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those whose quarrel it more properly was. It appears to have been undertaken in a spirit entirely unworthy of a truly good and popular cause-witness such men as a Birge, and others of that stamp; it does not appear to have received any countenance from Mr. Papineaii, who seems to have had no connexion with it; and we are confident that it would never have been thus undertaken had Wolfred Nelson been in this country, instead of being chained, by an illegal and arbitrary mandate, to the rocks of Bermuda. Of the participation in it by American citizens—whether from motives of a thoughtless and deluded generosity, a desire of excitement and notoriety, or on a cool and mercenary calculation of pay, emoluments and bounty lands—we have already expressed the strong reprobation which it is unnecessary here to repeat. Yet still it must be evident that the Canadas are to be retained, yet a little longer if at all, only by military force, lavishly and rigorously applied. Meantime the whole country runs to waste. Probably not less than fifty thousand persons have emigrated to the United States within the past year. Industry, commerce—all that can make the country happy and prosperous itself, or in any way useful to Great Britain-must continue paralysed; and the English people gratuitously taxed a hard-grudged million a year, to maintain a dominion which, under such circumstances, must be a burthen instead of an advantage-instead of a glory, a disgrace.

The difficulties for the present are, it is to be hoped and presumed, over; and with them the agitation of our frontier will doubtless subside. Those persons who have been able to dupe a portion of our young and adventurous border population into a wild and desperate enterprise, in which the situation of the survivors is probably now more to be regretted than that of their fallen com

affair. It is certainly not unnatural that men of spirit and sanguine courage, forced thus into exile, under all the circumstances attending their case, and conscious of the certain fact that at least four-fifths of the people of Lower Canada were hostile to the government, should embark in such enterprises. And it is certainly due in justice to them personally to state, that we have been assured by a friend of Robert Nelson, speaking on positive knowledge, that he was only induced to undertake the attempo of an attack upon the government, by urgent and influential invitations which he received from the country itself-he being the only person on the frontier whose name was deemed of sufficient popularity for the purpose. These invitations were, it is stated, from persons who had heretofore abstained from taking part in their political movements—from some who had been cool-others who had even been adverse-representing great changes to have been wrought against the government by the history of the preceding year, and by Lord Durham's administration. W. are assured that that gentlemun has in his possession upwards of a hundred strong letters of this character. No opportunity was afforded for testing the truth of these representations; for, so badly does the affair seem to have been managed by the Patriots, and so skilfully by Sir John Colburn, that, on entering Canada with a handful of men, where there was a perfect preparation for their reception, as for expected guests, within forty-eight hours they were overwhelmed by a greatly superior force, and compelled to disperse and return.

rades—and to send so gallant a band as the forlorn-hope of Prescott to meet a fate they did not dare to face in person themselves, after so dreadful a lesson of experience, those persons are not likely again to succeed in a similar criminal attempt. The friends of the popular cause must now needs do that which they ought to have done before, to wait for the action of the British Parliament and people on the subject. Apart from its criminality-on which, with our abhorrence of blood and force where other means, with the aid of a little time and patience, afford a probability of success, we cannot but look with a severe eye, in spite of all the general views of the subject expressed in the course of this and of former Articles—no mistake could have been greater, than that of thus rashly and stupidly interfering when the current of events was already setting so strongly, while peacefully, in their favor. What was the state of things?

