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the salinity of the Baltic column, though not uniform, the rest being of a more primitive structure. In 1768 it is kept down by the influx of river-water to a much lower became the county town; and in 1775, according to a degree, this difference will always exist to a greater or less census then_taken, it contained 564 houses, and 5934 inamount. When, however, the height of the Baltic column habitants. From this time it rose rapidly into importance; is so much raised-either by the excess of its fresh-water and in 1780 became a port of entry, when a custom-house supply, or by the reversal of the surface-current by the was opened. Previous to this all vessels trading to and agency of wind—that the downward pressure of its less from the port had to be entered, cleared, and registered at saline water exceeds that of the more saline water of the Annapolis. In December, 1796, it obtained an act of inNorth Sea column, the under-current will be brought to a corporation. By the census of 1870 Baltimore contained stand, or its direction will be reversed. Thus it is that 267,854 inhabitants. when the outward movement of the upper stratum depends The city is pleasantly situated on slightly undulating rather upon the prevalent winds (as is usually the case ground, and extends about 4} miles from E. to W., and 3 during autumn and winter) than upon the elevation of its from N. to S., covering an area of 10,000 acres. It is level within the basin, the inward under-current which divided into two nearly equal parts by a small stream supplies its place is strongest and most constant. And it is called Jones's Falls, crossed by a number of bridges. The by this means, much more than by the occasional reversal division east of the falls is nominally subdivided into two of the surface-current, that salt is carried back into the parts-Fell's Point and Old Town. The former, the most Baltic, -as is proved by the close correspondence shown by easterly part of the town, is the principal resort of seamen, Dr. Meyer's observations to exist between the predominance and is the place where the shipbuilding and manufactures of the inward under-current and the elevation of the sp. gr. are principally carried on. The Old Town lies to the N. of the surface-water of the Baltic. On the other hand, it and W. of this. The portion west of the Falls is likewise is during the spring and summer months, when the out- divided into two parts, the city proper and Spring Garden. ward movement of the upper stratum is rather an overflow. The former is the centre of trade, and the residence of the current, and the salinity of the surface-water is the lowest, that the under-current sets less strongly and less constantly inward.

Zoology.--The fauna of the Baltic may be regarded as that of a large estuary, having a narrow communication with the sea, -its marine inhabitants being such as can adapt themselves to considerable variations in the salinity of its water. Whales rarely enter the Baltic; but porpoises frequent the neighborhood of the Danish islands.

Seals are obtained in considerable numbers at the breaking up of the ice around Gottland and the Aland Isles. The salmon is among the most abundant fishes of the Baltic proper, ascending its rivers from April to June; and salmon-trout are caught in some of its bays. The portion of the Baltic in the neighborhood of the Danish islands is frequented by various species of Gadidæ, which do not range further east. In the 14th and 15th centuries there was a considerable herring-fishery within the Sound and along the coast of Scania (the southern portion of Sweden); but this fish seems to have latterly quite deserted the Baltic, and rarely shows itself even in the Cattegat. On the eastern coast of Sweden, on the other hand, and in the Gulf of Bothnia, a fish called the strömling, which is nearly allied to the herring, being chiefly distinguished by its small size, is caught in great numbers, and is dried and salted for distant markets. The

PATAPSCO RIVER molluscan fauna of the Baltic is chiefly made up of com

Ground-Plan of Baltimore. mon shells of our own shores—such as Cardium, Mytilus, 1. Northern Central R. W. Station. 7. Penitentiary. and Littorina, which can bear an admixture of fresh water, 2. Mount Clare.

8. City Hall. together with several proper fresh-water shells, such as

9. Washington Monument.

10. Battle Monument. Paludina, Neritina, and Lymnæa; the marine types, how- %. St. Mary's College.


11. Hospital. ever, being remarkable for their very small size, which 6. Prison.

12. Lazaretto and Lighthouse. is often not above one-third of their usual dimensions. There is an entire absence, except in the neighborhood of more wealthy inhabitants; while the latter, which is the the straits, of such essentially marine types as Buccinum, extreme south-western quarter, and the lowest and most Ostrea, Pecten, Patella, and Balanus. It is interesting to unhealthy portion of the city, is inhabited by the poorer remark that the Danish Kjökkenmödding contain abundance classes. Baltimore contains about 200 churches,

Buildings. of oysters, and also of full-sized cockles, mussels, and peri- and has three universities, several colleges, 122 winkles; from which it may be inferred that even within public schools, a state normal school, a manual labor school, the human period the outside ocean had freer access to the besides numerous private schools and academies, an acadbasin of the Baltic than it has now-probably through what emy of art and science, an infirmary, hospitals, asylums, is now the peninsula of Jutland, which seems at no remote dispensaries, &c., three theatres, an opera-house, a museum, period to have been an archipelago.

