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day, was erected at Dantzic; but the inven- on the reef near the Cosmoledo rocks, the tion was suppressed, and the artificer made crew nearly perished from thirst, when, foraway with secretly, because it would prejudice tunately, they met with an old iron pot and the the poor people of the town,
| barrel of an old gun; the former they conMany more such instances of resuscitation verted into a boiler, which they filled with salt might be adduced, but we will only add that water; they then formed a steam-pipe of the these can never be fairly used as arguments barrel of the gun, one end of which they introagainst the originality of the second inven- duced into the lid of the boiler, and the other tions; and have now been brought forward end they fixed in the stump of a hollow tree, partly as amusing coincidences, and partly to filled with cold water for condensation. Thus, show that we of the nineteenth century are not in twenty-four hours, they distilled through the so infinitely in advance of by-gone ages as we nipple of the gun ten gallons of fresh water. often so fondly imagine; and as instances that verify the saying of the Preacher, “The thing that hath been, is that which shall be ; and
Notices to Correspondents. that which is done is that which shall be done ; and there is no new thing under the sun.'- TO OUR READERS.-We intend to devote a portion of the Abridged from the Mechanics' Magazine. . Wrapper of each Number for a List of Artisans, &c.,
who requiré situations. We shall only charge the Adver
tisement Duty for each insertion. Those parties who wish Education, SCIENCE, AND Art.--The Mis
• to dispose of their Inventions or Improvements, will find cellaneous Service Estimates (No. 4) contain
that the DECORATOR'S ASSISTANT will afford an excellent an account of the sums proposed to be appro medium for advertising, and the Manufacturer also, as the priated during the current financial year to the
circulation of the Work will be chiefly among those purposes above mentioned. The sum totál actively engaged in Engineering and other works. which the Government will require from the House of Commons amounts to £349,943, ** We shall be happy to oblige any Correspondent with against £325,908 in 1846, and £300,218 in any information he may desire to possess. Letters to be 1845. The sum total will be thus distributed—| prepaid, and addressed to the “ Editor of the Decoviz., £100,000 for public education in Great RATOR'S ASSISTANT," 17, Holywellstreet, Strand. Britain, and £100,000 for the same purpose in Ireland; £6,500 for Schools of Design ; £2,000 F. R. A-u.-Monthly parts of the DECORATOR'S As.'
SISTANT will be published. Scroll-work will be com
menced immediately. We cannot comply with the first University of London ; £7,480 for the Scotch Universities: £300 for the Royal Irish Aca- A SUBSCRIBER.
part of your letter.
'SUBSCRIBER.—The material called wootz, or Indian demy; £300 for the Royal Hibernian Aca- |
De materia cucu.
amoll demy; £6,000 for the Royal Dublin Society;
amount of silica which exists in the native ore, and which
enters into some combination with the metal during the £2,600 for the Belfast Academical Institute; operation of converting it into steel. England, although £48,518 for the British Museum establish-| supplying iron ore in vast abundance, yields none of very ment; £47,959 for the British Museum build- fine quality adapted for the manufacture of the finer kinds
of steel. ings; and £3,152 for purchases; £5,537 for m. S.-See “Observations on Limes, Calcareous Cements, the National Gallery; £8,961 for the Museum Mortars, Stuccoes, and Concrete," published by Neale, of Practical Geology and Geological Survey:1. 59, High Holborn..
R.-The Reform Clubhouse, by Barry, was erected 1839-41. £4,094 for scientific works and experiments ; *
It extends nearly 300 feet back and front by 105 in depth. and £2,000 for the completion of the monu- It is a tasteful and much improved version of the Palazzo ment erected to the memory of the late Vis - Farnese at Rome. count Nelson. Amongst the items of the esti- A Tyro.-A painting is said to be a fresco, or painted in
fresco (sul fresco intonaco, upon the fresh coat), when it mate for the National Gallery are the follow
is executed in water-colours upon a freshly plastered wall, ing sums :-£2,200 required for the purchase while the plaster is still wet, or upon wet plaster spread of the “ Boar's Hunt," by Velasquez ; upon a wooden frame or any other object. £787 10s. for A. Caracci's “Temptation of
| Glass.-A fine red colour may be given to glass by com
bining with it in the melting-pot a small portion of a sulSt. Anthony;” and £1,050 for Raffaelle's
phuret of chromium, containing one atom of sulphur to “Vision of a Knight" (with a drawing). two of the metal. Dr. Kopp, the author of this statement, Times.
does not say precisely how this peculiar sulpburet is to be formed; for the common sulphuret contains three atoms of sulphur to two of the metal. It would seem to be a partial decomposition of the sulphate of chromium.
