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BURGOYNE AT SARATOGA.
and plains of Saratoga, 20 miles from Fort Edward, and 37 from Albany.
General Gates, who had been appointed to the command of the northern army, in place of General Schuyler, was now joined by all the continental troops destined for the northern department, and reinforced, as we have already observed, by large bodies of militia. He left the strong position which General Schuyler had taken at the confluence of the Mohawk and Hudson, and, proceeding 16 miles up the river towards the enemy, formed a strong camp at Sullwater. The two armies were now within twelve miles of each other, but the bridges between them were broken down, and the country was covered with woods.
On the 17th, General Burgoyne eucamped within four miles of the American army; and on the 19th an engagement took place, commencing with skirmishes, but soon involving a considerable part of the force on both sides. Colonel Morgan, with his riflemen, commenced the attack on the advaneing left wing of the British, and drove them back. Burgoyne coming up with a strong detachment, Morgan, in his turn, was compelled to give way. But General Gates reinforced him; and the engagement became more general. The Americans attempted to turn the right flank of the Bri- . tish army, with the view of attacking it in the rear; but, being opposed by Frazer and Breyman, they made a rapid movement, and commenced a furious attack on the left of the British right wing. The combatants were reinforced ; and, between three and four in the afternoon, General Arnold, with nine continental regiments and Morgan's riflemen, was closely engaged with the whole right wing of the British army. Both parties fought with the most determined courage, and the battle ended only with the day. When it became dark, the Americans retired to their camp; and the royal troops lay all night on their arms in the field.
In this battle each party had nearly 3,000 men engaged ; the British lost upwards of 500 men, and the Americans 319. Both sides claimed the victory; but the advantages of victory were all with the Americans The news of the bat. tle was received with joy and exultation throughout the
Where did General Gates encamp ? What was the result?
BURIAL OF GENERAL FRAZER.
United States ; and the ruin of the invading army was confidently anticipated.
The next day, information was received in camp of a decisive victory gained by Colonel Brown and Colonel Johnson over the British, in the vicinity of Ticonderoga; and towards the end of September General Lincoln reached the camp of Gates, with 2,000 men from New England.
On the 7th of October, the second battle of Stillwater was fought, in which, after a severe engagement, the Americans drove their enemies from the field of battle, killed 200 men and many officers, among whom were General Frazer and Colonel Breyman, took nine pieces of artillery, and a large amount of camp equipage and ammunition; and experienced but a trifling loss.
The 8th of October was spent in skirmishing and cannonading. About sunset, the body of General Frazer was, agreeably to his own desire, carried up the hill to be interred in the great redoubt of the British, attended by the officers who had lived in his family. Generals Burgoyne, Philips, and Reidesel, in testimony of respect and affection for the deceased, joined the mournful procession, which necessarily proceeded in view of both armies. The incessant cannonade, the steady attitude and unfaltering voice of the chaplain, and the firm demeanour of the company during the funeral service, though occasionally covered with the earth torn up by the shot from the hostile batteries, ploughing the ground around them, the mute expression of feeling depicted on every countenance, and the increasing gloom of the evening, all contributed to give an affecting solemnity to the obsequies. General Gates afterwards declared, that if he had been apprised of what was going on, he would have silenced his batteries, or ordered minute guns to be fired in honour of the deceased general.
General Burgoyne, perceiving that the Americans were endeavouring to surround him, commenced a retreat; and on the 9th of October, after a fatiguing and difficult march, reached Saratoga. He next made preparations to retire to Fort Edward, but his retreat was cut off, and all the passes strongly guarded. He was now in a most distressing condition. He had crossed the Hudson in the confident hope of
What news came on the next day?
Of General Frazer's funeral.
CAPTURE OF FORT MONTGOMERY.
Surrender of Burgoyne, victory and triumph, and in expectation of a powerful co-operation from Şir Henry Clinton, in New York, if needful. On the 21st of September, after the battle of the 19th had in some measure made him sensible of his difficulties, he received a messenger from Clinton, who informed him of an intended attack on Forts Clinton and Montgomery. That messenger he immediately sent back, with a letter informing Clinton of his intention to maintain the ground he then occupied till the 12th of October, and requesting assistance; but he had heard nothing further from New York.