The failure of Lord Durham's mission of dictatorship stood confessed; and having been looked to by the people of England as the sole and sovereign panacea by which the diseased state of the Pro. vince could be restored to health, the disappointment of those hopes was a great step forward towards the preparation of public opinion for that result which must necessarily follow, unless some adequate means could be devised for the tranquillization and satisfaction of the Colonies-namely the relinquishment of them. If thc descent of such a power from the skies into the midst of the conflict of the parties in Canada was ineffectual to restore harmony, what was to be looked for from other attempts or other means? Lord Durham's very unwise and unskilful administration of the government, followed by his sudden throwing up of his commission, plunged the matter into a more difficult state of embarrassment than ever before-a confusion still worse confounded. It was a signal triumph for the popular party, who had witnessed with grief and indignation this most extraordinary measure, of sending out a sice-regal dictator, with all the terrors and splendors of a despotism to awe and dazzle all men into submissive acquiescence with the acts of its irresistible will, guided by its infallible intelligence. Nothing, we think, could justify the ministry in adopting a mode of settling or quelling popular discontents so foreign to the ideas of the age and the country to which applied, nothing but the con. viction of its necessity, as the sole untried expedient, before concession, that remained to them. We are entitled to take its adoption as the acknowledgment of such a conviction; and are willing to pardon the ministry its absurdity for the sake of our satisfaction at its failure. Its effect could not but be greatly to encourage the popular party, who raised a shout of rejoicing—not unmingled with the laughter of ridicule-over his inglorious departure from the land upon which he had descended as a Deus ex machina. They ought then to have waited quietly the result; to have left the government to make the best of the impracticability of the state of things thus thrown on their hands; and the greatest of follies was to relieve them from their embarrassment of what next to do, by a renewal of hostilities which a little time and patience would proba. bly render entirely unnecessary.

A great city should be set upon a hill, that its greatness should be the more conspicuous; but the little hamlet that would aspire to the same elevation makes its insignificance the more manifest to all the world. We have long been inclined to look upon

Lord Durham as a political charlatan; his Canadian dictatorship has only proved him a very poor one. We could never have the slightest confidence or respect for a man who, while professing to head such a party as the Radical party of England, was well known, by a thousand current anecdotes, to be in his personal habits the most absurdly aristocratic, haughty and tyrannical man to his domestics and dependents, within the United Kingdom. Such a man could not be other than a charlatan, with nothing in him but a little cleverness, an excessive vanity, and a ridiculous pomposity. There could not be any thing sound, genuine and healthy in such a man. We confidently predicted his failure when he disembarked from on board the Hastings, in all the imposing magnificence of his ostentation of wealth and power. He had come to a great and a grave task, and all this silly gilding and tinsel, while they proved the vanity and pride of the man, proved also his total misconception of its nature, and incompetency to its performance. And this soon became apparent. The first act of the “ Pacificator” was to banish all the principal leaders of the popular party, who were guilty of the crimes of being dear to nine-tenths of the nation, and of having been driven to resistance by the arbitrary and illegal attack of the violent minority in the possession of the government-thus exasperating the people themselves who were to be tranquil. lized, and driving these men into that hostile attitude, on the fron. tier of a neighbouring country, which must frustrate all efforts at “pacification.” While on the other hand the "

“ Liberal soon found in more intimate relations with the ultra Tory faction of Canada, out of whose long career of arbitrary violence the agitations of the country had confessedly proceeded, than any former governor. The individual perhaps the most odious to the popular party was made Chief Justice of Quebec; and where the partisan corruption of justice had long been one of the loudest complaints of the popular party, one of the most violent and obnoxious of partisans was placed at the head of its entire administration in the Province; in a capacity which gives him, as the head of the government party, principal dispenser of its patronage, and member of the Executive Council, the


admirable plurality of offices, of selecting the objects of prosecutions, instructing the prosecuting officers, packing the juries through subservient sheriffs, who hold their offices at will, and trying the prisoners-with a direct political interest, in each case, in the issue. The appointment of James Stewart as Chief Justice of Quebec, Mr. O'Sullivan, Chief Justice of Montreal, Andrew Stewart Solicitor General, with Mr. Ogden for Attorney General, could not fail to irritate the popular party in the highest degree; and was certainly aggravating the difficulties of a task which already needed no such increase, that of assuaging the excited and bitter discontents of that portion of the people whose immense preponderance of majority was indisputably attested by the results of the two last general elections.