(w. B. C.) and many fine public buildings. The most imposing buildBALTIMORE, in Maryland, one of the largest and sing in the city is the new city hall, one of the finest strucmost flourishing cities in the United States of North | tures of the kind in the country. It occupies an entire America, is situated on the north side of the Patapsco square of ground, an area of about 26,000 square feet, near River or Bay, 14 miles above its entrance into the Chesa- the centre of the city, and contains the various municipal peake, 37 miles N.E. of Washington, and 100 S.W. of offices. The style of architecture is the Renaissance, of Philadelphia. Lat. 39° 17' N., long. 76° 36' W. The which it is a fine specimen. The entire outer facing of the natural advantages of this position were long overlooked walls, the portico, and all the ornamental work, are of by the settlers in the vicinity of the Chesapeake; and it white Maryland marble; the inner walls and floors are of was only in 1729 that they directed their attention to the brick, and are fire-proof. It is four stories high, surplace, and laid out a plan of the town. At that time a mounted by a Mansard roof of iron and slate, with a dome part of it was under cultivation as a farm, but all the rest and tower of iron on a marble base, rising to the height was a wilderness. For some years its growth was by no of 240 feet. The interior is very finely finished. It was means rapid, as it had to contend with all the obstacles begun in 1867, and cost about $2,600,000. Another imthat could be thrown in its way by the jealousy of older portant public building is that of the Peabody Institute, nivals. From an authentic sketch of Baltimore made in founded by the late George Peabody, Esq., of London, and the year 1752, it appears that it then contained about endowed by him to the amount of $1,400,000. It has protwenty-five houses, only four of which were built of brick, visions for a public library, a gallery of art, and a con

VOL. III.-113

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servatory of music, also for lectures and musical perform- | fourth of a mile, with a depth of 16 feec. Above this

It was incorporated in 1857. One wing of the entrance it widens into an ellipse of a mile long, half a building, which is immediately contiguous to the Wash- mile broad, and 15 feet deep. The third, or inner harbor, ington monument, is completed, and the remainder is in has a depth of 14 feet, and penetrates to near the centre of progress. The completed wing is faced and ornamented the city. Vessels of the largest class can lie at the wharves with white marble, in a simple but massive and imposing near Fell's Point, Locust Point, and Canton, and those of style, and contains the library of over 56,000 volumes 500 tons can come into the inner harbor. The harbor is (1875), and a hall for lectures, concerts, &c. The custom- defended by Fort M'Henry. The railroads of

Railways. house is a spacious building, 225 feet long, by 141 feet Baltimore are,- The Philadelphia, Wilmington, wide. The principal room is 53 feet square, and is lighted and Baltimore line, opened in 1837, length 98 miles; the by a dome 115 feet above the street. On its four sides Northern Central, to Sunbury in Pennsylvania, completed are colonnades, the columns of which are each a single in 1858, length 138 miles; the Baltimore and Potomac to

block of fine Italian marble. Baltimore has the Potomac River, opened in 1873, length 73 miles, with several splendid monuments, which have ac- a branch to Washington (on this road there is a tunnel a

quired for it the name of “the Monumental mile and three-quarters in length); the Baltimore and City." The largest of these, erected to the memory of Ohio, the main stem of which goes to Wheeling, a distance Washington, stands on an eminence of 150 feet, and has, of 379 miles, opened through in 1853. It has the Parkerswith its base, an altitude of 200 feet. It is of white burg Division, 104 miles; the Central Ohio Division, to marble; the base is 50 feet square, and 24 feet in height, Columbus, 513 miles from Baltimore; and the Lake Erie surmounted by a Doric column 25 feet in diameter at the Division to Chicago, opened in 1874, 878 miles. The city base, with a spiral staircase in its interior, and on the is also traversed by numerous lines of horse-railways for the summit is a statue of Washington, 13 feet high. The convenience of local travel. In healthfulness Baltimore is “Battle Monument," also of white marble, was erected by the fourth city in the Union, its annual death-rate being public subscription in 1815, to the memory of those who 025. Its mean annual temperature is 56° Fahr.; the mean had fallen in defence of the city in the previous year. It summer and winter temperatures 76° and 36° respectively. is 52 feet high; the base is of Egyptian architecture; the BALUCHISTAN, a maritime country of Asia, whose column is in the form of a bundle of Roman fasces, upon the bands of which are inscribed the names of those whom it commemorates; and the whole is surmounted by a female figure, the emblematical genius

Khoja Splenty of the city. The city is supplied with wasupply.

ter from Lake Roland, an artificial lake

aboui 8 miles north of the city, of a capacity of 500,000,000 gallons, and from three other res

TRISTAN ervoirs, with an aggregate storage capacity of about 580,000,000 gallons, the common source of supply be

ing Jones's Falls. There are also numerous public
springs and fountains throughout the town.

