acquitted. (3) Samuel Chase, Associate Justice of the (13) Halsted L. Ritter, U. S. District Judge in Supreme Court of the United States; impeached Southern Florida. He had been impeached on 1804 for misconduct at trials of persons charged charges as to financial transaction growing out of with breach of the Sedition Law; trial Nov. 30, or associated with fees allowed to lawyers. There 1804, to March 1, 1805: verdict acquittal.

were 7 counts, on 6 he was acquitted, on the (4) James Peck, Judge of the District Court for seventh he was voted guilty, 56 to 28, and the Missouri; impeached for tyrannous treatment of Senate on April 17, 1936, removed him from counsel, 1830; vote, 21 guilty, 22 not guilty, verdict, Oflice, after having, by 76 to 0. voted not to extend acquittal.

the punishment to disqualification to hold office


The Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Continental Congress, in Philadelphia, on July 4, 1776, and was signed by John Hancock as President and by Charles Thompson as Secretary. It was published first on July 6 in the Pennsylvania Evening Post. A copy of the Declaration, engrossed on parchment, was signed by members of Congress on and after Aug. 2, 1776.

When, in the Course of human events, it becomes sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our peonecessary for one people to dissolve the political ple, and eat out their substance. bands which have connected them with another.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standand to assume among the powers of the earth, the ing Armies, without the Consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the Military independseparate and equal station to which the Laws of

ent of and superior to the Civil power. Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent

He has combined with others to subject us to a respect to the opinions of mankind requires that jurisdiction foreign to our constitution and unacthey should declare the causes which impel them knowledged by our laws: giving his Assent to their to the separation.

Acts of pretended Legislation: For quartering large We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all bodies of armed troops among us: For protecting

them by a mock Trial from punishment for any men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that habitants of these states:

Murders which they should commit on the Inamong these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Trade with all parts of the world: For imposing

For cutting off our Happiness. That to secure these rights, Govern- Taxes on us without our consent: For depriving ments are instituted among Men, deriving their us in many cases of the benefits of Trial by Jury: just powers from the consent of the governed. That For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for whenever any form of Government becomes de pretended offenses: For abolishing the free Sys

tem of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, structive of these ends, it is the Right of the Peo

establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and ple to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new

enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once Government, laying its foundation on such prin- an example and pt instrument for

introducing the ciples and organizing its powers in such form, as same absolute rule into these Colonies: For taking to them shall seem most likely to effect their away our Charters, abolishing, our most valuable Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dic- Laws and altering fundamentally the Forms of our tate that Governments long established should not Governments; Por suspending our own Legisla

tures and declaring themselves invested with power be changed for light and transient causes; and

to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. accordingly all experience hath shewn, that man

He has abdicated Government here by declaring kind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are

us out of his Protection and waging War against us. sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing He has plundered our seas, ravished our Coasts. the forms to which they are accustomed. But when burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of invariably the same object, evidence a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with

foreign Mercenaries to complete the works of right, it is their duty, to throw off such Govern

circumstances of cruelty and perñdy scarcely ment, and to provide new Guards for their future paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally security. Such has been the patient sufferance of unworthy the Head of a civilized nation. these Colonies; and such is now the necessity

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken which constrains them to alter their former Sys

Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against tems of Government. The history of the present | friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by

their Country, to become the executioners of their King of Great Britain a history of repeated in

their Hands. juries and usurpations, all having in direct object

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabi. these States. To prove this. let Facts be sub- tants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savmitted to a candid world.

ages, whose known rule of warfare is an undisHe has refused his Assent to Laws, the most tinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and con

ditions. In every stage of these Oppressions We wholesome and necessary for the public good.

have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of terms. Our repeated Petitions have been ansimmediate and pressing importance, unless sus- wered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose pended in their operation till his Assent should be character is thus marked by every act which may obtained, and when so suspended, he has utterly define a Tyrant, is unât to be the ruler of a free

people. Nor have We been wanting in attention neglected to attend to them.

to our British brethren. We have warned them He has refused to pass other Laws for the ac- l from time to time of attempts by their legislature commodation of large districts of people, unless

to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. those people would relinquish the right of Repre - We have reminded them of the circumstances of sentation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to our emigration and settlement here. We have apthem and formidable to tyrants only.

pealed to their native justice and magnanimity, He has called together legislative bodies at and we have conjured them by the ties of our places, unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from common kindred to disavow these usurpations, the depository of their public Records, for the sole which would inevitably interrupt our connections purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his and correspondence. They too have been dear to measures

the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, He has dissolved Representative Houses repeat-therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which de: edly. for opposing, with manly firmness his in- nounces our Separation, and hold them, as we vasions on the rights of the people.

hold the rest of mankind. Enemies in War, in

Peace Friends. He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected: whereby WE, THEREFORE, the Representatives of the the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, United States of America, in General Congress, have returned to the People at large for their Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the exercise; the State remaining in the meantime world for the rectitude of our intentions do, in the exposed to all the dangers of invasion from with Name, and by authority of the good People of out, and convulsions within.

these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That He has endeavored to prevent the population of Free and Independent states: that they are Ab

these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be, these states: for that purpose obstructing the solved from all Allegiance to the British Crown. Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to

and that all political connection between them pass others to encourage their migrations hither. and raising the conditions of new Appropriations be totally dissolved: and that as Free and Inde

and the State of Great Britain is and ought to of Lands. He has obstructed the Administration of Justice. conclude Peace, contract Allances, establish com

pendent states, they have full Power to levy War. by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing merce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Judiciary powers.

Independent States may of right do. And for the He has made Judges dependent on his will support of this Declaration, with

a firm reliance alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutuamount and payment of their salaries.

ally pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes, He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and and our sacred Honor.

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