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bring nations together, but to keep paired "at comparatively small cost." them apart,” is cheered by the reflec- That cost would no doubt be forthtion that these misguided advisers are coming, and the tunnel would then no longer of one mind. Even members serve for the passage of as large an of the Army Council "are said to be army as
the French Government favorable" to the scheme. When we thought well to send. No doubt if that ask for some evidence not merely that more complete destruction which Gen. military or naval experts have changed eral Turner naturally deprecates had their opinions, but that they have done been effected, this risk would be so with good reason, we fail to see any avoided. But its removal only intro material change between the situation duces another. The responsibility of to-day and the situation in 1883. The destroying some twenty millions of reassuring considerations which property by merely pressing a button is now offered us turn, with one remark- so burdensome that it is conceivable, to able exc on, to be noticed pr ntly, say the least, that the button might not on the alleged ease of rendering the be pressed in time. The man on the tunnel useless in the event of its be- spot would be waiting for the final orcoming a source of danger. The list of der. The men at headquarters would expedients available for this purpose is argue that the fact of his being on the more imposing than reassuring. It spot made him the best judge whether could be blocked or blown up so easily the right moment had come. The mathat there would be no need of destroy- chinery of destruction when applied on ing it even in the case of war. The a great scale might not operate with supply of air could be stopped, and the the same certainty that had characterinvading army asphyxiated. The ized it in the experimental trials, and French promoters are willing to carry in the end the mouth of the tunnel the approach to the entrance on their might be in the enemy's hands, and the side across the open sands, so that the damage done to it not be beyond reinvading force would be exposed on its pair. It is even possible that the pre way to the tunnel to the fire of the mature destruction of the tunnel, the British fleet. It will be seen that these result of a sudden access of over-causafeguards are all directed against the tion, might be the last disturbing factor same danger—the danger that the tun- in the relations between us and France, nel will be utilized for the landing of and so precipitate hostilities. the first invading force. But this is All these sources of risk, however, not at all the only or even the chief pale before the terrors of the last safe use that might be made of it in time guard which the advocates of this pro of war. The way in which it would ject hold out to us. General Turner probably threaten our safety is of a pleads that an international agreement different kind. Let us imagine that that the tunnel shall not in any cona small invading force one of those tingency be utilized for purposes of "raids” against which even the blue war “is not beyond the range of pracwater school will not promise us abso- tical politics," and the Daily News ends lute security-has effected a landing by disavowing the possibility of devisfrom boats, and succeeded in occupying ing means for the sudden destruction of for a short time the country near Do- the tunnel, and holds that it is "in the ver. The mouth of the tunnel, we will way of neutralization that the safe assume, has been "blocked and blown guards against panic or danger are to in," but General Turner himself admits be sought." In consideration of an inthat this amount of injury could be re- crease in the imports from the Continent, and the comfort of week-enders
vantages and the dangers of a Channel with a taste for foreign countries, we tunnel do not admit of comparison. are to reduce England to the level of The promoters of the scheme are in the Belgium or Switzerland, to subject her position of a surgeon who advises a pato the disadvantages attendant upon tient to submit to a highly dangerous the exchange of a sea frontier for a internal operation in order to gain exland one, and to give her in exchange emption from colds in the head. The such problematical security as is af- consequences of the Channel tunnel forded by the doubtful willingness of falling into other hands than ours are the other Powers to enforce a neutral- incalculable. All we can say of them ity which they might not be sorry to is that at their worst they might mean see broken. The neutralization of Bel- a national overthrow, too complete to gium has not prevented the German leave any hope of recovery. We are staff from including in their calcula- asked to set this tremendous, if remote, tions in the case of war the march of a calamity, against increased trade, unifiGerman army on the northern frontier cation of gauge in the English and of France, and the Swiss are not more French railways, and the doubtful beneeasy, in view of a possible violation of fit to the French estimation of England their own frontiers, neutralized though involved in the increasing crowds of they be. We are grateful to both our English excursionists. All these blessadvisers for indicating thus plainly the ings put together would be dearly price wbich we are in the end to pay bought even if they brought us nothing for the Channel tunnel. We are to worse than the panics which we should give up the sea in consideration of the have from time to time to endure in questionable security of a European order to make them our own. guarantee. The truth is that the adThe Economist.
THE BARONESS BURDETT-COUTTS.
