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same manner that Moses and Ezekiel do Meshech and Tubal. The strićt union and perfeół harmony that reigned between them most evidently appears from the former author, when he informs us, that they were armed in the same manner, and commanded by the same general Ariomardus. As the Turks and Tartars were originally the same people, whatever is advanced concerning the first progenitors, and early antiquities, of the one, must be allowed to be, with the utmost propriety, applicable to those of the other c. We may form some notion of the power of this nation from the military atchievements of the antient Scythians, as well as from the vast tračt they inhabited. With regard to the latter, if the antients are to be depended upon, it was most extensive and (C) prodigious. But its limits we have already defined in a former part of this work, and shall consider them more minutely hereafter ; so that there is no reason for us to be very particular on this head here. In general, however, it may be observed, that the people in view are supposed to have spread themselves at least over the two Scythias, the European and Asiatic Sarmatia, which some affirm to have appertained to the former countries, and Iberia. This very considerable part of the globe seems to have comprehended most of the Russian empire, Great and Little Tartary, Georgia, the Polish and Muscovian Ukraine, Lithuania, Poland,

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re&ly asserts, that the Lithuanians, Prussians, Courlanders, Livonians, Esthonians, Finlanders, Laplanders, and some few of their neighbours only, are the descendents of the antient Scythians : whereas, from the whole tenor of his historical observations, every unprejudiced reader will conclude, that the proper original Scythians never reached the territories belonging to any of those nations. He also denies the Turks or Tartars to bear anv relation to the antient Scythians, and yet affirms the Scythians to come originally from a country not far from Turkesian, where his favourite Tartar historian has fixed the progenitors of the Turkish or Tartar nation, from the remotest antiquity. In fine, though he has settled the geography of Scythia, as it appears to have stood in the days of Darius Hysłaspis, with uncommon learning, sagacity, and precision; yet we cannot infer from thence, that the region going under that denomination amongst the Greeks and Romans, was always of so narrow an extent as the Scythia deferibed by Herodotus. On the contrary, that the Scythia of the Greek and Roman authors sometimes, at least, included the vast tracts above-mentioned, he himself expresly allows. Nor is this concession unsupported by Abu'l Ghazi Bahadur Khan and M. Philip john Won Strahlenberg, who have obliged the republic of letters with the best account of the antient Tartars that has hitherto made its appearance in the world f. It may, therefore, be looked upon as highly probable,

that both the present Turks and Tartars are descended from the Scythians of Aristeas Proconnesius, and the Scythian Nomade; of Herodotus. Now, upon this supposition, the antient Turks or Tartars can neither be considered as one of the earliest nations of antiquity, nor as occupying a tract for many ages of very confiderable exten’. For they scarce made any figure at all before the reign of Cyaxares king of the Medes, or the time of Ogus Khan, about 637 years before the birth of Christ, when they drove the Cimmerians from their territories bordering upon the Palus Maeotis into the Upper Asia. Nor could their primitive seat, upon the eastern bank of the Wolga or Araxer, at that time have been very spacious or extensive ; fince it is well known, that they were then a people of little note, and in the vicinity of some nations who were pushing for unlimited empire. Nay, Scythia lay only between the 45th and 57th degrees of longitude, and the 47th and 55th degrees of north latitude, in the time of Herodotus. So that the Scy

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John Won STRAHLENBerg's introdućt, p. 51.

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