A. M.-Ure's "Recent Improvements in Arts, Manufactures, from India copies in oils of part of the remains and Mines," was published in 1845. of the antique fresco paintings in the Buddhist J. TAYLOR.-Gutta percha, like caoutchouc, is of a strongly cave temples excavated in the rocks in the
adhesive or agglutinating quality, and perfectly repellent
of water ; but the former is advantage sly distinguished neighbourhood of Adjunta, in Kandesh. The
from the latter in being entirely free from stickiness when frescoes are probably of different ages; but dry, in being nearly inodorous, in resisting the action of some of them may have an antiquity of 1,700 grease and oil, in mixing readily with paints, pigments,
and other colouring matters; and, above all, in becoming, or 1,800 years. They contrast very favourably
by mere immersion in warm water, so soft and ductile that with the Italian frescoes of the middle ages; it may without further treatment be kneaded, or moulded, and some of the countenances in the most or rolled out, or pressed into any desired shape, or even ancient are singularly fine and expressive.
spun into thread, What is unusual in paintings of a very early period, a knowledge of perspective in archi London : Published at the Office of the SPORTSMAN'S tectural buildings is manifested.
MAGAZINE, 17, Holywell-street, Strand (where all commu
nications to the Editor are to be addressed); and to be had NECESSITY THE MOTHER OF INVENTION.- of all Booksellers.-Saturday, June 3, 1847. After the Snake, Levant packet, was wrecked Printed by W. Coole, Lumley Court, Strand.
Design for a Shop Front in the Italian Style.
SCALE OF FEET.
00 Enrichments in composition, including caps of pilasters, bedmould of cor
nice, architrave mould, and bedmould of cornice to podium, say . . 7 0 0 Plasterer . :
. 4 0 0 Glazier-plate-glass shop window and door and two fanlights :
1900 Painter and grainer · · · · · ·
8 0 0 ·
£68 0 0 The above design is capable of being extended to any width, by the addition of windows in the shop.
On the Use of Papier-Mache in papier-mâché for a long course of time; but,
from a passage in an article “sur l'Art de Interior Decoration, &c.*
Moulage," in the “Encyclopédie Méthodique,” we may safely conjecture that here
first it was applied to the builder's purposes. Before entering upon a description of the (See Vol. v.; Paris 1788.) The particular cirnature and uses of the improved papier-mâché,
cumstances that gave rise to the adoption of it will not be improper to give the reader a
papier-mâché by the architectural decorator in brief account of the history of the manufacture,
England, deserves the especial notice of all and of its introduction into this country: Whe-who are interested in the welfare of our manuther considered in the light of a mechanical
factures. manufacture, or as a humble, though useful
It should be premised, that with the Elizabranch of the fine arts, such an inquiry cannot bethan style, or the "rénaissance." of Engbe uninteresting.
land, enriched plaster ceilings were very geneNotwithstanding the name that has been rally' brought into use; and in the more classic given to the material, which would seem to or Italian styles that followed, the same mateimply that it is of French extraction, there is rial was still more extensively and more boldly yet very good reason to believe that to employed. As the art advanced, plaster beEngland is to be attributed the merit of first came partially substituted for carved or paapplying this manufacture to important uses. neled 'wood wainscoting on walls: both in Light and trivial articles, such as snuff-boxes, that situation and upon ceilings, foliage of the cups, &c., had, on the continent, been made of highest relief and of the richest character, may
at the present day be found in the more impor* We must observe that for the above remarks we are
event chiefly indebted to Mr. Bielefeld's beautiful work on the subject.
beginning of the eighteenth centuries : these
No, 4.-Vol. I.
enrichments were generally worked or rather produced in the art of decorative designing by modelled by the hand upon the stucco in its this change in the mode of execution. All the place, whilst still in a soft and plastic state. deep undercuttings and bold shadows which
As this work had to be done on the spot, marked the style of design in the age of Queen and with much rapidity of execution, in order Anne, became impracticable when ornaments to prevent the stucco from setting before it were to be cast. Ameagre, tame, petite had acquired the intended form, the art was manner ensued, almost of necessity, until by somewhat difficult; the workman had to design the end of the last century the art of designing almost as he worked : therefore, to do it well, architectural ornament had fallen into a deit was necessary that he should have some of plorable state of imbecility. the acquirements and qualities of an artist. The subsequent introduction of Greek ornaThis circumstance, of course, tended very much ment formed a new era : the limited capabilito limit the number of workmen, and their pay ties of plaster-casting became then less inconbecame proportionably large.