In this remarkable woman, who is trated in the subject those qualities amongst the victims of the winter, the which especially endeared the ruler to country has lost a figure belonging pre- her people. Unbounded kindness of eminently to that Victorian era which heart combined with a sober judgwe seem already to have left behind.
ment, an emphatic recognition of the To elderly men and women of the pres- common humanity of rich and poor, ent day the Baroness Burdett-Coutts is and a tender solicitude for those trials associated with the memories of their of the family which afflict all alikeyouth as a type of the Lady Bountiful; these were qualities shining brightly to the younger generation she is little both in the late Queen and in the more than a name. There must be few wealthy lady who was her early friend. Indeed who can recollect the Baroness Probably nothing made Queen Victoria as a bright ornament of the Court of more widely popular than her prompt the young Queen, as the great lady and kindly messages of sympathy with whose personality fascinated, whose en. the sufferers from some mining accitertainments were the talk of the town. dent or disaster at sea, the personal But slightly the senior of her Sovereign, note struck at once and meeting with a she seems in many ways to have illus- ready and heart-felt response through
out the nation. So in many of the more very far from being the mere giver of notable benefactions of the Baroness money. She could undertake an enterBurdett-Coutts the personal element prise of pith and moment and carry it
conspicuous. The provision into execution, The endowment of a through the Shoe-black Brigade of a colonial bishopric, the construction of a means of livelihood for the boys of Lon- church and schools in a poor district, don, the rescue from starvation of the such acts as these were princely ex. fishing population of Cape Clear, the amples of liberality following accusfeediug of destitute school children, the tomed lines. It was a much more orig. women's home at Shepherd's Bush, are inal conception, at the time, to buy up examples of the direct character of ber the whole of a slum district and build alms-giving and of the keep sympathy model dwellings on its site, or to found with actual sufferings which it indi. a new market. Success may not have cated. Of that assistance to individ- attended every attempt of this kind to dals, rendered-if report speak true ameliorate town life; but such efforts with such lavish and yet discriminating as hers have paved the way for munic kindness, it is impossible to write; but ipal action on a larger scale and for in ber more public acts it is still the the more careful study of the problems direct attempt to alleviate suffering of overcrowding which distinguishes which is largely conspicuous. Lady the present day. An impatience with Burdett-Coutts grew up in an age when the slow working of private benevo well-doing was less vexed by doubts lence, a rebellion against the economic and less vigorously questioned as to its conditions which make abject poverty ultimate results than is now the case. possible in a civilized community, are She gave freely, and she gave in the features of the thought of to-day whicb full confidence that the men and women were unknown when Lady Burdettand children to whom she gave would Coutts entered upon her life of benefibe the better for her giving. Far-off cence. results in the permanent raising of na- But the present eagerness to aboltional life were perhaps less in her ish suffering might never have exview than the relief of immediate want isted but for such notable attempts to and the shedding of some rays of sun- cope with the ills of mankind as those shine on dreary lives. Nothing, per
of Lord Shaftesbury, Lady Burdetthaps, shows more signally her deep Coutts, and other early social reformkindness of heart and quickness of im- ers. Lady Burdett-Coutts recognized agination tban her efforts to improve the obligation on a citizen of great the lot of domestic animals. The So wealth to apply that wealth to the benciety for the Prevention of Cruelty to efit of the less fortunate of ber fellowAnimals would never have attained to countrymen. Such a recognition of the its present position of widespread use- duties of citizenship works in many fulness-how wide is its sphere of ac- ways. It not only stimulates imitation, tion every magistrate knows—but for but sets people thinking; and the unrest Lady Burdett-Coutts's support; and she of the present time in the face of dire showed her generous and wise belief in poverty and trouble may be in no small human nature, as well as her human- degree due to the conspicuous efforts ity, in making it a point of honor with of great philanthropists to do good after a costermonger to drive a well-kept a simple and direct fashion to those handsome beast.
wbo struck them as most needing their Lady Burdett-Coutts was, indeed, assistance.
A famous writer, I think it was ter expressed than in that delightful Thackeray, said to a serious young book of the late Frank Stockton, man, "Do you like the play?"
"The Casting Away of Mrs. Lecks and "Which play?” was the guarded an- Mrs. Aleshine." It is not that these
good ladies were matter-of-fact-Defoe "You great stupid! I mean The was matter-of-fact-but that for them Play."