Baltimore has a number of parks and pub-

lic squares, chief of which is Druid Hill Park, a tract
of 700 acres on the extreme north-west of the city,
possessing more natural beauties than any other in
the United States.

The manufactures and commerce of Bal

timore are very extensive and flourishing. 304 There is scarcely a branch of industry that is not

Pous Page

A prosecuted to some extent in the city or its vicinity. Among these are shipbuilding, iron and copper works, woollen and cotton manufactures, pottery, sugar-refining, petroleum-refining, distilling, saddlery,

BAL UCHISTAN agricultural implement-making, cabinet-making, tanning, &c. In the vicinity of Baltimore is found the finest brick-clay in the world, of which more than

Sehwgh 100,000,000 bricks are made annually. The Abbott Iron-works, in the eastern part of the city, have the largest rolling-mills in the United States. An industry peculiar to Baltimore is the packing of oysters ARABIAN SEA

English 15 in air-tight cans for shipment to all parts of the world. The oysters are taken in the Chesapeake Bay. Fruits and vegetables are also packed in the

Sketch-Map of Baluchistan. same way, the entire trade consuming from twenty to thirty million cans annually. This city is one of coast is continuous with that of the north-western part the greatest flour-markets in the Union, and has a large of the Indian Peninsula. It is bounded on the N. by export trade in tobacco. There belonged to the port of Afghanistan, on the E. by Sindh, on the 8. by the Arabian Baltimore (30th November, 1874) 834 vessels, registering Sea, and on the W. by Persia. The frontier between 84,900 tons, of which 66 vessels (22,000 tons) were engaged Persia and Baluchistan has been drawn by an English in foreign,

and the rest in the coasting trade. These figures commission, sent out in 1870 under Sir F. Goldsmid, from show a considerable reduction from those of 1860, as a result Gwadur Bay (about 61° 36' E. long.) northwards, to lat. of the war between the States, during which many Balti- 26° 15' N., when it turns eastward to the Nihing River, more vessels were enrolled under foreign flags, and have so following which N. and E. to its sources, it passes on to remained. There are twenty-six banks, with a capital (in about 63° 12' E. long., when it resumes a northerly direc1874) of $14,000,000, and seven savings-banks ; seventeen tion to Jalk. As thus determined, Baluchistan has an area fire and marine and three life insurance companies, besides of about 106,500 sq. miles. It extends from lat. 24° 50' to many agencies for other companies. The assessed value of 30° 20', and from long. 61° 10' to 68° 38'; its extreme taxable property of all kinds in Baltimore for the year length from E. to W. being 500 miles, and its breadth 370. 1870 was $207,181,550, and for the year 1875, $231,242,313, The outline of the sea-coast is in general remarkably being an increase of $24,060,763. The harbor, which con- regular, running nearly due E. and W., a little N. of lai. Harbor. sists of three parts, is excellent. Its entrance, 24° 46' from Cape Monze, on the border of Sindh, to Cape

between Fort M'Henry and the lazaretto, is about Jewnee, near the River Dustee. It is for the most part 600 yards wide, with 23 feet of water. This depth is con- craggy, but not remarkably elevated, and has in some tinued with an increased width for a mile and a quarter, places, for considerable distance, a low sandy shore, though to near Fell's Point. The entrance to the second harbor is almost everywhere the surface becomes much higher inland. opposite Fell's Point, where the width is contracted to one- | The principal headlands, proceeding from E. to W., are

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Cape Monze or Ras Moarree, which is the eastern headland been engaged; but having in a few years quelled the robof Sonmeanee Bay; Goorab Sing; Ras Arubah; Ras Noo, bers, against whom he had been called in, and finding himforming the western headland of Gwadel Bay; Ras Jewnee, self at the head of the only military tribe in the country, forming the eastern point of Gwadur Bay, and Cape Zegin he formally deposed the rajah and assumed the govern. at its western extremity. There is no good harbor along ment. the coast, though it extends about 600 miles; but there The history of the country after the accession of Kumare several roadsteads with good holding ground, and shel- bur is as obscure as during the Hindu dynasty. It would tered on several points. Of these the best are Sonmeanee appear, however, that the sceptre was quietly transmitted Bay, Homara, and Gwadur. On the latter are situated a to Abdulla Khan, the fourth in descent from Kumbur, who, small town and a fort of the same name, and also a tele- being an intrepid and ambitious soldier, turned his thoughts graph station of the Indo-European line.

