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difficulty at first in making out for what and such sails it would be next to an object it could be intended. On enquiry impossibility to capsize her, from the and investigation, I discovered it to be centre of gravity being placed so low the hull of a Chinese vessel, which my in down ; to use a common mode of expresformant stated had been recently brought sion, one might carry on in such a vesto this country by the George I V. tran sel until “ all was blue," without much sport. I transmit herewith a pen and danger of foundering, if all was tight and ink sketch of it, for insertion in your well battened down on deck.

It is true, Magazine, should you deem it worthy of you might tear the masts out of her a place there. I am the more desirous if they were unyielding, but as these, and of drawing your attention to it, as I per the sails also, are, I believe, made of ceive that a Mr. Dempster lays claim to bamboo in China, the former would the invention of a "new system of build “bend before the breeze" until they aling vessels," which is in every respect most touched the deck, before they would similar to that represented in the accom

give way. panying sketch. (See No. 985.) I must We may remark how perfectly such say that our ancient friends (though now a description of vessel is adapted for bitter enemies,) and near relatives of the encountering the violent and sudden sun, moon, and stars, have a just right typhoons that are so prevalent in the to complain of our conduct to them of Chinese seas: a square-rigged vessel, late. Not content with forcing opium caught in one of these, seldom dares to upon them, whether they will have it or show a stitch of canvass to it, and her no, and battering their towns and forts only chance is to scud before it under about their ears, because they won't pay bare poles; whereas, John Chinaman, for it, at our own valuation, we pirate in his floating tea-chest, makes all tight their ancient inventions, which are pro on deck, and smokes his pipe with the bably as old as their own country, and utmost nonchalance, whilst his bark scuds without one word of acknowledgment, along at double railroad pace. give them out to the world as our own! With respect to the plan of the hull, Assuredly they are a most ill- used peo the form is one which, I believe, is now ple, and I trust that you will take up the generally admitted to be that of a solid cudgels in their behalf, and in common of least resistance, viz., the double cone : justice to them, give them their due share I am not, however, prepared to say that of whatever credit appertains to the in this form of vessel, viz., tapering to a vention.

point at the apex, and that apex the The form of vessel shown in the sketch bottom of the vessel, would be the best, has probably been in use in China for practically speaking, although it might centuries; no doubt, if they were ques theoretically. The great objection to tioned on the subject, they would tell it would be the depth of water such a you it had been in use some 5, or 6,000 formed vessel would require, and which years at least. The vessel, as you will would quite unsuit it to certain navigaperceive by the plan of the hull, is a tions : but I have no doubt that this form, three masted one, and my informant (a slightly modified, would be found both Jad who came home in the George IV) practically and theoretically the very stated that the masts raked fore and aft, best that could be adopted for speed and somewhat in the manner I have shown; safety. but as the masts have been taken out, I I am not sufficiently versed in mathecannot vouch for the perfect accuracy of matics to investigate the subject further, the sketch in this respect. The sails also and I therefore leave the mathematical I have supplied from a form of sail, which investigation to some one of your readers is, I believe, in common use in China, who may be better qualified for the task and is what we call a “shoulder of mut. than myself, contenting myself merely ton sail." The prevailing idea in the with drawing attention to the subject, and construction of this vessel, seems to be to the scientific claims of our Chinese the form of the triangle, which I have friends. carried out, by making the rudder (which I beg to subscribe myself, Sir, is wanting in the original,) also of that

Your obedient servant, shape. The idea is one which, I think,

ARCHITECTUS. is by no means to be despised, for it is Stangate, September 2, 1842. obvious, that with such a formed vessel

STEAM PRESSURE OF THE RIVER THAMES and at what cost, the people of this vast STEAMERS.

metropolis could be supplied with pure, Sir,--Much has been said upon the

clear, and wholesome water. danger involved in the use of high-pres

Upon one point all are agreed, viz., that sure boilers, and various opinions have the water at present supplied in London, been expressed concerning the new steam

and many large towns, is at once nauseous boat Locomotive, propelled avowedly on

and noxious—that it is destructive to that principle. While others are giving health, and often to life—and that, in expression to their apprehensions upon

fact, to use the allegations made to Par. the subject, (to not one word of which liament, it is “charged with the contents have I any objection to offer,) I may of the great common sewers, the drainperhaps be permitted to enlarge the field ings from dung-hills and lay-stalls, the of their inquiry, and (if I am correctly

refuse from hospitals, slaughter-houses, informed) of censure at the same time, colour, lead, and soap works, drug mills by putting a question or two.

and manufactories, and with all sorts of I would ask, then, at what pressure of decomposed animal and vegetable substeam in the boiler are the Railway,

stances." Blackwall, and Brunswick worked ? Taking these premises to be proved, The Satellite.? the Waterman's Com many of your correspondents suggest re

medies; pany's boats ? the Isle of Thanet ? and

the last of whom, Mr. Baddeley, last, though not least, the far-famed Ruby? gravely recommends the

Is this last vessel fitted with “ Loco cleansing of cisterns by consumers themmotive" boilers, and worked at a pres

selves; and treats with some levity a nosure corresponding to their construction

tice in the Order-book of the House of and ordinary use ?

