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ries into the origin of thes (appellations had exercised the pens of authors of alt ages; and it will hereafter be scarcely credited, that men had at length supposed these names to be impenetrable mysteries. In my last, I hinted that Scotland, like all other parts of Great Britain, was a name given from situation. 1 will now trace this name, and the word Piet, from their source.

The name Scotland is unknown m import, and it has been stated "that Ammianus Mnrcellinus, who wrote in the 4th century, is the first historian who mentions the Scots." *« But St. Jeronr, in his epistle against Ctesiphon the Pelagian, has given a much more ancient passage, which he translated out of Porphyry, who wrote an age before Ammianus, to wit, " Neither Britain, nprovince fertile in tyrants, nor the Scottish nations, nor the barbarous nations round about to the very ocean, did ever acknowledge Moses and the Prophets." • ft

The word Spain is in Spanish Espana; I have shewed its derivation. The syllable Es being pronounced like the letter S, the E is dropped in our spelling of Spain. Scodra, a city of Albania, is now called by the Turks Escodur, and by the Italians Scutari. Scutari, also opposite Constantinople, is called by the Turks Itcodar. The import of each of these names may be traced from Is water, Cot, or Cod, an hill, and Ar border. The same may be said of the letter .S in Scotland, which is written with an E before it by foreigners. The Es then in Escolia, being the same as the Es in Espana, etc. will imply water; Co*, or Cote, is a French word for a coast, rising ground, or hill. From the name Cor, or Cote., hill, in Cumberland, this name must early have obtained in England. Escotia, or Scotland, will therefore imply the Water, Hill, or High Land. Should it, however, be supposed that the letter S, in this word, is used as Dr. Harris on Isaiah supposes, and which I have mentioned in a former letter, then Scotland will only imply the Hill or High Land; and this exactly agrees with the old term Caledonia, and shews that new names arc translations of older ones. The word Scuite has been supposed the etymon from whence Scot v»ns derived; but, as. all countries nrc named from their features, and lands were all settled by wanderers, nothing but ignorance of the sulject "ill account for authors adopting this chiming and inapplicable etymon for Scotland in particular.

Tb» ,, „,.. • Childrm is often pronounced Chinvr*.

The Picti, or Pictae, have been said to come originally from Scythia, and to have received this name from painting their bodies with different colours, to appear mors terrible to their enemies. A colony of these is reported by Servius, the commentator on Virgil, to have emigrated to Scotland, where they still preserve their name and savage manners. That the Picts painted their bodies, I will not dispute, although I will shew that they toot not their name from this circumstance, nor from being emigrants from Scythia; but, that like all other provinces or portions of this island, their name is derived from the features of lbcir lands which they inhabited.

The Isle of Wight, of which so much has been unskilfully said on its derivation, was called Ictis, Mictis, and Victis, in which the ending in is, is likely to be a diminutive, although it may imply water. The root of the first syllable of these names, as well as that of Fich, Bid, Crick, and ToicM, is Ic; and these all meatt border-land, or land: Victis, Mictis, and Ictis, will therefore imply the little land. The syllables Ic, Vic, and Mic, took a T to strengthen their sound, in the same manner as the Gaelic word Vircacli, straight, takes a Tin the English word Direct. Wight comes from Vieht, or Wicht. For, as G and C are convertible, Wicht and Wight are the Same.

. In like manner, the word Pict is written PigAt in Fight-lund, otherwise named 1'ent-laml, the northernmost corner of Scotland: the H being dropped, which is disused in many other words, becomes Pigt, and thin, by the change of G to C, •as written Fict: and hence Pighl-land Was also called J'ict-hind. | I most here observe, that P is called convexity and prominence by writers on tlie power of letters, as in Fie, Peac, or Peakc; and hence P prefixed to En, land, will become Fen, Head or Point Land. In like manner, Pight, Pigt, or ficl, having for its root Ic, may be written Pic, Peac, or Peake, a Head, or Point Land. Pic also, to strengthen the syllable, takes a Tin Pict, as direach did in direct. The word Pen also becomes Pent in Pent-land, whicb implies Pointland. Fie and Pen, or Pict and Pent,* then will imply the same, and each mean

head or point land. The Picti were therefore the Point-landers, or dwellers on the borders and projecting corners of Scotland.