towards the conquest of Cutch-Gundava, then held by difOf the early history of this portion of the Asiatic continent ferent petty chiefs, under the authority of the Nawabs of little or nothing is known. The poverty and natural strength Sindh. of the country, combined with the ferocious habits of the After various success, the Kumburanees at leugth posnatives, seem to have equally repelled the friendly visits of sessed themselves of the sovereignty of a considerable porinquisitive strangers and the hostile incursions of invading tion of that fruitful plain, including the chief town, Gunarmies. The first distinct account which we have is from dava. It was during this contest that the famous Nadir Arrian, who, with his usual brevity and severe veracity, Shah advanced from Persia to the invasion of Hindusnarrates the march of Alexander through this region, which tan; and while at Kandahar, he despatched several dehe calls the country of the Oritæ and Ğadrossi. He gives tachments into Baluchistan, and established his authority a very accurate account of this forlorn tract, its general in that province. Abdulla Khan, however, was continued aridity, and the necessity of obtaining water by digging in in the government of the country by Nadir's orders; but the beds of torrents; describes the food of the inhabitants as he was soon after killed in a battle with the forces of the dates and fish; and adverts to the occasional occurrence of Nawabs of Sindh. He was succeeded by his eldest son, fertile spots, the abundance of aromatic and thorny shrubs Hajee Mohummud Khan, who abandoned himself to the and fragrant plants, and the violence of the monsoon in most tyrannical and licentious way of life, and alienated the western part of Mekran. He notices also the impossi- his subjects by oppressive taxation. In these circumstances bility of subsisting a large army, and the consequent de- Nusseer Khan, the second son of Abdulla Khan, who had struction of the greater part of the men and beasts which accompanied the victorious Nadir to Delhi, and acquired accompanied the expedition of Alexander. At the com- the favor and confidence of that monarch, returned to Khemencement of the 8th century this country was traversed by lat, and was hailed by the whole population as their deliv. an army of the caliphate.

erer. Finding that expostulation had no effect upon his The country derives its name from the Baluches, but the brother, he one day entered his apartment and stabbed him Brahoes are considered the dominant race, from which the to the heart. As soon as the tyrant was dead, Nusseer ruler of the country is always selected. From whatever Khan mounted the musnud, amidst the universal joy of his quarter these may have arrived, they eventually expelled, subjects; and immediately transmitted a report of the events under their leader Kumbur, the Hindu dynasty, which at which had taken place to Nadir Shah, who was then enthat time governed the country, and conquered Baluchistan camped near Kandahar. The shah received the intellifor themselves. The Baluches are a quite distinct race, and gence with satisfaction, and despatched a firman, by return must have arrived in the country at a subsequent period, of the messenger, appointing Nusseer Khan beglerbey of probably in small bodies, some of which may have come all Baluchistan. This event took place in the year 1739. from Syria or from Arabia ; in proof of this the Kyheree, Nusseer Khan proved an active, politic, and warlike for instance, possess a remarkably handsome breed of horses prince. He took great pains to re-establish the internal showiọg unmistakable Arab blood. Anyhow, so marked is government of all the provinces in his dominions, and imthe social distinction between Baluch and Brahoe, that when proved and fortified the city of Khelat. On the death of the khan assembles his forces for war the latter tribes de- Nadir Shah in 1747, he acknowledged the title of the king of mand, as their right, wheaten flour as a portion of their Cabul, Ahmed Shah Abdulla. In 1758 he declared himself daily rations, while the Baluch tribes are only entitled to entirely independent; upon which Ahmed Shah despatched receive that made from a coarse grain called jowar. There a force against him, under one of his ministers. The khan, is also a Persian colony known as the Dehwars; and a con- however, raised an army and totally routed the Afghan siderable number of Hindus, who appear to have been the army. On receiving intelligence of this discomfiture, the first settlers in the Brahoe mountains on their expulsion king himself marched with strong reinforcements, and a from Sindh, Lus, and Mekran by the caliphs of Baghdad. pitched battle was fought, in which Nusseer Khan was worst