In the second place, his course in relation to Wolfred Nelson and the other exiles to Bermuda, proved him utterly incompetent to the high duties of such a position. Even on his own garbled and perverted showing, he stood convicted of a high-handed stretch of power, beyond the limits equally of the law, the constitution and his commission; for which he was most justly held up to the rebuke of the Parliament and people of England, by the indignant eloquence of a Brougham,—of whose career this was one of the finest acts; and which, at all the hazards of the consequences to ensue, Lord Durham's best friends were forced to disavow. The act itself showed the weakness and ignorance, as its attendant circumstances showed the meanness and duplicity, of the man. The letter of Nelson and Bouchette, referred to above, convicts His Excellency of one of the most miserable and mean of falsehoods, which, we doubt not, Lord Brougham will not forget, when the former comes to render his account of his stewardship. General opinion has excused what has been regarded as an inconsiderate extension, beyond the strict line of formal and legal right, of a power supposed to be unlimited, -on the presumption that it was really, as it professed to be, an act of generous clemency, adopted with the best of motives and in the fairest spirit. But how does the truth turn out? Instead of a voluntary confession of guilt on the part of these gentlemen, with an appeal to his mercy-it proves that they were repeatedly and urgently appealed to themselves, by an agent of the government, to do an act of magnanimous self-devotion for the sake of their country and their fellow-prisoners, to allow Lord Durham to release the latter from their protracted incarceration, and to commence the work of reform, for which the finest promises were made -that they were assured that no harm was intended themselves, an assurance of which they knew the subtle treachery only on receive ing the order for their banishment, on which their indignation burst strongly forth-that it was only by garbling the paper they were thus prevailed upon to sign, that he was able to make any show of pretext for his assumption of their acknowledged guilt of high-treason—and that, instead of his reluctance to bring them to trial proceeding either from clemency to them, or from fear of the political prejudices of jurors, the Attorney General had not, within the seven months of their incarceration, been able to procure evidence even to convince himself of their guilt! We leave Lord Durham to extricate himself as he best may from the predicament in which he has thus gratuitously involved himself.

A great many Americans appear to have been marvellously fascinated with the condescension and civilities of “His Excellency the Governor General.” We confess that if he does not seem to have managed any of the other functions of his ambitious and noble mission with remarkable skill, he does appear to have very shrewdly apprehended one common foible of a large portion of our republican travelling “good society," the adoration of rank and grandeur,--and to have played upon that string (it being so essential a point to generate a favorable public opinion in the Union) very freely, if not over delicately. But for our own part, not having formed one of the thousands who have flocked to Canada this year--and having no violent passion for military reviews, and magnificent services of plate, nor for being hunted up by aides-de-camp in hotels to be invited to the honor of a tea-drinking with the Lady of one of the haughtiest scorners of democratic canaille in Christendomwe have not been drawn within the enchanted circle of this peculiar fascination. And we must therefore claim the liberty of looking, undazzled, from a distance upon all this fine show—this aristocratic ostentation—these body-guards, and this vice-regal style and statethese self-contradicting excesses of a condescension which is certainly any thing but hospitality-and of pronouncing the whole spectacle, in connexion with the political pretensions of the Radical Lord Durham, onc of the most ridiculous of follies and most im. pudent of quackeries.

We have gone a little out of our way to speak thus freely of the late Governor General, in order that at least one just and honest opinion in relation to him and his conduct, may issue to England from the American press, which seems to us to have most egregiously misappreciated and overrated the man whom they havein return for a few candied flatteries to the particular vanity of a few individuals, and to our general vanity as a nation-loaded with a gratuitous prodigality of adulation equally ridiculous and mortifying in our eyes. It is scarcely necessary to say, that it expresses only our individual views, without reference to the sentiments of any that may surround us.

There remain but one or two points more to which we propose to allude in this Article, which has already extended to too great a length.

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