Clinton had waited for reinforcements from England which did not arrive till the end of September. He then embarked with 3,000 men, and sailed up the Hudson to Fort Montgomery, which was stormed and taken. The British then pro ceeded up the river, but instead of advancing to the relief of Burgoyne, they employed themselves laying waste the country, and burning the town of Esopus. This proceeding, intended to divert General Gates from his main object, only increased the hatred of the inhabitants against their cruel enemies.
General Burgoyne, having been defeated in his intention of retreating to Fort Edward, disappointed in his expectation of relief from Sir Henry Clinton, and being now surrounded and cut off from all hope of forcing his way back to Canada, summoned a council of war, and by the unanimous advice of the members, opened a correspondence with General Gates, on the 13th of October. On the 16th, terms of capitulation
What intelligence did Burgoyne re- What is said of Burgoyne ? ceive from Clinton ?
What took place on the 13th of OctoWhat was his reply?
ber? Give an account of Clinton's opera- When was the convention of Saratoga tions.
SURRENDER OF BURGOYNE.
were agreed on, by which it was stipulated that the troops under General Burgoyne should next day march out of their camp, with the honours of war, and the artillery of the entrenchments, and pile their arms on the verge of the river ; that a free passage should be granted them to Great Britain, on condition of not serving in North America during the war, unless exchanged; and that they should embark at Boston. On the 17th, the British army piled their arms agreeably to the capitulation, and the formal surrender took place.
When the British army left Ticonderoga it consisted of 10,000 men besides Indians. At the time of the surrender, it had been reduced to 6,000. General Gates's army was superior in numbers, but it consisted partly of militial;
The news of the surrender of Burgoyne spread the greatest joy and exultation throughout the country. It increased the numbers of the patriots, and proportionably thinned the ranks of the tories. Had the British ministry been wise, it would have terminated the contest. But they still persisted in their mad attempts to conquer a people whose spirit and resolution had shown them to be unconquerable.
At the encampment of Valley Forge, whither General Washington retired for winter quarters at the close of this campaign, the sufferings of his army were very great. He had chosen this position on account of its being sufficiently near Philadelphia to check the foraging parties of the enemy, and for its security from any sudden and desultory attack. The army was lodged in huts formed of logs with the interstices filled with mud. The winter was severe, and many of the men were without shoes and nearly destitute of clothing; and their line of march from White Marsh to Valley Forge might have been traced by the blood from the bare and mangled feet of the soldiers. The miseries of famine were added to their other sufferings, and in these circumstances, though a few deserted to the enemy, yet the rest bore their lot with cheerfulness, and devoted themselves nobly to the sacred cause of independence.
While the army lay at Valley Forge, a plot was formed to remove General Washington from the chief command ; in which several members of congress and a few military officers What were its terms ?
What is said of the British minisWhen did the formal surrender take place?
What was the situation of the army What number of men had the British at Valley Forge? lost?
What plot is mentioned ? What was the effect of Burgoyne's Who were concerned in it?
surrender on the Americans ?
INTRIGUES AGAINST WASHINGTON.
were concerned. Gates was to succeed him. He, however, disclaimed all connection with the faction; which, fortunately for America, did not succeed.
In the midst of the difficulties and dangers with which he was surrounded, Washington was serene and undismayed, pursuing the line of his duty with steady perseverance and unshaken fortitude. Instead of manifesting irritable feelings under the malignant attacks made on his character, he behaved with magnanimity; and earnestly applied to congress and the legislative bodies of the several states, for reinforcements to
army, in order that he might be prepared to act with vigour in the ensuing campaign. Congress was slow in making the necessary arrangements, and the state legislatures were backward in furnishing their respective contingents of money and men for the service. At length, however, Washington succeeded in having an efficient commissary general appointed; the other departments of the army were put on a more desirable footing; and vigorous measures were pursued to prepare for the ensuing campaign.
CAMPAIGN OF 1778.
The terms of capitulation at Saratoga, called the “Convention of Saratoga,” had provided for the embarkation of the British troops at Boston. The unscrupulous manner in which the British had violated the law of nations with respect to prisoners and surrenders, gave congress good reason to believe that this convention would not be faithfully observed on the part of their enemies; but that, if the troops were delivered up instead of being sent to England, they would be ordered to the middle states, and united with the forces of General Howe. Pretexts for non-compliance with the convention were sought and found by congress, and after a good deal of discussion and correspondence, the troops were detained as prisoners.
What is said of Washington ?
What is said of the convention of