Taking a general view on the subject of the original in- ed. He retired in good order to Khelat, whither he was habitants of Baluchistan, we may conclude that they have, followed by the victor, who invested the place with his from a very early date, been reinforced by emigration from whole army. The khan made a vigorous defence; and, other countries, and from stragglers dropped from the hosts after the royal troops had been foiled in their attempts to of the numerous conquerors from Alexander to Nadir Shah, take the city by storm or surprise, a negotiation was prowho have passed and repassed through Baluchistan or its posed by the king, which terminated in a treaty of peace. neighborhood on their way to and from India. Thus we By this treaty it was stipulated that the king was to receive find the Saka tribe located on the plains of Gressia, on the the cousin of Nusseer Khan in marriage; and that the borders of Mekran, the ancient Gedrosia, and still further khan was to pay no tribute, but only, when called upon, to the west, the Dahoe. These tribes are on the direct line to furnish troops to assist the armies, for which he was to of Alexander's march; and we know that tribes of this receive an allowance in cash equal to half their pay. The name from the shores of the Caspian accompanied his army. khan frequently distinguished himself in the subsequent In Sarawan we find the Sirperra, and Pliny tells us that a wars of Cabul; and, as a reward for his services, the king tribe called Saraparæ resided near the Oxus. Further, on bestowed upon him several districts in perpetual and entire the Dushti-be-doulets, a plain at the northern entrance of sovereignty. Having succeeded in quelling a dangerous the Bolan Pass, we find the Kurds, a name, again, familiar rebellion, headed by his cousin Beheram Khan, this able as that of a celebrated and ancient nation. The names of prince at length died in extreme old age, in the month of numerous other tribes might be cited to support this view, June, 1795, leaving three sons and five daughters. He but it would require too much space to follow up the sub- was succeeded by his eldest son Muhmood Khan, then a ject

. Both Brahoes and Baluches are Mahometans of the boy of about fourteen years. During the reign of this Suni persuasion.

prince, who has been described as a very humane and The precise period at which the Brahoes gained the mas- indolent man, the country was distracted by sanguinary tery cannot be accurately ascertained; but it was probably broils; the governors of several provinces and districts about two centuries ago. The last rajah of the Hindu dy- withdrew their allegiance; and the dominions of the nasly found himself compe:led to call for the assistance of khans of Khelat gradually so diminished, that they now the mountain shepherds, with their leader, Kumbur, in or- comprehend only a small portion of the provinces formerly der to check the encroachments of a horde of depredators, subject to Nusseer Khan. headed by an Afghan chief, who infested the country, and In 1839, when the British army advanced through the even threatened to attack the seat of government. Kum- Bolan Pass towards Afghanistan, the conduct of Mehrab bur successfully performed the service for which he had Khan, the ruler of Baluchistan, was considered so treacherous and dangerous, as to require “the exaction of retribu- | khan. His rule was, however, a short one, for early in tion from that chieftain," and "the execution of such ar- 1864, when proceeding to Khelat, he was murdered in the rangements as would establish future security in that quar- Gundava Pass; and Khodadad was again elected chief by ter. General Willshire was accordingly detached from the very men who had only the previous year caused his the army of the Indus with 1050 men to assault Khelat. overthrow, and who had lately been accomplices to the A gate was knocked in by the field-pieces, and the town murder of his cousin. Since the above events Khodadad and citadel were stormed in a few minutes. Above 400 has maintained his precarious position with great diffiBaluches were slain, among them Mehrab Khan himself; culty; but owing to his inability to govern his unruly suband 2000 prisoners were taken. Subsequent inquiries have, jects without material assistance from the British Govern. however, proved that the treachery towards the

British was ment, which they are not disposed to give, his country has not on the part of Mehrab Khan, but on that of his vizier, gradually fallen into the greatest anarchy; and, conseMahomed Hassein, and certain chiefs with whom he was quently, some of the provisions of the treaty of 1854 having in league, and at whose instigation the British convoys been broken, diplomatic relations have been discontinued were plundered in their passage through Cutch-Gundava with the Khelat state since the end of 1874. and in the Bolan Pass. The treacherous vizier, however, The territories of Baluchistan are now comprised under made our too credulous political officers believe that Meh- the following

divisions—Jalawan, Sarawan, Khelat, Mekran, rab Khan was to blame-his object being to bring his Lus, Cutch-Gundava, and Kohistan. master to ruin and to obtain for himself all power in the The most remarkable features of this extensive country state, knowing that Mehrab's successor was only a child. are its rugged and elevated surface, its barrenness, and its How far he succeeded in his object history has shown. deficiency of water. The mass of mountains which forms In the following year Khelat changed hands, the governor the eastern boundary of that division of Baluchistan called established by the British, together with a feeble garrison, the Kohistan, or mountain territory, lying between the being overpowered. At the close of the same year it was capital, Khelat (lat. 29° 1/ 38'' N., long. about 66° 39' E.), reoccupied by the British under General Nott. In 1841, and the plain country to the east of it, designated Cutchee, Nusseer Khan, the youthful son of the slain Mehrab Khan, or Cutch-Gundava, is composed of several parallel ranges was recognized by the British, who soon after evacuated the of limestone rock, in close proximity to each other, having country.

