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ly versed in the Language; and are therefore usually omitted in all their Dictionaries, where only the radical Consonants, which are rarely more than three (Vowels in this Case not being minded) are alphabetically set down. All these Conjugations have each their determinate Sense ; tho' perhaps in every Verb not just those which I have already specified.

The Chaldean and Syriac Languages form their Verbs much after the same Manner; only they have but six of these Conjugations, whereas the Hebrew has seven.

The Arabians e have diversified these Conjugations to the Number of thirteen. These all vary in Signification, and are not, no more than the Hebrew, all used in one and the same Verb, but some in one Verb, and some in another. It may not be unpleasant to see the Manner of them, as it is described by their Grammarians, in the Conjugations of the Verb Phahala, he made, which they usually make their Paradigm, as our Grammarians do Amo, Doceo, Lego and Audio.

Here then I, The Root it self Phabala, fde

These Conjugations are as radical Notes in Musick, which are 13 in Number, as in this Arabic Verse.

بلاغا --نث وكلاص

; Wàlàmà phàtànát Bèládfà Ælàhà, . . It may be questioned whether our Fa-la- in Musick comes not from the Arabic Phaala Jes to make, and so

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notes the bare Action without any Reference or View to any Thing else, He made. II, Pbabhala, and IV, Aphhala signify a Change of an absolute Verb into a transitive one. Thus Hhazana is He was forry. But Hhazana and Ahzana are, he made forry. In Verbs that are originally Transitives, these Conjugations make the Signification more intense than it was at first. So dharaba, be beat with a Cudgel; Dharraba, and adhraba, he caused to be beat with a Cudgel: III. Phâhala, implies Reaction, and supposes two Substantives, as, Batrofo dhấraba Baulosa, Peter beat Paul, and was beaten again, where Peter is supposed to strike first. So in Neuters, Batrosokâbada Baulosa. Peter sat down by Paul, and be sat down by Peter. VI. Tapháhala signifies such a Cooperation as the Latins express by the Preposition con, as Tadbaraba Batrofo wa Bauloso, Peter and Paul beat one another. V. Taphabhala. VII. Inphahala. VIII. Iphtahala, are absolute Passives. The V. and VII. come from the II. as Hallamtoho, wakowa taballama, I taught him, and he was. taught. The VIII. from the I. as Katsarto dalika phâktat/ara, I shortened this, and it was Jhortened. IX. Iphhalla, and XI. Iphhålla relate to Intension of Colours; as, Itspharra, he was very yellow; Itspárra, he was most extra

owe its Rise to the Arabic Conjugations, which are Mufical Notes. And in their Dirges they often use the Mufiçal Note lila Hazana to mourn,


ordinarily yellow; and to Verbs of Deformity, as Idhjamma, and Idhjamma, bis Mouth was awry more or less

. Iftaphhala relates to begging any Thing. As, Ístathama, be asked for Food, from tahama, to taft. XII. Iphhauhala, and XIII. Ipbbawwala, which are very rarely used, signify great Intension; as Iblaulata, and Iba lawwata, from Halata, he adhered strongly.

This is the Method by which all their triliteral Verbs are formed. For here also as in Hebrew, the Consonants only are regarded. They have also a quadrilateral Form, whose Conjugations are altered after this Manner. I. Phablala. II. Taphablala. III. Ipbbanlala. VI. Iphhalalla. Every one of these Conjugations has its own Preterperfeets, Futures, Imperatives, Participles and Infinitives.

Now as the English Verb Drub, comes from the Arabic Dharaba, so we form it our own Way; to drub, to be drubbed, drubbing, and the like. And if there were such a Latin Verb as darabo, the passive would be darabor; and it would be formed accordingly. In short every Nation takes the Word which it adopts into its own Language, and alters and forms it after its own Model; and from that Model, more than from the Words which it has in common with other Languages, we are to judge of its Original, and perhaps of its Antiquity. In a Word, the essential Difference of one Language from another, is to be taken from


their respective Grammars, rather than from their Vocabularies.

These are some of the principal Characteristics, by which the Hebrew and its KindredTongues differ from the Greek and the Latin, and the Languages that are derived from the Teutonic Stock.

Another Mark of Distinction, in which the Eastern Tongues all agree, is, that they have no Verbs, that are compounded with Prepositions in such a Manner as to accompany them in all their Moods and Tenses by which their Signification may be vary'd. Their Verbs are all simple, and though they may, and very often have in Arabic especially, many and those very different Significations ; some literal, some figurative; yet still the Verbs themselves are not compounded ; and the fame too holds in the Nouns, whereas in the Western Languages it is quite otherwise. An Instance in both fully explain my Meaning. In Hebrew Satabb is the Verb which is used in your Specimen of the Lord's Prayer, for forgiving. Shabak in Chaldee. The same in Syriac. Giafara in Arabic. These are all original and uncompounded Verbs. On the contrary in Greek, the Verb for forgiving is doinpes, from inpes, to send, and dTè, away. To send away, dismiss

, and metaphorically to forgive. In the modern Greek it is the same, only in Come Dialects, it is our xwgriv, which is com


pounded from ow and ywpéw B. In Latin to forgive is express’d by dimitto, and remitto, both compounded from mitto, to send, and re, which in Composition signifies back; or di a Contraction of dis, which in Composition fignifies something that may be divided in order to parting asunder, which by an easy Metaphor will

agree with our Notion of forgiving. Pursuant to this pattern, all the modern Languages which come from Latin, use compounded Verbs upon Occasion, as readily as they do fim

ple Ones. The Word Pardon, which runs through most of them, comes from Perdonare, which is compounded of donare, to give, and per, which in Composition often signifies throughly, and thereby heightens the Sense of the simple Verb. In Languages derived from the Teutonic, it is the fame; in the AngloSaxon, it is forgyf. In Inandish, FiergeffIn Junius's Gospels (which you know the great Restorer of the Northern Learning in Europe, Dr. Hickes, thinks was written in the Lan

& In the Collection of Lord's Prayers, which was printed at London by Mr. Motte, in the Year 1700, I find a Copy of the Lord's Prayer which he calls Graeca Barbara, which is different in many Things from the others in the modern Greek, which he there produces. There ougóegoe is put for forgive; and Caxoegérouefur for we forgive. Allowing it to be truly printed, though there must be a Fault in one of them, then Coxoeglev, or Cuxoegi suv must have been corrupted from the common Word our angav.


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