venient, for the broad, flat character of the It was no unnatural consequence that arti-Greek style was favourable to the process of sans thus circumstanced assumed a conse- casting, and had that manner of designing conquence that belonged not to their rank in life ; tinued to prevail generally up to the present it is said that they might have been seen day, it is probable that no material change coming to their work girt with swords, and would have taken place in the manufacture of having their wrists adorned with lace ruffles. ornament. But great fluctuations have ocSuch a state of things was, as may be con- curred in the public taste : the pure and eleceived, attended with many inconveniences to gant simplicity of Greek ornament is in its their employers; it was scarcely possible to nature appreciable only by the more highly preserve that subordination só essentially cultivated tastes; the generality of persons do necessary in carrying on the business of a not understand its merits; therefore, after the builder; and ultimately the workers in stucco, stimulus of novelty had ceased to operate, laying aside all restraint, combined together to fashion soon led the public favour into other extort from their employers a most inordinate channels. The bold originality of the Gothic rate of wages. It would be superfluous here to school, the gorgeous and meretricious richness detail all the circumstances that followed; it of the Flemish and French schools, the picturis sufficient to state that, as might have been esque and fantastic forms of the Elizabethan anticipated, the total ruin of their art was the style, soon found many admirers, and it is this final result of these delusive efforts to promote great change in the manner of designing ornatheir individual interests.
ment that has given rise to the important Contrivances were resorted to by the mas- improvements in the manufacture of the highly ters, which soon supplanted the old mode of plastic substance called papier-mâché. Plaster working in stucco. The art of moulding and is totally inapplicable to the exact imitation of casting in plaster, as previously practised in the bold florid carvings in the above-named France, was generally introduced, and the art styles, whilst to carve in wood all these of preparing the pulp of paper became im- fanciful forms would occasion a cost far beproved and extended, so as ultimately to ren-yond the means of all ordinary purses. As to der practicable the adoption of papier-mâché the putty-composition, a material introduced in the formation of architectural decorations. at the latter end of the last century as a subThus at last was extinguished the original stitute for wood-carving in picture-frames, &c., mode of producing stucco ornaments; and its monstrous weight, its brittle, impracticable there probably has not been for many years a nature, and the difficulties and heavy expenses single individual in England accustomed to necessarily incurred in its manufacture, as well that business.
as in fixing it up, render it properly applicable The superior cheapness of the process of to a very limited range of purposes. casting in plaster brought it into almost uni- Having made these preliminary remarks versal use; for, although in the course of the upon the origin of papier-mâché, and the last century an immense trade was carried on causes of its improvement and re-introduction, in the manufacture* of architectural and other we will, in our next number, proceed to ornaments in papier-mâché, yet the poverty of describe, for the information of practical men, taste they generally displayed, and the imper- the mode of applying the material to the fection of machinery at that time, which pre- various uses for which it is so admirably vented this material from coping with plaster adapted. in respect to price, ultimately caused its disuse. The manufacturers of papier-mâché at that The Gun COTTON.- A course of experiments, period do not seem to have been aware of the to test the relative strength of this explosive great improvements of which every process of material with that of the best ordnance guntheir art proves now to have been susceptible. powder, has just taken place at the Holyhead A most mischievous effect, however, was Mountain, Anglesea; the Holland Slate Quar
ries, in Merionethshire; and at the Hon. † The chief manufactory was established, and for many Colonel Pennant's Slate Quarries, Penrhyn, years carried on, by Wilton, the father of the eminent
and the results show that the saving by the use sculptor and Royal Academician of that name; his showrooms occupied the site of Hancock and Shepherd's glass
s of gun cotton is at least thirty per cent.; added warehouse, of late years demolished by the Charing-cross improvements, and his manufactory was carried on in miners, by its means, are enabled to obtain the Edward-street, Cavendish-square, at that time almost in the fields. Some curious particulars on this subject are recorded most enormous blocks, and this with little or in Smith's Life of Nollekens, vol. i.