a general strike of N.N.E. to S.S.W. and a breadth of about From the conquest of Sindh by the British troops under 55 miles. This range originates in Afghanistan, and enters the command of the late General Sir Charles Napier in Baluchistan north of the Bolan Pass in about 30° N. lat. 1843 up to 1854, no diplomatic intercourse occurred worthy and about 60° 30' E. long. under the name Herbooe; and, of note between the British and Baluch states. In the lat- after throwing out a branch to the eastward, which touches ter year, however, under the governor-generalship of the the River Indus at Sehwan, terminates under the designalate marquis of Dalhousie, the late General John Jacob, tion of the Hala Mountains, at Cape Monze on the coast of C.B., at the time political superintendent and commandant the Arabian Sea, W. of Kurrachee, in about 25° N. lat. and on the Sindh frontier, was deputed to arrange and conclude 66° 68' E. long., thus having a total length of upwards of a treaty between the Khelat state, then under the chieftain- 300 miles. The highest mountain of this range is the ship of Meer Nusseer Khan, and the British Government. Chehil Tan, bearing about N. by E. 85 miles from Khelat, This treaty was executed on the 14th of May, 1854, and and attaining an altitude of 12,000 feet above the sea. was to the following effect:

The western range of the Herbooe Mountains in this por“That the former offensive and defensive treaty, con- tion of Baluchistan are barren and without timber, and cluded in 1841 by Major Outram between the British Gov- scantily peopled with pastoral tribes of Brahoes, who emi. ernment and Meer Nusseer Khan, chief of Khelat, was to grate to the plains of Cutchee on the approach of the winbe annulled.

ter months. “That Meer Nusseer Khan, his heirs and successors, North of the Bolan River and Pass the Herbooe Mounbound themselves to oppose to the utmost all the enemies tains are met, in about lat. N. 30°, by confused ranges of the British Government, and in all cases to act in sub- of rough precipitous mountains, which extend to the eastordinate co-operation with that Government, and to enter ward with a strike nearly E. and W. to the Sooliman range, into no negotiations with other states without its consent. in about 29° 5' N. lat. and about 69° 30' E. long. This

“That should it be deemed necessary to station British tract is almost entirely inhabited by Murrees, Boogtees, and troops in any part of the territory of Khelat, they shall other tribes of Baluch plunderers, and is bounded on the occupy such positions as may be thought advisable by the N. by the province of Sewestan. South of these ranges lies British authorities.

the desert country, which touches the Sindh frontier in 28° “That the Baluch chief was to prevent all plundering on 27' N. lat. the part of his subjects within, or in the neighborhood of, The two principal water-courses which drain the Kohistan British territory.

portion of Baluchistan E. of Khelat are the rivers Bolan and That he was further to protect all merchants passing Moola, the former rising about 60 miles N.E. of Khelat, the through his territory, and only to exact from them a latter at Anjeera, lat. 28° 19' N., long. about 66° 29' E., transit duty, fixed by schedule attached to the treaty; and about 45 miles south of that city. They both discharge that, on condition of a faithful performance of these duties, themselves into the plains of Cutchee, the former at Dadur, he was to receive from the British Government an annual lat. about 29° 28' 51" N., long. about 67° 26' E., and the subsidy of 50,000 rupees (£5000).”