But leaving assertions on the power of letters, let ine give a more probable account of their meanings. The word Aighe, is hill; it is often changed to eighe, or ey, and to ee in pronunciation: with the prefix B, there is in Devon a sharp hill named Bee-tor. The letter B {.Bee] being then in pronunciation a name for hill, becomes, with a root for laud, often a name for hill land, as in Binn, an hill; in which the root Jit, or Jitn, menns land only. And, as Band J* were used for each other, P also was the pronunciation of a word for hill; and therefore Finn, Pin, or Pen, meant the same as Binn, or Bin. In like manner the letter D (or Dee,) with En, land, vnried to Vn, becomes a name for hill land, in Dce-vn, which is written Dune. So also C, (or Cee,) which is called Col in the Gaelic, with en, varied to an, land, becomes Cec-an,or Ceann, a Head Land. If we suppose an to imply water, then Ceann will be the Water Head. But enough for the present on tlie meanings of prefixes.

There is no doubt that many letter* are prefixed to words without giving any variation or addition to their meanings: thus Ann is called Nan. Sometimes also the same letter, prefixed to the same word, conveys a different meaning. I will here instance the word Dun, which may menu land only, but which is often used for hill land: 1 think, however, in this case it should always be written Dune, to make a proper distinction.—But to return.

A few plains, of no great extent, are said to be found on the coast of Scotland, from whence the ground rises to great heights, or heads, in the middle of the kingdom. Col, or Cal, then the head or hill, Don, land, and la, territory, were appropriate terms for this Head, Hill, or High-land Territory. The Cafe. dniiii were therefore the Highlanders, ni I have already shewn. On the contrary, however, it is asserted in Camden that, from the plural of Qaled, liard, or Cotedon, this uair.e is derived. And in a note " Kalt, or Kelt," is defined " CM." And the word '• Chiltern*" follows from


required. See Lloyd's Archeologia on the is therefore a plural ending: from my

last lcttcrt Ctl and CiV, or ltd, is hill. Ctil

* A more formal proof might be given, if .quired. See Lloyd's Archa' htti of D and T following N,

«« Gale MSS." See Mr. Gougli'i Camden, vol. 4, page 107. It is also stated by a late author, « that the were merely the inhabitants of the Ceyddon, the Covertt, or the Woodlands. 1 he Picti, Pithi, or Peithwi, &c. (for so it is •aid the name denotes,) were the peop e of the open country." Now the old ■names of places describe the chiefJeature* of the land,; but Caledon, rendered woods, distinguishes not the chief features of the country; and therefore the Woodlands cannot be a translation. Id like manner Pight, rendered the open country, marks no chief feature of such country, and is therefore no interpretation. A great part of the globe is allowed to have been formerly covered with woods; they were the clothing of the hills, valleys, and plains; but they were neither the hills, valleys, nor plains; and, bein» the attendants on these parts of nature, which were subject in all nges to removal, they were wisely omitted by those u ho originally gnve names. I will my nothing of the open country; in our times, to avoid research, every chiming word has been adopted. On the denvation in Camden, from hard, or hards, and cold, or colds, I will be silent.

A. JJ.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.


WANT of access to books and literary persons, occasions me to

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trouble vou with the following inquiries For an answer to them, I should be much obliged to any one of your correspondents who has the ability and inclination to give me the desired information. With a just sense of the liberal and impartial spirit which distinguishes your Magazine. "•*

March 4fA, 1811.

In Beausobre's History of the Reformation, reference is frequently made to some remarks which it was evidently in the author's contemplation to affix lo that work, fio. Were they ever printed, and, if they were, have they found their way into this country f __

Dr. Currie (Works of R. Burns, vol. ii. 176, 2d edition) speaks of "the beant.ful .tory of the Paria," as being translated in the J?« of Dr. Anderson. Qu. In what volume of the Su\s this translation printed?

Dr. S Johnson, in his Life of Pope, (Murphy's edition of Johnson's works, vol. xi.

tin therefore implies the hills: the T in

Chilt, it used (ox addinj to Ujq sound ef the word.

2d the Editor of the Monthly Magasine.

AMONGST the Proceeding* of Learned Societies in your Number for the month of February, 1809, jou have very correctly stated a communication of mine to the Royal Society,

viz. .iv. e

« In every plane triangle the sum ot the three natural tangents of the three angles, multiplied by the square of the radius, is equal to the continued product of the three tangents.

But in the succeeding Number, iof the month of March, a correspondent, who signs himself Mathemaucus, says, «« The discovery of this property does not belong lo Mr. Garrard, for yon will find it in page 38 of the mathematical pnrt of the Ladies' Diary for the year 1797, in an answer to a trifling question. Now, Sir, I wouM wish youto insert thta for the information of your correspondent, as well as for my own vindication.