there was no sea, only quantities of So to all sea-lovers, professional or water. amateur, the sea is just The Sea, and These remarks are necessary to emthe facts that it is a large body of salt phasize the truth that the fascination water, a navigable element, or even "a of the sea does not depend upon the weak solution of drowned men" are size of it or upon long voyages. But, merely incidental. I would go further on the other hand, that the fascination and say that unless you are born with of the sea is not a mere poetical conthe sea in your heart you will never vention is proved by the fact that the find it, though you may become aware two finest living writers about the sea of the incidental facts mentioned are, or have been, professional sailors above. There is something ludicrously –“Pierre Loti” and Mr. Joseph Conineffective about the highly-colored rad. There is, by the way, curious work of art hung up outside post offices material for the psychologist in the and police stations to illustrate the ad- reflection that while we English are vantages of joining the Royal Navy. accepted as rulers of the sea, a FrenchOpportunities of seeing the world, pro- man and a Pole are to-day its most visions to the value of 1s. 6d. a day, vivid interpreters. More than that, it the pleasant uniform of a chief war- was another Frenchman, Victor Hugo, rant officer, the prospect of a pension- who beyond any man insisted on the I'll venture to say that the young man true conception of the sea, that conwho is induced to join the Navy by ception which is at the same time clasthese baits never really goes to sea sical and the child's, of the sea as a at all. Do the authorities think that a personality, or, as the Greeks said, boy runs away to sea because he wants Poseidon. Read “Les Travailleurs de to go to China or to become an admiral? la Mer," and you will never again think Some men are constitutionally inca- of the sea a large body of salt pable of going to sea. I do not mean water. Once admit this conception, that they are made ill by it; very often and it no longer seems remarkable that they are what is called "good sailors." the sea upon which Ulysses wandered They may go to China and Peru, may was so very small. Homer's concepcross the Line and double the Horn, tion of the sea was the true and enbut they never go to sea. The sea re- during one. Wherever there is salt mains for them so much water; to be water there is Poseidon. The mystery crossed, perhaps, even to be enjoyed. of the sea is not in the size of it, nor It is not that they are stupid or unob- is its terror in its power of drowning servant; it is merely that they are im- or battering. You may be suffocated mune from the sea as a man may be by an escape of gas or battered to immune from measles. Nowhere has death in a cab accident, but you do this immunity from the sea been bet- not think of gas or cabs as implacable
deities. It is this character of the sea fleeces of sheep. It is a compound of as a single and mighty personality that sand and foam churned up from the secures it for ever in the minds of men cauldron of the sea. For many yards from the blighting effects of mechan- inland the air is filled with flying ical invention. Steam and electricity yellow flakes, as big as your hand, do not destroy the romance of the sea beaten by the storm to the tough texexcept for those who are incapable of ture of whipped white of egg. Every feeling it.
time the sea meets an isolated rock a The sea, any sea, may for the pur- column of white spray flies up 100ft. poses of human emotion-which is the or more into the air. The noise of the only thing that matters-be divided concussion is drowned in the general into the open sea and its borders. To
A moment later the black rock the open sea belongs chiefly the char- is veined with gleaming threads as the acter of mystery. It is in the open sea water pours back into the sea. But all that all the unexplained tragedies this noise and tumult is less significant which are summed up in the word of the real peril to sailors than the "missing" take place. The spell of fact that here, where ordinarily there calms, the glamour of tropical nights, passes much coasting traffic, for three the strange fury of cyclones, all the days there has not been visible any. phenomena which affect the human where a sail or the smoke of a steamer. imagination with a sense of the pre- It is the nearness, the homeliness of ternatural are associated with the open so many sea-tragedies that gives them
But, oddly enough, it is at the their poignancy. Less than two years borders of the sea that you are made ago a large barque was wrecked near aware of its sharper terrors. At the the Land's End, with the loss of meeting of sea and land occur most of twenty-three lives. The history of the the tragedies and heroisms that stir the day and night preceding the disaster, blood with pity or pride. To the sailor as given by survivors at the inquest, in wild weather the pressing danger is was one of the most thrilling stories I not from the sea, but from the land. have ever heard. But the astonishing Lighthouses have their topographical thing was that the three men who were uses, of course, but their chief message saved jumped ashore from the wreck. to the sailor is “Keep away.”
It was as near a thing as that. The This peril of the land is forcibly circumstances of the final struggle were brought home to me to-day. The room so awful that in speaking of them, a in which this article is being written man who had seen the vessel beating looks out upon the Atlantic. For three about on the previous day, a mild days now a gale has been blowing in man, a lover and painter of the sea from the North, and as far as one can in all its moods, broke into curses and see the bay is filled with a rabble of shook his fist at the now smiling and gray waves breaking in a continuous purring water at our feet. Looking roar like that of a dozen express trains. down into the cove it was hard to be. At the cliff's edge you can lean upon lieve that that little pile of matchwood the wind as you lean on a railing. All was all that remained of a barque of along the shore the rocks are encrusted 2000 tons. with half-dried rusty foam like the There is a picture that will always bloody froth on the jaws of an in- live in my memory as an illustration furiated beast. Looking down into a of the sea perils which endure to the partially sheltered cove, it is filled with very confines of the land. On a bright what looks like the quivering yellow Sunday morning last spring I was idly