latter at Kotra near Gundava, lat. 28° 33' 47" N., long. The provisions of the above treaty were most loyally about 67° 26' E. There is at all seasons a plentiful supply performed by Meer Nusseer Khan up to the time of his of clear running water in these streams, which is entirely death in 1856. He was succeeded by his brother, Meer used up for irrigational purposes on issuing into the plains. Khodadad Khan, the present ruler, a youth of twelve years They are subject to dangerous floods from sudden storms in of age, who, however, did not obtain his position before he the neighboring mountains during the rainy season. The had put down by force a rebellion on the part of his turbu- two easiest and safest passes from Central Asia into India lent chiefs, who had first elected him, but, not receiving take their names from these streams. South of the Moola what they considered an adequate reward from his treasury, the Gaj River issues into the plains, and its waters are also sought to depose him in favor of his cousin Shere dil Khan. absorbed in cultivation. The Nara issues into the plains In the latter part of 1857, the Indian rebellion being at its near Kujjuk, N.W. corner of Cutch-Gundava, in lat. about height, and the city of Delhi still in the hands of the rebels, 29° 36' N., and long. about 68° 2' E.; ordinarily its water a British officer (Major Henry Green) was deputed, on the is utilized entirely for cultivation in its course through the part of the British Government, to reside, as political Afghan province of Seebee; but at periods of heavy rains agent, with the khan at Khelat, and to assist him by his in the mountains it is liable to burst its banks, and then inadvice in maintaining control over his turbulent tribes. undates immense tracts in the Cutchee desert to the south. This duty was successfully performed until 1863, when, West of Khelat, as far as about 65° 30' E. long., the during the temporary absence of Major Malcolm Green, mountain ranges have much the same strike, and are of the the then political agent, Khodadad Khan was, at the insti- same nature as those to the eastward, but the ranges are gation of some of his principal chiefs, attacked, while out much narrower, more defined, and of a lower altitude. The riding, by his cousin, Shere dil Khan, and severely wounded. valleys between them vary from 5 to 15 miles in breadth; Khodadad fled in safety to a residence close to the British they are quite devoid of trees. The water-courses generally border, and Shere dil Khan was elected and proclaimed follow the direction of the hills from N. 10 S., and in some


instances during heavy rains their waters reach the Arabian | face of a hill on the opposite side of a plain, whence it Sea; but as a general rule they are absorbed long before meanders nearly through its centre, having the town and they reach the coast, partly in cultivation, but principally suburbs on one side, and on the other the gardens. It by the sandy arid nature of the soil and excessive dryness may be remarked of this spring, that the waters, at their of the atmosphere, -due, probably, to the proximity of immediate issue from the smaller channels, possess a conthe great desert west of Kharan, which extends to the con- siderable degree of tepidity until after sunrise, when they fines of Persia. The most important of these water-courses suddenly become exceedingly cold, and remain so during is the Dustee or Mooleanee.

the day. The climate of Baluchistan is extremely various in the We have no data from which we can form an accurate different provinces. The soil in general is exceedingly computation of the population of Baluchistan, but it may stony. In the province of Cutch-Gundava, however, it is be estimated at about 400,000. The two great races of rich and loamy, and so very productive, that, it is said, Baluch and Brahoe, each subdivided into an infinite number vere it all properly cultivated, the crops would be more of tribes, are clearly distinguished from each other by their than sufficient for the supply of the whole of Baluchistan. language and appearance. The Baluch, or Baluchekee, Gold, silver, lead, iron, tin, antimony, brimstone, alum, language partakes considerably of the idiom of the modern sal-ammoniac, and many kinds of mineral salts, and salt- Persian, although greatly disguised under a singularly petre, are found in various parts of the country. The corrupt pronunciation. The Brahoekee, on the other hand, precious metals have only been discovered in working for has nothing analogous to Persian, but appears to contain a iron and lead, in mines near the town of Nal, about 150 great number of ancient Hinduwee words; and, as it strikes miles S.S.W. of Khelat. The different other minerals the ear, bears a strong resemblance to the dialect spoken in above enumerated are very plentiful. The gardens of the Panjaub. The Baluches in general have tall figures, Khelat produce many sorts of fruit, which are sold at a long visages, and raised features; the Brahoes, on the convery moderate rate, such as apricots, peaches, grapes, trary, have short, thick bones, with round faces and flat almonds, pistachio-nuts, apples, pears, plums, currants, lineaments. cherries, quinces, figs, pomegranates, mulberries, plantains, The Baluches are a handsome, active race of men, not melons, guavas, &c. All kinds of grain known in India possessing great physical strength, but inured to changes are cultivated in the different provinces of Baluchistan, of climate and season, and capable of enduring every and there is abundance of vegetables. Madder, cotton, and species of fatigue. In their habits they are pastoral and indigo are also produced; and the latter is considered much addicted to predatory warfare, in the course of which superior to that of Bengal. Great attention is given to they do not hesitate to commit every kind of outrage and the culture of the date fruit in the province of Mekran. cruelty. Notwithstanding their predatory habits, however, The domestic animals of Baluchistan are horses, mules, they are considered to be a hospitable people. After the asses, camels, buffaloes, black-cattle, sheep, goats, dogs, fashion of other barbarous tribes in that part of the world, and cats, besides fowls and pigeons; but there are neither they will protect and kindly entertain a stranger while geese, turkeys, nor ducks. The wild animals are tigers, their guest, but feel no scruple in robbing and murdering leopards, hyenas, wolves, jackals, tiger-cats, wild dogs, him as soon as he has left their precincts. They are indofores, hares, mangooses, mountain goats, antelopes, elks, lent, and unless excited by amusement or war, or comred and moose deer, wild asses, &c. Of birds they have pelled to action by some urgent motive, spend their time almost every species to be met with either in Europe or in idleness, rude dissipation, and the enjoyment of such India.