The property of tangents, which I have communicated to the Royal Society, is a general property of an unlimited radius, whiht that which is inferred by the correspondent to the Ladies" Diary, is confined to the question proposed, where the given radius is unity. Also I have farther to observe, that the property there used is a postulate, drawn from my original proposition in the second dumber of the Scientific Receptacle, in the year 1792, which Mathematicus may see if he apply to «_»nlei and Curtis, in Paternoster-row and then I trust he will ndmit that the discovery of the property does belong to me.

'W. Gabbabd,

Royal Natal Asylum.

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■Some Accocmef" the Life, Character, •mfopiMOKs, of the late Aucustus


*N"*utR of Vfldttlcbury-foresl, his

Aj-ijesty's GAME-KEEPER at NeiCOiar. ket, High-steward of Dartmouth, n Governor of the Charter-house,


vf the University of Cambridge, Recorder of Thttford and Coventry, Covernor of the Forts in Cornwall and Devonshire, Receiver-general of the Profits of the Seals of the Kino's Bench and Common Pleas, also vj the PRISAGE of WINES, &c.

"Vni ctuippe vacat, studiis odiltque careati, •• Humanum lugere geniis." LucJb.

THE dukes of Grafton, like those of Richmond and St. Albans, are descended from the royal family of Stunrt; and like these have attained the highest honours in the state. The female ancestor of'the Fitzroys was fSarbara, daughter and heir of William Vifliers, Viscount Grandison. This lady had bee* married a little before the Restoration, to Mr. Roger Palmer, then a student in the Temple, who, desisting from his legal pursuits, and being of a very compliant disposition, was raised to the honours of the Irish peerage, having keen created earl of Castlemaine, in the 13th of Charles II. Having put herself under the protection of this gay, dissipated, and luxurious, monarch, the countess of Castlemaine, in 1670, was created Baroness of Nonsuch, in Survey, countess of Southampton, in the county of Hants, and duchess of Cleveland, during her own natural life.* By this lady tie had a son, Charles, born September 28, 1663, to whom His Majesty very aptly gave the name of Filzroy. Respecting the precise date of the subject of this memoir, there is some difference m the Modern Peerages; according to Collins, he was born in October, and, if we are to credit Edmonson, on September 28, 1736. While Mr. Fitzroy, he was placed at Hackney, under

* Soon after the demise of the earl of Castlemaine, in 1705, the duchess of Cleveland married the "handsome Fielding," against whom she was obliged to demand the protection of the laws. See the English edit, of the Memoirs of the Count de Cramaunt

the tuition of the late Dr. Newcombe, who had attained considerable eminence for his skill and attention in thi. edu. cation of youth. Alter remaining some time there, lie was entered of St. Peter's College, Cambridge, where lie did not however take a degree; having gone into the world very early in life, and engaged earnestly, and perhaps prematurely, m public affairs. In 1756, when just of age, Mr. Fitzroy was appointed a lord of the bedchamber to his present ma* jesty while prince of Wales; and, in the course of the same year, he was elected a member of parliament, first for Boroughhridge, Yorkshire, in the room of the earl of Harrington, and "hen for St. Edmuudsbury, in Suffolk, in the place of the first earl of Alans* field, which latter he retained while a commoner. This was not inug be. fore his grandfathers' death, in May 1757, when he succeeded to all the family honours and estates. His Grace, after a short trip to the continent, was now destined to run through the career of public employments. On July lO, 1765, he was appointed qne of his majesty's principal secretaries of state,which office lie resigned in May, 1766, and, in August following, he was nominated first lord of the treasury, which post lie abdicated January 28, 1770. On June 12, 1771, he was chosen lord privy seal, in winch department be continued until November, 1775; and in 1782, he was restored to the seme office.

Notwithstanding their near alliance to the house of Stuart, it is not a little singular that the Fitzrnys have uniformly; been connected with, and attached to, that party denominated Whigs, the basis of whose conduct either has been, or pre* tended to be, the establishment and continuance of the ho use of Hanover, on one hand, on tlie throne of these realms, and the ascertaining, preserving, and extending, the liberties of the people, on the other. Accordingly, when Mr. Filzroy was of age to sit as a member of' the legislature, he acted with what was then termed "the country party" in one bouse: and after his Majesty's accession, joined that great, popular, and dignified, body; in the other, called at that day the Minority, which then consisted of some of the hrst and most opulent families in England. Oneof the chief objects of their association wa» to diminish the supposed


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