Commons, that, at the earliest period of Your Journal has, (to my own know next session, an enquiry shall be instiledge,) too much real interest in the wel tuted by a Select Committee, whether fare of the engineering profession to ad

the Water Companies are not bound, and mit of the motives which influence these ought not to be compelled, to deliver inquiries being misunderstood. With great

their water in a much purer and healthier confidence in the skill of London engi

state. neers, I may, nevertheless, be excused for Now, with regard to Mr. Baddeley's calling attention to the subject of pressure,

remedy," no doubt it is good as far as that we may not relax in care and atten it goes, abstractedly ; but bad and mis. tion, and so rival our transatlantic friends

chievous if allowed to divert public atin the only point of steam navigation in

tention from getting rid of the evil at its which they are superior to us, namely,

source. The more frequent cleansing of the number of lamentable accidents with

cisterns would tend to lessen, periodiwhich, (in their hands,) it is attended.

cally, the amount of dirt that gets there; VALVE.

innocent people, however, like me, might London, September 8, 1842.

be apt to think that it would be somewhat wiser, and not quite so troublesome,

if such dirt were not permitted to get IMPURE WATER-FILTRATION.

there at all. But tastes will differ. Sir,—You have recently devoted a A venerable lady, of the name of Partconsiderable portion of your very valu ington, betook herself, at the time of a able Periodical to the water qustion. For flood, to sweep back the waters of the this, not only men of science, but all Atlantic with her besom. Good old soul! to whom health is a consideration, will she has many followers in these days, thank you. The importance of the sub and some of them have learned her les. ject cannot be over-estimated. The sup sons-not badly. ply of London alone has occupied the at But, badinage apart, does Mr. Baddetention of the ablest and the noblest in ley seriously think that the people of the land. The present Premier many large towns will quietly take to cleaning years ago expressed most strongly his their cisterns every week, or oftener, to conviction of the necessity of a great get rid of the dirt that is depositedreform in the Water Companies ; and they cannot get rid of that which is floatprinces and peers, orators and statesmen, ing-when they know that there is an the élite of the legislature, have devoted ascertained and proved remedy, which days and months to enquiries how, and would prevent any dirt from entering

into their cisterns at all ? A remedy so the public and with Parliament, by "efsimple, and so certain--so comprehen- . fectually filtering” their supply, as they sive, and yet so economical--that much promised and pledged themselves to do? longer to refrain from adopting, it will Your correspondent, Mr. Baddeley, bring down the condemnation of Parlia seems to sneer at the notice for next sesment and the public, upon the heads of sion, which Mr. Hawkes has given. Does those whose monopolizing selfishness re your correspondent know, whether Mr. fuses to secure so great a boon for their Hawkes gave that notice on his own part, customers ?

or on the part of a highly influential That remedy is, Mr. Stuckey's Sys member of the Government, who will tem of Filtration, which, by one ma probably preside over the committee ? chine alone, 5 feet square, as stated by Does Mr. Baddeley know, that a Noble Lord Brougham in the House of Peers, Lord in the House of Peers, the first in filters no less than two millions five hun one respect in the land, has promised a dred thousand gallons every 24 hours, similar enquiry in the Lords ? I am both effectually and beautifully,

sure, if your correspondent, had been Now, touching the non-application of aware of these matters, and of others, that remedy, mark what Mr. Stuckey which I only know in confidence, he modestly states, in his petition to the would have paused before treating with House of Commons :-" That so satisfied levity an enquiry likely to be productive were the representatives of the Water of such valuable results, as that of which Companies, then present, with the capa

notice has been given. bility, utility, and superiority of your For every life lost by impure waterpetitioner's system of filtration, that your for all the diseases generated therebypetitioner has been informed by some of for most of the cases of English cholera, their chief officers, and believes it to be now so prevalent, those who, from selfish true, that they would immediately adopt considerations, refuse to "effectually your petitioner's system of filtration, and filter" the water they supply when they give the inhabitants of London the vast have it in their power, are answerable, if advantage of pure, limpid and sparkling not to man, to God! A very small cost water, provided any scheme could be de- by companies realizing very large profits, vised to repay them the expense, compa

would confer on their customers an inesratively small as it would be, of adopting timable blessing ;-is it too late to hope and carrying on the processes of filtration that such may soon be the case, so as to by your petitioner's invention ; but, as prevent the necessity of Parliamentary they were afraid that they would not be interference ? permitted to increase their rates, in the

I have the honour to be, Sir, your most present temper of the public mind, and obedient servant,

B. of the two Houses of Legislature, they Grafton-street, September 14, 1842. must defer doing so, until your petitioner could point out some means of creating a

SMOKING ON RAILWAYS. remunerating fund to meet the cost."