coarse luxuries as they can procure-in lounging, gamThe principal towns in Baluchistan are as follows:- bling, smoking tobacco or hemp, and chewing opium. The KHELAT is the capital of the whole country; Mustoong, of tenets of their religion,—and still more, perhaps, their the province of Sarawan; Kozdar, of Jalawan; Beyla, of poverty, - preserve them from the abuse of fermented Beyla; Kej, of Mekran; Bagh, of Cutch-Gundava; and liquors. Their principal articles of food are milk in all Dadur and Gundava are towns in the last-mentioned prov- its forms, the flesh of domestic animals, not excepting that ince.

of the camel, and game, including wild asses, the flesh of The capital stands on an elevated site 7000 feet above which is considered a delicacy. Their appetites are vorathe sea, on the western side of a well-cultivated plain or cious ; they consume incredible quantities of flesh when valley, about eight miles long and two or three broad, a it can be obtained, and prefer it in a half-cooked state. great part of which is laid out in gardens and other They also use grain in the form of bread, and prepared enclosures. The town is built in an oblong form, and on variously otherwise; but they enjoy most such articles of three sides is defended by a mud wall, 18 or 20 feet high, food or condiment as possess a strong and stimulating flanked, at intervals of 250 yards, by bastions, which, as favor, as capsicum, onions, and garlic. Their indolence well as the wall itself, are pierced with numerous loopholes prompts them to keep as many slaves as they can obtain for matchlock-men. The defence of the fourth side of the and support. Polygamy is universal. Some of the lower city has been formed by cutting away perpendicularly the orders have as many as eight women, either as wives or western face of the hill on which it is partly built. On mistresses, and the number is increased in proportion to the summit of this eminence stands the palace, command- the rank and means of the man. Wives are obtained by ing a distinct view of the town and adjacent country. purchase, payment being made in cattle or other articles That quarter of the hill on which the khan's residence is of pastoral wealth. The ceremony of marriage is pererected has been enclosed by a mud wall, with bastions; formed by the moollah or priest; and on this occasion, as the entrance to it is on the south-western side; and here, well as on some others affecting females, practices similar as well as at the city gates, which are three in number, to those of the Levitical law are observed. For instance, there is constantly a guard of matchlock-men. Both town in this country, as also among the Afghans, a man is exand citadel are, however, completely commanded by the pected to marry the widow of a deceased brother. When surrounding hills, and are incapable of offering any resist- a death takes place, the body is watched for three successance against artillery. Within the walls there are upwards ive nights by assembled friends and neighbors, who spend of 2500 houses, and the number of these in the suburbs their time in feasting, so that the ceremony seems intended probably exceeds one-half of that amount. The houses are rather to furnish enjoyment to the living than to render mostly built of half-burnt brick or wooden frames, and honor to the dead. plastered over with mud or mortar. In general, the streets The common dress of the Brahoes is a coarse white or are broader than those of native towns, and most of them blue calico shirt, buttoned round the neck, and reaching have a raised pathway on each side for foot-passengers, and below the knee; their trousers are made of the same cloth, have also an uncovered kennel in the centre, which is a or of a kind of striped stuff called soosee, and puckered auisance, from the quantity of filth thrown into it, and the round the ankles. On their heads they wear a small silk stagnant rain-water that lodges there. The upper stories of or cotton quilted cap, fitted to the shape of the skull, and the houses frequently project across the street, and thereby a kummurbund or sash, of the same color, round their render the part beneath them gloomy and 'damp. This waists. The Baluches wear a similar dress, but a turban seems a very rude attempt to imitate the bazaars of Persia on the head and wide trousers unconfined at the ankle. In and Cabul. The bazaar of Khelat is extensive, well fur- winter the chiefs and their relatives appear in a tunic of nished with every kind of goods; all the necessaries of chintz, lined and stuffed with cotton; and the poorer classes, life may be purchased there at a moderate price. The when out of doors, wrap themselves up in a surtout made town is supplied with delicious water from a spring in the of cloth, manufactured from a mixture of goats' hair and


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