Sir,- I prefer addressing you on the No wonder, after such an allegation as lowing subject, in preference to the Editor this, a notice was given in the House of of any other publication who might feel inCommons of future enquiry into the con terest enough in the matter to notice it, beduct of the Water Companies in this cause, being known to you, you will have matter—no wonder that gentlemen wish confidence in the correctness and truth of ing to offer their services, "for a consi what I relate. deration," to such wealthy corporations,

A short time since, a foreigner travelling at the hour of their trial, are beginning

in the coupée of a second class carriage on to show themselves; but it will not do

the Brighton Railway, smoked a cigar. The pledges have been given by Members

guard warned him that the practice was

not allowed. Nevertheless, the gentleman, of both Houses of Parliament—not so

most likely used to the way such things aremuch to enquire into the foul and filthy

managed on the Birmingham line, when the state of the water, for that is already so

guard retired from performing his duty, condemonstrated, that the unblushing ef

tinued to smoke, and finished his cigar. At frontery of monopoly cannot now stammer

the next station, he was met by a demand out another syllable of denial ; but, to for his ticket, ordered out of the coupée, and come at once to the question, Have the subjected to the following treatment. The Water Companies kept good faith with guard addressing one of the officers on the


platform, warned him that, “ that person “ mechanical disadvantage." I suspect, was not to be allowed to proceed to London however, the change will not much benefit by any train that night,” and there the your correspondent. gentleman was left! The guard on being He wishes to quarrel with me because I remonstrated with, very civilly replied he exemplified practically my meaning of the could not help it-such were his orders--he term “ loss of power,” but did not define it. should be discharged, or fined, if he did not What nice, but unnecessary distinctions! I execute them-and there was a director in wish he had exemplified his meaning, as I the next carriage. Now, Sir, I ask, whether requested of him, and I would make him a such a mode of punishment ought to be to present of what he intended for definition. lerated in a free country? If such is the I am glad, however, that I have pinned your rule of the Brighton line, it ought to be correspondent down to a practical point, by distinctly notified to every passenger. Com the definition he has given, as above, of the plaint at its enforcement could not then be crank's action. made, although we might exclaim against its Your correspondent says, at page 77 in severity. Surely, to have taken the man's the present volume, that if I should at ticket away, and forced him, before he could any time prove, ever so clearly, any practical proceed to London to buy another would loss to exist in any engine or machine of my have been punishment enough. Nine shil construction, I must look somewhere else lings and sixpence for smoking a cigar is than to the crank for the cause. Now, I paying dearly for one's whistle, but arbi. would be glad to know what occasion I have trarily to debar him from proceeding by the to look elsewhere for the cause, if it can be same train was, to my thinking, most unjust shown to exist in the “ mechanical disadand cruel. The individual in question may vantage" of the crank, or the mechanical have been put, to not only great incon disadvantage of any other description of venience, but possibly very heavy expense, shifting leverage ? by being detained from the completion of Your correspondent's meaning of the term his journey so many hours. What makes “loss of power" is this, that unless that the present case worse is, the circumstance loss is irrecoverable, it cannot properly be of the victim being a foreigner.

called loss, though there may be a "mechanical The directors of the Brighton Railway as disadvantage,” which may be neutralized by a body, are not over popular; surely there some contrivance, as a fly-wheel, for inought to be wit enough among so many, to stance. If your correspondent had read my devise some scheme for the enforcement of a papers attentively, he would have discovered regulation proper enough in itself, and not a mode much more effectual than a fly-wheel quite so obviously tyrannical.

for gaining his object, for overcoming the Yours faithfully,

mechanical disadvantage of the crank, and AN OLD CORRESPONDENT. mending that defect. At page 470, vol. xxxv, [The reasonable complaint of our


I stated, that when the work required to and much esteemed correspondent, brings to

be done by the engine, or rather the remind the remedy once facetiously proposed

sistance which that work opposed to motion, by another of our contributors, for the nuis

varied in the proportion of the shifting leance-for such it undoubtedly is—the com

verage of the crank, then there was no de. mission of which involved his foreign friend

ficiency of effect; as, when the weights of in such unpleasant consequences. It was to

56 and 28 pounds were put in motion by this purpose — that smoking on railways the shifting leverage, there was no loss. But should not be absolutely prohibited (for the

no contrivance, as I before stated, placed liberty of the subject's sake!) but that the

between the first mover and the crank, or smokers should be obliged, by Act of Par even the fly-wheel, would have that effect, liament, as the engines are-o consume

and the work required to be done cannot their own smoke. En. M. M.]

have the varying motion above mentioned given to it in practice; but if it could, the effect would be, that the whole arrangement

could not properly be called a crank action, THE CRANK QUESTION.

because the power applied every instant was Sir, -"A mechanical disadvantage "- a exactly equivalent to the work required to deficiency of effect-but not a loss of power be done at the same moment; and a little in the crank, your correspondent,

“ R. W. consideration will show that a fly-wheel, in T.," contends, is what my experiments this arrangement, would be injurious. prove, and what, he says, nobody will deny Your correspondent states that, in all his does take place in some parts of the crank's papers, he never mentioned the word “friccourse." I am perfectly satisfied with his tion," and it is very true he did not; he was definition. The words “ loss of power" shall too cautious to commit himself; but it is not be made use of by me again—it shall be equally true that I did mention it, and that

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